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See/Think/Wonder: Project Zero Visible Thinking Routine

SI Center for Learning and Digital Access
A "Visible Thinking" routine for exploring works of art and other interesting things from Project Zero. This routine encourages students to make careful observations and thoughtful interpretations. It helps stimulate curiosity and sets the stage for inquiry. Asks the questions, "What do you see?", "What do you think about that?", and "What does it make you wonder?" SEE / THINK / WONDER

A routine for exploring works of art and other interesting things

What do you see? What do you think about that? What does it make you wonder?

Purpose: What kind of thinking does this routine encourage?

This routine encourages students to make careful observations and thoughtful interpretations. It helps stimulate curiosity and sets the stage for inquiry.

Application: When and where can it be used?

Use this routine when you want students to think carefully about why something looks the way it does or is the way it is. Use the routine at the beginning of a new unit to motivate student interest or try it with an object that connects to a topic during the unit of study. Consider using the routine with an interesting object near the end of a unit to encourage students to further apply their new knowledge and ideas.

Launch: What are some tips for starting and using this routine?

Ask students to make an observation about an object--it could be an artwork, image, artifact or topic--and follow up with what they think might be going on or what they think this observation might be. Encourage students to back up their interpretation with reasons. Ask students to think about what this makes them wonder about the object or topic.

The routine works best when a student responds by using the three stems together at the same time, i.e., "I see..., I think..., I wonder..." However, you may find that students begin by using one stem at a time, and that you need to scaffold each response with a follow up question for the next stem.

The routine works well in a group discussion but in some cases you may want to ask students to try the routine individually on paper or in their heads before sharing out as a class. Student responses to the routine can be written down and recorded so that a class chart of observations, interpretations and wonderings are listed for all to see and return to during the course of study.

Think Pair Share Routine: Project Zero Visible Thinking Routine

SI Center for Learning and Digital Access
A "Visible Thinking" routine for active reasoning and explanation from Project Zero. It encourages students to think about something, such as a problem, question or topic, and then articulate their thoughts. Involves posing a question to students, asking them to take a few minutes of thinking time and then turning to a nearby student to share their thoughts.

THINK PAIR SHARE ROUTINE

A routine for active reasoning and explanation

Think Pair Share involves posing a question to students, asking them to take a few minutes of thinking time and then turning to a nearby student to share their thoughts.

Purpose: What kind of thinking does this routine encourage?

This routine encourages students to think about something, such as a problem, question or topic, and then articulate their thoughts. The Think Pair Share routine promotes understanding through active reasoning and explanation. Because students are listening to and sharing ideas, Think Pair Share encourages students to understand multiple perspectives.

Application: When and where can it be used?

Think Pair Share can be applied at any given moment in the classroom. For example, when approaching a solution, solving a math problem, before a science experiment, or after reading a passage or chapter of a book you may ask students to take a moment to think about a particular question or issue and then turn to their neighbor and share their thoughts. Sharing can also be done in small groups. Some times you will want to have pairs or groups summarize their ideas for the whole class.

Launch: What are some tips for starting and using the routine?

When first introducing the routine, teachers may want to scaffold students' paired conversations by reminding them to take turns, listen carefully and ask questions of one another. One way to ensure that students listen to each other is to tell students that you will be calling on individuals to explain their partners thinking, as opposed to telling their own thoughts.

Encourage students to make their thinking visible by asking them to write or draw their ideas before and/or after sharing. Journals can also be useful. Student pairs can report one another's thoughts to the class and a list of ideas can be created in the classroom.

Think / Puzzle / Explore: Project Zero Visible Thinking Routine

SI Center for Learning and Digital Access
A "Visible Thinking" routine that sets the stage for deeper inquiry from Project Zero. It activates prior knowledge, generates ideas and curiosity and sets the stage for deeper inquiry. Uses questions, such as, "What do you think you know about this topic?", "What questions or puzzles do you have?", and "What does the topic make you want to explore?"

