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Found 1,246 Collections

 

Japanese American Internment Experience during World War Two

This collection was created as part of the edx.org course Teaching Historical Inquiry Using Objects. It looks at the Japanese American experience of internment, and begins to answer the compelling question: what was life like for Japanese Americans in internment camps? 

#TeachingInquiry

Gabrielle Sharp
17
 

Designing a Better Voting Machine: 1880s to Today

Objects are time capsules; they embody values, aspirations, or problems of a particular time and place and mark a stage of technological evolution. This student activity examines voting machines used in U.S. elections over more than a century. Looking closely and understanding the historical objects’ design evolution will inform students’ design of new machine intended to overcome barriers to voting in today's elections. 

The first five images are voting machines from the late 1800s to the early 2000s. Students will explore their parts, purposes, and complexities, then read the Washington Post article "Broken machines, rejected ballots and long lines: voting problems emerge as Americans go to the polls." Finally, students will design (and may prototype) a voting machine.

This collection incorporates two Project Zero Agency by Design routines: Parts, Purposes, Complexities, a routine for looking closely; and Imagine If..., a routine for finding opportunity. Questions in each routine are open-ended and should be used to spark peer discussion in small groups or as a class. For more information on how to use and facilitate each routine, see their resource tiles at the end of the collection, as well as the Agency by Design website.

Keywords: vote, voter, maker, making 

Tess Porter
13
 

What Would Frida Wear?

This collection provides students the opportunity to dress artist Frida Kahlo in traditional Mexican garb that she favored, the huipil and the quechquemitl.

Frida Kahlo was born in Coyoacan on July 6, 1907.  Thoughout her life Frida was a fierce nationalist and a vocal socialist. As a reflection of her beliefs, Frida often wore the indigenous clothing of Mexico.  This can be seen both in photographs of her and in her paintings.  Frida completed 143 paintings during her lifetime, 55 of which are self-portraits.  Many of these self-portaits are among her most famous works.  

Most of the costumes Frida wears were hand-woven, as well as hand embroidered and stitched.  The colors and many of the symbols used in her work are clearly influenced by Mexican tradition.

She died in 1954.

Arizona State Museum
14
 

We the People

Essential Questions:

What would cause a people to revolt against their government?

Why does a society need a system of government?

Why is it important for Americans to understand their system of government?

Why is it important for Americans to understand the history of their country?

Understanding Moves: Making Connections, Describe What's There, Uncovering Complexity, Reason with Evidence, Build Explanations

Thinking Moves: See Think Wonder, Parts Purposes Complexities

#PZPGH

Gary Galuska
18
 

Communication with the spiritual in ancient to modern art

This collection will examine examples of art as a form of communication between the human and spiritual worlds. These forms of communication may include examples of direct communication — in which an individual or group uses art to speak to and influence the spiritual world — as well as examples that serve to document practices, beliefs, and the place of spiritual practices in society at large.

The form and focus of these communications expressed through art can help to explain the values of particular cultures or individuals, or may serve to question or enforce certain cultural beliefs. This type of art may be the expression of the needs of a social group or culture, such as prehistoric cave paintings that might have functioned in rituals to ensure successful hunts or plentiful game. It may serve to enforce a political agenda such as the Law Code of Hammurabi. Or it may express an individual's personal interpretation and experience of spirituality such as the illustrated poetry of William Blake. However, form does not always imply the expected function: the 19th century English painter and poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti sometimes drew on religious subjects or themes and much of his work has a mysterious and mystical atmosphere. Yet Rossetti, describing his spiritual beliefs, called himself an “art Catholic,” implying that if he engaged in a spiritual dialog through his art, it was with art itself (Faxon, 1989).

This collection will look at examples from the prehistoric era through the early 20th century. These examples help to contextualize the inner lives of individuals, and the collective inner life of the cultures, their environments, wants, needs, and values, to foster a greater appreciation of and respect for these peoples and cultures.

Although there is only limited firm evidence of the purpose of cave art found at sites such as Lascaux, Chauvet, and Les Trois-Frères, scholars generally agree that it served some religious purpose. Various theories have been proposed to provide more specific explanations. Cave art, particularly Paleolithic cave art, depicts almost exclusively animals. Hunting was crucial to the survival of early humans, and it is possible that the images were created as part of hunting rituals. Images of animals superimposed over each other many have represented fertility rituals aimed at increasing the amount of game animals. Some images appear to have been deliberately scratched or gouged with spearheads — in some cases blood was painted flowing from these wounds — suggesting that the images may have been intended as a type of sympathetic magic giving hunters power over and protection from large and dangerous animals (Benton & DiYanni, 2012).

Other images are less easy to explain and have given rise to controversial theories such as the bird-faced human figure in the Lascaux Shaft Scene, that combine elements of humans with other animals in a single figure. The Shaft Scene appears to describe a narrative although the exact meaning is not completely clear. A wounded bison stands ready to charge; the animals intestines appear to be pouring out of its abdomen and a spear is shown near its hindquarters. In front of the bison is a stick figure human with a bird's face. The human figure appears to have fallen or been knocked over. Just below this odd figure is a line topped by a bird, perhaps an object belonging to the bird-faced man. This figure and others that combine humans and other animals into one figure such as The Sorcerer in Les Trois-Freres may document early humans' mythology, and could suggest the origins of certain beliefs and practices (Curtis, 2006).

The meaning of the Law Code of Hammurabi is less ambiguous — the spiritual and the legal/political aspects of the culture are united. The stele dates to approximately 1760 BCE and is divided into two sections. The lower section, which takes up the majority of the stele, consists of the code of laws in effect at the time. The relief at the top depicts the Babylonian king Hammurabi receiving the laws from the god Shamash. The implication is clear: the law itself is a religious document and the social rules it describes are the will of the gods — and Hammurabi whose authority is bolstered by the approval of the gods (Benton & DiYanni, 2012).

The spiritual is not always a numinous experience in a cave. Some early laws and social codes were framed as divine communications that enforce social norms and rules — even now, witnesses in courts are generally sworn in by placing their hand on a Bible. Communication with the spiritual in examples such as the Law Code of Hammurabi is aimed at establishing and enforcing order and lending it a weight of legitimacy. It is as critical for the members of an urban culture, such as Babylon, to abide by rules to maintain peace with their neighbors as it was for the Paleolithic peoples to ensure successful hunts. And, kings such as Hammurabi believed it was critical to protect their power. By aligning themselves with gods, they could borrow some of the gods' power in the minds of the people and make rebellion or betrayal a kind of sacrilege. Hammurabi, in fact, was declared a god in his own lifetime (Van De Mieroop, 2005).

Music may also function as a form of communication between gods and humans. In pharaonic Egypt, religious festivals appear to have prominently involved music and dance. Music may have been used in religious rituals to communicate with the gods, invoke deities, or as a medium to transmit offerings. Some instruments were associated with specific deities: the sistrum with Hathor and Isis and the tambourine with Bes. Sistrums may have been played during rituals associated with Hathor to invoke her — and to placate her. Although images of deities playing musical instruments are relatively rare in Egyptian art, Bes is frequently depicted dancing and playing a tambourine. Unlike the other gods, Bes used music to communicate with humans. Bes was associated with the home and family — the front rooms of Egyptian homes appear to have contained shrines to Bes — and he remained a popular deity among the people throughout Egypt's history. Bes was believed to protect people, particularly women in childbirth, by playing music to frighten away evil spirits. Amulets of Bes dancing and playing a tambourine appear to have been a common type of protective amulet worn around the neck. It is worth noting that depictions of Bes differ markedly from depictions of most other Egyptian deities: he is represented in lively motion. In contrast to the image of Egyptian religion based primarily on royal tombs and, therefore, focused on death and the elite members of society, Bes was closely tied to life and the lives of common people (Simmance, n.d.).

Composed by the poet Valmiki in India the fifth century BCE, the Rāmāyana relates the deeds and adventures of Rama, an avatar of Vishnu. According to J. L. Brockington, in Indian tradition the Rāmāyana is designated the ādikāvya, which may be translated as “the first poetic work,” and is regularly referred to as being sung as opposed to spoken in contrast to the Mahābhārata. In one version of the framework story introducing the Rāmāyana, Rama is described as the perfect human being. His behavior is therefore worth emulating, and it is likely that as early as the first millennium BCE that was in a sense being done literally through plays and dances reenacting the story (Brockington, 1998). In that sense, the Rāmāyana represents a complex, evolving dialog, a lived experience of both artistic and spiritual expression.

Euripides' tragic drama The Bacchae is another example of theater acting as a complex dialog between the human and the spiritual worlds. The plot of The Bacchae revolves around the arrival of the god Dionysos in the city of Thebes where his ecstatic worship is opposed by Pentheus, the king of Thebes. As Segal writes, the play is morally ambiguous and may have been designed to implicate the audience in the action. Although Dionysos is a disturbance to Thebes, Pentheus' response is heavy-handed and unsympathetic. However, as the drama unfolds, the audience that may have been rooting for Dionysos is confronted with a climax that sees the god orchestra Pentheus' gruesome death. It is important to note that Dionysos was a well-established and liked god in Athens and that Classical Greek drama was written to be performed during annual festivals in Dionysos' honor. As Vellacott writes, during the festival a statue of Dionysos was brought from a shrine to the amphitheater to watch the plays. As Segal notes, it is unlikely that the play is meant to be critical of Dionysos (his actual worship was much more restrained than depicted in the play or the myths it was based on) but its presentation, at a fundamentally religious festival with the god literally in the audience, could not but have sparked another dialog within the audience, a reflection on their relationship to the god and the sometimes overwhelming forces he represents.