THINK / PUZZLE / EXPLORE

A routine that sets the stage for deeper inquiry

1. What do you think you know about this topic?

2. What questions or puzzles do you have?

3. What does the topic make you want to explore?

Purpose: What kind of thinking does this routine encourage?

This routine activates prior knowledge, generates ideas and curiosity and sets the stage for deeper inquiry.

Application: When and where can it be used?

This routine works especially well when introducing a new topic, concept or theme in the classroom. It helps students take stock of what they already know and then pushes students to identify puzzling questions or areas of interest to pursue. Teachers can get a good sense of where students are on a conceptual level and, by returning to the routine over the course of study, they can identify development and progress. The third question is useful in helping students lay the ground work for independent inquiry.

Launch: What are some tips for starting and using this routine?

With the introduction of new topic--for example, earth, leaves, fractions, Buddhism--the class can engage in the routine together to create a group list of ideas. Between each phase of the routine, that is with each question, adequate time needs to be given for individuals to think and identify their ideas. You may even want to have students write down their individual ideas before sharing them out as a class. In some cases, you may want to have students carry out the routine individually on paper or in their heads before working on a new area.

Keep a visible record of students' ideas. If you are working in a group, ask students to share some of their thoughts and collect a broad list of ideas about the topic on chart paper. Or students can write their individual responses on post-it notes and later add them to a class list of ideas.

Note that it is common for students to have misconceptions at this point--include them on the list so all ideas are available for consideration after further study. Students may at first list seemingly simplistic ideas and questions. Include these on the whole class list but push students to think about things that are truly puzzling or interesting to them.

Thinking

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden

Think

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Green, blue, orange and black triangles in horizontal rows.

Think, Feel, Care: Project Zero Agency by Design Thinking Routine

SI Center for Learning and Digital Access
A Project Zero “Agency by Design” thinking routine for exploring complexity. This routine encourages students to consider the different and diverse perspectives held by the various people who interact within a particular system. After students identify a system to explore, students choose a variety of people within that system in order to consider their perspectives. Then, students answer the questions: “Think: How does this person understand this system and their role within it?”, “Feel: What is this person’s emotional response to the system and to their position within it?”, “Care: What are this person’s values, priorities, or motivations with regard to the system? What’s important to this person?”

THINK, FEEL, CARE

A routine for exploring complexity

Step inside a system: (Choose a variety of people within a system and then step inside each person’s point of view. As you think about what you know about the system, consider what each person might think, feel, and care about.)

1. Think: How does this person understand this system and their role within it?

2. Feel: What is this person’s emotional response to the system and to their position within it?

3. Care: What are this person’s values, priorities, or motivations with regard to the system? What’s important to this person?

Purpose: What kind of thinking does this routine encourage?

This routine encourages students to consider the different and diverse perspectives held by the various people who interact within a particular system. The goal of this routine is to help students understand that the variety of people who participate in a system think, feel, and care differently about things based on their positions in the system. This routine fosters perspective taking, raises questions, and surfaces areas for further inquiry.

Application: When and where can it be used?

This thinking routine can be used to explore the perspective of any person within a particular system. This routine can be used on its own or in combination with another routine.

Launch: What are some tips for starting and using this routine?