The Temple of Isis at Pompeii declares both the strength of her worshipers' belief and the endurance of her cult in the face of repeated official sanctions. The temple was damaged in an earthquake in 62 AD but was rebuilt by the time of the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD; in fact, it was the only civic building in that area of Pompeii that had been completely rebuilt (Hackworth, 2006). The apparent preference for a foreign goddess in a Roman city is all the more significant in light of imperial persecutions and prohibitions against her worship dating back to Augustus and coming to a head in 19 CE when Emperor Tiberius exiled thousands of freedmen who were adherents of the religion (Heyob, 1975). However, the cult of Isis continued to flourish. By the time of Pompeii's destruction, her worship appears to have included individuals from all classes of society, from members of the imperial family and municipal officials to freedmen and slaves (Takacs, 1995). The remains of the temple can still be seen on the original site and at the nearby Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli. Although Egyptian decoration was incorporated in the design of the temple and cult objects, the plan of the building and the style of the frescoes was Roman (Moorman, 2011). The navigium Isidis fresco appears to show a distinctly Egyptian scene, Isis resurrecting her husband-brother Osiris, but in a purely Roman style. The Pompeiian worshipers of Isis were part of Roman culture but may have been seeking an opportunity to engage in personally meaningful spiritual communication outside of the state-sectioned venues and deified emperors (Hackworth, 2006).

References

Benton, J. R. & DiYanni, R. (2012). Arts and culture: An introduction to the humanities. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Brockington, J. (1998). The Sanskrit epics. Boston: Brill.

Curtis, G. B. (2006). The cave painters: Probing the mysteries of the world's first artists. (2006). New York: Knopf.

Faxon, A. C. (1989). Dante Gabriel Rossetti. New York: Abbeville Press.

Hackworth, P., L. (2006). The freedman in Roman art and art history. Oxford: Cambridge University Press.

Heyob, S. K. (1975). The cult of Isis among women in the Graeco-Roman world. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Moorman, E., M. (2011). Divine interiors: Mural paintings in Greek and Roman sanctuaries. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam Press.

Segal, C. (2001). Introduction. In Euripides, Bakkai (3-32). New York: Oxford University Press.

Simmance, E. (n.d.) Communication through music in ancient Egyptian religion. University of Birmingham. Retrieved 2/4/2019 from https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/research/activity/connections/Essays/ESimmance.aspx.

Takacs, S., A. (1995). Isis and Sarapis in the Roman world. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Van De Mieroop, M. (2005). King Hammurabi of babylon: A biography. Hoboken: Blackwell Publishing.

Vellacott, P. (1959). Introduction. In Aeschylus, The Orestian trilogy (9-40). New York: Penguin.

#AHMC2019

Nicole Votta
8
 

Women's History Initiative Poster Selections

The works in this collection are under consideration for the SAAM/NPG posters promoting the Smithsonian's American Women's History Initiative.

John McBride
13
 

SSYAC 2018/2019 Meeting 1 - National Air and Space Museum

The first meeting of the third cohort of the SSYAC (2018-2019) will be held at the National Air and Space Museum on October 24, 2018. The meeting will be out of this world.  We'll begin by playing a "break-out box" game in the Moving Beyond Earth gallery. Can you help Dr. Skorton solve the space history clues to UNLOCK the mysteries of the universe? OR will we be lost in space? Next, we'll meet Dr. Ellen Stofan, Director (and Scientist), National Air and Space Museum (NASM). We'll hear about plans to renovate the museum--and what it takes to be the world's most visited museum. Next, since it's our very first meeting of the new SSYAC year, we'll take a moment to greet friends--both old and new. Secretary Skorton will discuss this year's SSYAC agenda, and answer some of the questions that you posed to him in your applications. Finally, we'll take a group photo. If you have any questions--do not hesitate to reach out to Tracie Spinale, tspinale(AT)si.edu or your Affiliate Coordinator. 

Tracie Spinale
18
 

Zoot Suit U.S History B

To be used in Mr. Chaffino U.S History B class.

#sj2019lp

Erik Chaffino
9
 

Bracero Program: Step In, Step Out, Step Back

In this activity, students will examine a painting of individuals participating in the Bracero Program, the largest guest-worker program in US history. Started in 1942 as a temporary war measure to address labor demands in agriculture and railroads, the program allowed Mexican nationals to take temporary agricultural work in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, and 24 other states. By the time the program ended in 1964, over 4.6 million contracts were awarded.

Using a Project Zero Global Thinking Routine - "Step In - Step Out - Step Back" - students will examine the perspectives of those depicted in the painting, consider what it means to take the perspectives of others, and explore avenues and methods to learn more about Braceros.  Resources for learning more, including a collection of photographs documenting the Bracero Program, are located at the end of the collection. 

Keywords: mexican, immigration, work, migration, migrant workers, agriculture, reform, politics, government, photojournalism, activity, inquiry strategy, global competency, global competence, latino, chicano, 1940s, 40s, 1950s, 50s, 1960s, 60s

Tess Porter
6
 

The Portrayal of Powerful Egyptian Women Through Visual Art

I come from a family of very strong and independent women, and I was raised in a feminist household and was taught that there is power in femininity. When I began at UMASS online, I immediately chose Gender Studies as one of my concentrations as I am fascinated with woman’s evolution through time. While we are only just now on the brink of true equality, there are some examples from specific cultures in history that show the power of women. I chose to look closely at Egypt from its earliest cultures through the New Kingdom. My hope is that this collection will exemplify the power that was evident in a woman in this time period. My main sources of study were Arts and Culture: An Introduction to the Humanities, and the Smithsonian Lab.

Visual art can be an influential force. I feel that it is a direct and tangible example of how the artist sees it’s subject (person, place, object, thought or idea), and that perception is molded by culture, values, lessons, and history. Reactions to visual art can spark debate, deeper thought, an emotional response, or even desire to learn more about the culture or time period it was created. I hope what I have put together here will spark one of those things in my viewers. I really hope that it will put our view of women into perspective. We have evolved so much since this time in our thoughts of equality, worth, capability, representation and I hope to show that in following collections with examples from different cultures and time periods.

In Arts and Culture: An Introduction to the Humanities there is a section in Chapter 1 about Queen Hatshepsut and how she was viewed as a powerful and important ruling figure in a male dominated world. I think this is important to note as we don’t read very much about women figureheads during this time. She was respected, trusted, and listened to. She was valued by her people which is exemplified in her tomb. It is described in the text as, “constructed of repeated elements- colonnaded terraces with columnar porticoes…halls, and private chambers. The three terraces are connected by ramps to the cliff…These chambers are chapels to the god Amen; to the cow-headed goddess Hathor, who protects the dead; and to the queen herself…sculpture was used lavishly; there were perhaps two hundred statues in Hatshepsut’s funerary temple” (Benton 27). It bears noting the love and respect for one woman in 1458 B.C.E. Women were also praised in the form of goddesses, ruling over things such as truth, justice, order, hunt, etc.

What I have put together in this collection represents the significance of women at this point in history.    

Benton, Janetta Rebold, and Robert DiYanni. Arts and Culture: an Introduction to the Humanities. Pearson, 2014.

#AHMC2019

Dana Cox
6
 

On the Pillars

The Romans conquered the world in the middle of the third century B.C. and gained the sovereignty over the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea.The Roman Empire is militarily successful, but compared with the remarkable achievements in politics and literature, its achievements in visual art seem to lack an independent and complete feature.The main reason is that the Romans highly admire and carefully imitate Greek art. They not only import a large number of works from Greece, but also imitate them. Even in their own works, the sign of Greek art can still be seen clearly.

On the other hand, because the Romans greatly emphasize the practicality of art rather than creativity, Roman art, whether in architecture, sculpture, or painting, is often copied from Greek works or takes what is good and puts it to its own use. The only ones that can be said to have Roman style are the portraits of people after the late republican period. Different from the aestheticism and elegance of Greek portraits, these Roman portraits resemble real people and are mainly used for memorial purposes. Although they have no profound aesthetic expression, they have left a vivid look of contemporary Roman celebrities.

In the early Rome, the country was founded on agriculture, so the whole society advocated such virtues as diligence, endurance, frugality, etc. However, it constantly invaded the outside world in the republican era,so the discipline of the army derived the requirement for obedience and law-abiding. Among which, the emphasis on the law and the achievements of the rule of law had a great contribution to the civilization of later generations.

Such a character is a practical spirit shown in life, thought, and art.Therefore, among the works of art left over from the Roman period, it is its public works that are best known, such as the roads, water supply pipes, public bathhouses, coliseums and so on.These huge and magnificent buildings were all built for practical purposes, and have all kinds of ingenious architectural techniques. Even in today, their ruins still make people amazing.