Whether they are working as individuals or in small groups, it may be helpful for you to have students sketch out a small monologue or scene that contains some of the different people who participate in a particular system. They can then assume the roles of various people in their system and act out a small scene, with each student portraying a different person’s perspective. Once students portray a person in their system in one way, ask them how they might portray the same person in an entirely different way. This will prompt your students to understand that even within particular groups of people, there is no one perspective, but rather an array of perspectives that different and unique people may hold. Students should be encouraged to consider how what people think, feel, and care about may be in alignment within a particular system, or misaligned. When misalignments emerge, ask your students how these tensions are dealt with or negotiated within the system? Discussions about unequal power structures within a system may arise. While this routine asks students to step inside the role of a character and to imagine how they may think, feel, and what they might care about from that point of view, it is important to remember that students can never really know and understand someone else’s perspective. When engaging in this thinking routine, it is important for students to push beyond stereotypes and to try to imagine the lived experiences of particular people. Encourage your students to develop specific people to play (e.g., Julia, a migrant worker, John, a used-car salesman, and Martin, a Republican senator) as opposed to types of people (e.g., a migrant worker, a used-car salesman, and a Republican senator). When perspective taking, students will likely draw on their assumptions about the various types of people represented in their system. As they do so, you may lead students in a discussion that addresses where these assumptions come from. You can encourage students to challenge their assumptions by asking them what they really know about someone else’s perspective, and what they may need to do (e.g., conduct interviews, speak with a grandparent, etc.) in order to find out more about someone else’s perspective.

I Used to Think..., But Now I Think: Project Zero Visible Thinking Routine

SI Center for Learning and Digital Access
A "Visible Thinking" routine for reflecting on how and why our thinking has changed from Project Zero. This routine encourages students to identify their new understandings, opinions, and beliefs as they develop their reasoning abilities and recognition of cause and effect relationships. Asks students to write a response using the sentence stems, "I used to think..." and "But now, I think..."

I USED TO THINK..., BUT NOW I THINK

A routine for reflecting on how and why our thinking has changed

Remind students of the topic you want them to consider. It could be the ideal itself—fairness, truth, understanding, or creativity--or it could be the unit you are studying. Have students write a response using each of the sentence stems:

• I used to think...

• But now, I think...

Purpose: What kind of thinking does this routine encourage?

This routine helps students to reflect on their thinking about a topic or issue and explore how and why that thinking has changed. It can be useful in consolidating new learning as students identify their new understandings, opinions, and beliefs. By examining and explaining how and why their thinking has changed, students are developing their reasoning abilities and recognizing cause and effect relationships.

Application: When and where can it be used?

This routine can be used whenever students' initial thoughts, opinions, or beliefs are likely to have changed as a result of instruction or experience. For instance, after reading new information, watching a film, listening to a speaker, experiencing something new, having a class discussion, at the end of a unit of study, and so on.

Launch: What are some tips for starting and using this routine?

Explain to students that the purpose of this activity is to help them reflect on their thinking about the topic and to identify how their ideas have changed over time. For instance:

When we began this study of _____, you all had some initial ideas about it and what it was all about. In just a few sentences, I want to write what it is that you used to think about _____. Take a minute to think back and then write down your response to "I used to think..."

Now, I want you to think about how your ideas about _____ have changed as a result of what we've been studying/doing/discussing. Again in just a few sentences write down what you now think about _____. Start your sentences with, "But now, I think..."

Have students share and explain their shifts in thinking. Initially it is good to do this as a whole group so that you can probe students' thinking and push them to explain. Once students become accustomed to explaining their thinking, students can share with one another in small groups or pairs.

Talismanic Thinking

National Air and Space Museum

Wishful Thinking

Smithsonian American Art Museum

Just Thinking

Smithsonian American Art Museum
By closely focusing on the face of the woman in Just Thinking Hudnall creates an unequivocal sense that the viewer is intruding on a private moment. According to Hudnall, “The camera really does not matter; it is only a tool. What is important is the ability to transform an instance, a moment, into meaningful, expressive, and profound statements, some of which are personal, some of which have a symbolic and universal meaning.”

African American Art: Harlem Renaissance, Civil Rights Era, and Beyond, 2012

Think Green

Smithsonian American Art Museum

Think Green

National Museum of American History

Think / Dream

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
On white ground, text in black, lower right: You see things / as they are / and ask why / But I dream things / that never were / and ask why not / C. B. Shaw. Stamps(?) of DREAM and THINK. Lower right: Creativity/Accomplishment.