Bowen Zengyang
14
 

Music and Dance in Visual Art

Music and dance have probably always been an integral part of life. They serve to unite and harmonize people, and inspire our lives. There are many types of music and dance, some of which are highlighted in this collection. It starts with Ancient Egyptians and works its way up. There are many purposes and reasons why people dance, with each type of dance either exhibiting a message, or simply imparting inspiration and happiness. Visual images such as these, have given us knowledge that dancing has probably existed for all of human existence. 

#AHMC2019

Jessica Covert
6
 

Black Panther and Black Superheroes

Wakanda Learning Lab is this? 

This Learning Lab explores the importance of representation in popular media. How are people portrayed? Why are they portrayed? What does this say about a people in a society and the society itself? How do these messages affect and inform us about others and ourselves?

First, how are African Americans represented in popular media. Second, how African, the African Diaspora, and African American culture are represented in Black Panther (both as a comic book character and as part of the modern Marvel cinematic universe) and through other superhero lore. 

The National Museum of African American History and Culture celebrates the museum's acquirement of the movie costume of the iconic and groundbreaking Marvel comic book character Black Panther. The character of Black Panther (King T'Challa of Wakanda), and his iconic suit, debuted in the Marvel cinematic universe in the 2015 film Captain America: Civil War, and featured in his self-titled movie Black Panther in 2018. Since the debut of Black Panther (King T'Challa of Wakanda) in the Fantastic Four #52 in July 1966, Black Panther has been a trailblazer for the black superheroes that have followed him in print and on screen. 

Students can explore this Learning Lab independently. Learning exercises and worksheets have been provided to help enhance the exploration of the content. 

Keyword: nmaahc, African, American, Black, Panther, Marvel, T'Challa, Wakanda, suit, comic, superhero, super, hero, civil war, Falcon, Bumblebee, Vixen, Storm, Nick Fury, Luke Cage, DC, universe, Green Lantern, Misty


NMAAHC Education
26
 

Civil War Era Literature: Brother Against Brother (Realism/Psychological Realism/Naturalism/Impressionism)

This collection of paintings and photos are used in conjunction with a variety of Civil War era works of literature, specifically those featuring elements of the following literary movements:

* Realism

* Psychological Realism

* Naturalism

* Impressionism

Works to be used in conjunction with artistic examples include:

1. Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge, by Ambrose Bierce

2. An Upturned Face, by Stephen Crane

3. An Episode of War, by Stephen Crane

The first two works ("The Girl I Left Behind" and "Departure for the War")  will be used to launch/introduce "Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge." As a class, we'll complete a "See/Think/Wonder" and then read the short story. After completing the story, we'll return to both pictures and discuss how we could imagine such works of art illustrating this particular work.

We will then look through the small collection of photos from the Civil War, and discuss how such images would inspire a writer. I'll then introduce students to the Naturalism and Impressionism literary styles. We'll then read two Stephen Crane short stories, noting his "artistic" use of color, for example, and the despair evident in his naturalistic stories - - which could also be reflected in the photographs. 

#SAAMteach

Annette Spahr
6
 

The National Numismatic Collection's East Asian Currency Highlights

Established in the mid-19th century, several of the earliest additions to the NNC were artifacts from Japan, Korea, and China, including coins and medals gifted to President Ulysses S. Grant from Japanese Emperor Meiji (received in 1881) and the 2,025 East Asian coins, amulets, and notes from George Bunker Glover’s private collection (received in 1897). These donations were the foundation of the NNC’s East Asian holdings, which continues to grow with new acquisitions, such as the Howard F. Bowker collection in 2017. 

Emily Pearce Seigerman
87
 

Exploring the meaning of "social inclusion" through Digital Storytelling

This collection was made for a hands-on workshop organised by the Dresher Center for the Humanities at UMBC as part of the Inclusion Imperative Program.

During the workshop UMBC faculty and graduate students have the opportunity to learn some of the key elements of digital storytelling focused on questions of inclusion and justice. 

They will practice storyboarding and editing audio/visual materials as well as discuss how narrative structure and modes of storytelling vary in the diverse culture contexts in which we work and live. 

Antonia Liguori
24
 

The Road to Civil Rights

Essential questions:

  • How can we learn more about history through a photograph?
  • How do social factors, such as racism, influence change?
  • How much power do American citizens have to change government policies?
  • What factors drove the Jim Crow era and segregation after the Civil War?
  • How did Americans push back against discrimination, specifically segregation, and fight for civil rights?

This series of lessons is designed as a broad introduction to the factors leading up to the Civil Rights Movement.  Students will look closely at the 13th, 4th, and 15th amendments to the Constitution. Students will then explore some of the factors leading to and consequences of the rise of segregated America during the Jim Crow era in the years following the Civil War. They will look closely at powerful images that exemplify some of the Jim Crow laws, and then explore some of the court cases and responses of citizens that helped to bring about some changes leading up to and during the Civil Rights Movement in the United States.

Time: 3-4 class periods with optional maker project assessment.

Day 1

Anticipatory set: Have students complete a chalk talk to unravel their definitions of equality vs. racism. Discuss and formally define equality and racism. 

Looking closely: Share the image of the water fountains and notice similarities and differences (Optional opportunity to use the See - Think - Wonder thinking routine). Discuss context of Jim Crow era and explain we will be exploring what factors led to these laws and how people fought to change them. 

Have students look closely at the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments and dissect the language of the amendments to understand their meaning using the Parts, Purposes, Messages thinking routine. Read page one of iCivics Jim Crow handout. Students should record examples of equality and racism on post it notes as they read. When finished, they can add these post it notes to the chalk talk posters with definitions of equality and racism as they discuss their examples. 

Day 2

Anticipatory set: Use the Imagine if... thinking routine to have groups of students explore challenging Jim Crow era issues.

Looking closely: Read "Jim Crow and the Great Migration" and have students continue to record examples of equality vs. racism on post it notes to add to the chalk talk posters from yesterday. Explore powerful Jim Crow images with a chalk talk using the Reporter's Notebook thinking routine.

Discuss how some people began to speak out against the injustices of the Jim Crow laws, both directly and indirectly. Compare and contrast the approaches of Booker T. Washington and  W. E. B. Du Bois. Then read "I, too" by Langston Hughes. Students should complete the See/Hear - Think - Wonder during their first listen. Then students can deconstruct the poem in groups, paying attention to both the literal and figurative meaning of the metaphor of the kitchen in the poem. 

Exit ticket/Reflection: What are the multiple meanings of the kitchen in the poem, "I, too," by Langston Hughes? What was his purpose for writing this poem?

Day 3

Anticipatory set: Use the Making it Fair: Now, Then, Later thinking routine to start to identify how people could have made these Jim Crow restrictions more fair. 

Looking closely: Read "The Road to Civil Rights" handout from iCivics. Students can add equality vs. racism post its to their original chalk talks. Watch the video of the sit-in reenactment (optional - reenact a sit-in in the classroom). Look closely at images of marches, sit-ins, boycotts, and court cases and use the Reporter's Notebook thinking routine to notice the layers of interactions during the events. 

Optional assessment: Introduce the Journey to Civil Rights maker project. Allow students 3-4 days to work on their artifacts and essay explaining their choices.

#PZPGH

Lara Grogan
30
 

Environmental Impact on Native American Culture

Essential questions:

1. How are Native American groups defined by cultural practices?

2. How does the environment impact the culture of the people living in a region?

In this collection, students will analyze, compare, and contrast the similarities and differences of the cultures of Native American groups living in the northwest and northeast regions with a focus on food, crops, and natural resources, understanding how the environment influenced the cultures and traditions of Native American people.

American Indian Essential Understandings (Written by the National Museum of the American Indian Native Knowledge 360 https://americanindian.si.edu/...):

1. Culture is a result of human socialization. People acquire knowledge and values by interacting with other people through common language, place, and community. In the Americas, there is vast cultural diversity among more than 2,000 tribal groups. Tribes have unique cultures and ways of life that span history from time immemorial to the present day.

Key Concepts:

  • There is no single American Indian culture or language.
  • American Indians are both individuals and members of a tribal group.
  • American Indians share many similarities with other indigenous people of the world, along with many differences.

2. For thousands of years, indigenous people have studied, managed, honored, and thrived in their homelands. These foundations continue to influence American Indian relationships and interactions with the land today.

Key Concept:

  • The story of American Indians in the Western Hemisphere is intricately intertwined with places and environments. Native knowledge systems resulted from long-term occupation of tribal homelands, and observation and interaction with places. American Indians understood and valued the relationship between local environments and cultural traditions, and recognized that human beings are part of the environment.

Time: 3 class periods

Day 1:

Anticipatory set: Begin by viewing the “Food and Cultures Video” from the Pacific Northwest History and Cultures online lesson. Students should use the “Add 1” thinking routine after viewing to note the important take aways. After discussing, students can make a connection to their own cultural practices by writing about the foods they eat in their cultures.

Looking closely: Students can then read the essay written by Shana Brown to extend their understanding about the connections between foods and culture. Students should annotate the article using post-it notes to record connections, challenges, concepts, and changes to their thinking. They can then place them on a class 4 C’s poster to share out their learning during discussion. Students should explore the three case studies, using the annotation tools while they read to look closely at objects, images, and quotes. They can use the student handout to complete a case study analysis and support a claim that “Salmon is important to Native Peoples and Nations of the Pacific Northwest” with evidence from their exploration. Students can then read “People of the Potlatch” and represent the cultural practice of the potlatch with the “Colour, Symbol, Image” thinking routine.

 Day 2:

Anticipatory set: Assign students sections of the Haudenosaunee Thanksgiving Address to read aloud. When students have read the address, have them complete the “Step Inside” thinking routine about giving thanks from the perspective of a Haudenosaunee American Indian person.

 Looking closely: Students can read excerpts from the “HAUDENOSAUNEE GUIDE FOR EDUCATORS” with a focus on “Who are the Haudenosaunee” and “The Relationship to the Natural World,” and/or the “Celebration of Native American Food” article and create headlines for the most important information for each or all selections. When finished with the readings, students should complete the claims and evidence organizer to identify which foods were important to the Haudenosaunee people based on evidence from the text.

 Day 3:

Anticipatory set: Students should work together complete a Venn Diagram sort to compare and contrast Northwest and Northeast cultural practices/foods as review.

 Looking closely: Students will construct a compare and contrast writing explaining how the environment influenced the culture of American Indian people of the Northwest and Northeast regions using evidence they have gathered to support their thinking.

#PZPGH

American Indian Nations: Kwakwaka’wakw, Haudenosaunee, Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, Tuscarora

Lara Grogan
12
 

Read and Write Qin Small Seal 认写秦小篆


About This Collection:

This collection was designed by Hongli Holloman, a Chinese language teacher at Washington International School, as a basic introduction to use learning lab for language educators. It is a collection of resources from Emperor Qin Shihuang’s Mausoleum Site Museum, the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, and the Smithsonian’s Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery. Each resources includes key information about the resources, as well as ideas for class discussion using Project Zero Global Thinking Routines, and class activities. Feel free to copy the collection and adapt it to your own use.

Keyword: ancient history; artifact; China; sculpture; Chinese; cross-cultural comparison; think puzzle explore; project zero; visible thinking routine; terra cotta; qin shi huang; shihuangdi; shi huang di; Qin Small Scrip; ancient script

Teaching Goals:

To help students review and learn about the origin of Chinese written language and the evolution of the scrips.

Students with proficiency level of Intermediate Low to Intermediate Med would have more reinforcement to advance to Intermediate High Advanced Low level. Please check here to get the description of ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines.

1. Develop international-mindedness through the study of Chinese languages, culture of China, and ideas and issues of global significance.

2. Enable students to communicate in Chinese they have studied to introduce ancient Qin dynasty and its first Emperor.

3. Encourage, through the study of Qin Small Seal, an awareness and appreciation of a variety of perspectives of people from China

4. Develop students’ understanding of the relationship between the languages and cultures with which they are familiar.

5. Develop students’ awareness of the importance of language in relation to other areas of knowledge, such as history and art.

6. Provide students, through language learning and the process of inquiry, with opportunities for intellectual engagement and the development of critical- and creative-thinking skills specifically using Project Zero thinking routines such as PARTS-PURPOSE-COMPLEXITIES, Looking Ten Times Two, THREE Y’S.

7. Provide students with a basis for further study, work and leisure through the use of Chinese.

8. Foster curiosity, creativity and a lifelong enjoyment of language learning.

Standards Targeted:

  1. ACTFL WORLD-READINESS STANDARDS FOR LEARNING LANGUAGES

Communication

Standard 1.1: Students engage in conversations, provide and obtain information, express feelings and emotions, and exchange opinions.

Standard 1.2: Students understand and interpret written and spoken language on a variety of topics.

Standard 1.3: Students present information, concepts, and ideas to an audience of listeners or readers on a variety of topics.

Cultures

Standard 2.2: Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the products and perspectives of the culture studied.

Connections

Standard 3.1: Students reinforce and further their knowledge of other disciplines through the foreign language.
Standard 3.2: Students acquire information and recognize the distinctive viewpoints that are only available through the foreign language and its cultures.

Comparisons

Standard 4.1: Students demonstrate understanding of the nature of language through comparisons of the language studied and their own.

Standard 4.2: Students demonstrate understanding of the concept of culture through comparisons of the cultures studied and their own.

Communities

Standard 5.1: Students use the language both within and beyond the school setting.

Standard 5.2: Students show evidence of becoming life-long learners by using the language for personal enjoyment and enrichment.

IB DP: Language Acquisition Aims

1. Develop international-mindedness through the study of languages, cultures, and ideas and issues of global significance.

2. Enable students to communicate in the language they have studied in a range of contexts and for a variety of purposes.

3. Encourage, through the study of texts and through social interaction, an awareness and appreciation of a variety of perspectives of people from diverse cultures.

4. Develop students’ understanding of the relationship between the languages and cultures with which they are familiar.

5. Develop students’ awareness of the importance of language in relation to other areas of knowledge.

6. Provide students, through language learning and the process of inquiry, with opportunities for intellectual engagement and the development of critical- and creative-thinking skills.

7. Provide students with a basis for further study, work and leisure through the use of an additional language.

8. Foster curiosity, creativity and a lifelong enjoyment of language learning.

Hongli Holloman
22
 

Exploring American and Cultural Identity Through Portraiture

How do Americans identify as American?  In this collection we will lock at works by artists and ask how groups fof Americans from different Ethnic backgrounds perceive their American identity.  #NPGteach

Christopher Evans
13
 

Political Cartoons - Imperialism

Collection of Political Cartoons from the late 1800s/early 1900s

Renea Reichenbach
9
 

Unconstitutional Deportation of American Citizens in the 1930s (Santiago Chamu)Modifications

Unconstitutional Deportation of American Citizens in the United States during in the 1930's.

#LatinoHAC #LatinoHistoryArtCulture #UnconstitutionalDeportation

Santiago Chamu
20
 

PT 1 Triumph and Tragedy: American Industry

This collection brings together EDSITEment and Smithsonian resources to support the initial research into a project for National History Day 2019, "Triumph and Tragedy in History."

These resources - including photographs, objects, portraits, lesson plans, and articles - explore triumphs and tragedies in American industrialization from the late 18th century through the early 20th century.  Resources highlight influential industrialists called "captains of industry" by some and "robber barons" by others, catastrophes that occurred as a result of rapid industrialization, labor leaders who fought successfully for the rights of laborers dismal conditions, the origins of child labor laws, leading inventors and their inventions, and other important topics. The second tile of this collection contains questions to help with the analysis of photograph, document, artwork, portrait, and object resources. 

By no means is this collection comprehensive; instead, it provides a launching point for further research.

This collection was created in collaboration with EDSITEment, a website for K-12 educators from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

Share your National History Day collections and let us know what you think! Write to us on Twitter: @EDSITEment & @SmithsonianLab, #NHD2019. If you publish a collection on your National History Day topic, be sure to enter #NHD2019 in the description!

Tags: strike, protest, union, andrew carnegie, john d. rockefeller, j.p. morgan, cornelius vanderbilt, henry clay frick, helen frick, andrew w. mellon, newsies, newsboys, child labor reform, thomas alva edison, incandescent lamp, nikola tesla, electric motor, electric power, alexander graham bell, telephone, christopher latham sholes, c. lathan sholes, carlos glidden, samuel soule, typewriter, triangle shirtwaist factory fire, pinkerton national detective agency, matewan massacre, wall street bombing of 1920, boston molassses disaster, asa philip randolph, a. philip randolph, john llewellyn lewis, john l. lewis, frances perkins, samuel gompers i.l.g.w.u, international ladies garment workers union, david dubinsky, company towns, #NHD

Heather Sorrell
25
 

Learning Lab Teaching Collection for Frost Art Museum Workshop using Luis Cruz Azaceta's

This teaching collection is designed to be used in the Frost Art Museum's "Exploring Latinx Artists from the Frost Art Museum Collection" workshop on November 6, 2018, to guide participants in a looking activity and to demonstrate the range of tools available in the Learning Lab. 

It is adapted from a teaching collection on the same theme (Luis Cruz Azaceta's "Shifting States: Iraq" http://learninglab.si.edu/q/ll...) , which aims to help students think critically and globally using two Thinking Routines to explore the painting. The work is a metaphorical representation of the unrest taking place in Iraq, and more broadly, an exploration of the human condition during times of crisis.

Included here are an image of the work from the Smithsonian American Art Museum, an explanatory video with curator E. Carmen Ramos, a contextual video featuring the artist himself, three suggested Thinking Routines - "Colors, Shapes, Lines," "The 3 Y's," and "Headlines" - from Harvard's Project Zero Artful Thinking and Global Thinking materials, three other works by Azaceta in the Smithsonian collections, and an array of prompts and Learning Lab tools.

For use in Social Studies, Spanish, English, American History, Art History classes

This program received Federal support from the Latino Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center.


#LatinoHAC

Renee Mills
20
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