THINK GREEN

National Museum of American History

Think School

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

THINK GREEN

National Museum of American History

THINK GREEN

National Museum of American History

"Think American"

National Museum of American History

Question Starts: Project Zero Visible Thinking Routine

SI Center for Learning and Digital Access
A "Visible Thinking" routine for creating thought-provoking questions from Project Zero. This routine provides students with the opportunity to practice developing good questions that provoke thinking and inquiry into a topic. It helps stimulate curiosity and sets the stage for inquiry. Uses question starts such as, "Why...?", "What are the reasons...?", and "What if...?"

QUESTION STARTS

A routine for creating thought-provoking questions

1. Brainstorm a list of at least 12 questions about the topic, concept or object. Use these question-starts to help you think of interesting questions:

Why...?

How would it be different if...?

What are the reasons...?

Suppose that...?

What if...?

What if we knew...?

What is the purpose of...?

What would change if...?

2. Review the brainstormed list and star the questions that seem most interesting. Then, select one or more of the starred questions to discuss for a few moments.

3. Reflect: What new ideas do you have about the topic, concept or object that you didn't have before?

Purpose: What kind of thinking does this routine encourage?

This routine provides students with the opportunity to practice developing good questions that provoke thinking and inquiry into a topic. It also helps students brainstorm lots of different kinds of questions about a topic. The purpose of asking deep and interesting questions is to get at the complexity and depth of a topic. The purpose of brainstorming varied questions about a topic is to get at the breadth, and multi-dimensionality of a topic.

Application: When and where can it be used?

Use Question Starts to expand and deepen students' thinking, to encourage students' curiosity and increase their motivation to inquire. This routine can be used when you are introducing a new topic to help students get a sense of the breadth of a topic. It can be used when you're in the middle of studying a topic as a way of enlivening students' curiosity. And it can be used when you are near the end of studying a topic, as a way of showing students how the knowledge they have gained about the topic helps them to ask ever more interesting questions. This routine can also be used continuously throughout a topic, to help the class keep a visible, evolving list of questions about the topic that can be added to at anytime.

Launch: What are some tips for starting and using the routine?

Before using Question Starts, you might want to ask students what they think makes a good question. Then, when you show the Question Starts, explain that this routine is a tool for asking good questions. Start the routine by providing a topic-- Stockholm, a compass, the Equator, good sportsmanship. Ask them to use the Question Starts to generate a list of questions about the topic. Initially, it's best to work together as an entire group. Once students get the hang of the routine, you can have them work in small groups, or even solo. Or mix it up. For example, do step 1 as a whole class, do step 2 in pairs, and step 3 as a whole class again.

After students finish generating questions, you can use the questions they created in a variety of ways: pick one of the questions to investigate further, have a discussion about some of the questions, give students information to read about the topic, ask them to investigate it in other ways, or do nothing further as simply creating the list of questions is worthwhile since it gives students a sense of the breadth of a topic and sparks curiosity about it.

Students' questions can be written down and recorded so that they are listed for all to see. If students are working solo, they can keep their list of questions in a journal, or you can create a "collage" out of students' individual lists and display it on the classroom wall.

Think Positive

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Poster depicts red cross at center with negative spaces of people on a ground of people in gray on white. Text in black and red: TIRED OF HEARING ABOUT H.I.V.? / HAVING IT IS MURDER! Think / Positive / We Are All Living With AIDS / START ACTING LIKE IT! / DAY WITHOUT ART / DECEMBER 1, 1993.

Think Different

Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum
Image features a laptop computer with a rectangular body with rounded corners, the housing of translucent clear and blue plastic with blue pull-out handle at back. The hinged lid opens to reveal a screen and an inset keyboard with function keys, a touch pad, power button and a small speaker. Separate disk-shaped clear plastic and metal power adapter contains windup cord. Scroll down for the blog post related to this image.Today’s Object of the Day celebrates the winners of Cooper Hewitt’s National Design Awards. Honoring lasting achievement in American design, the Awards take place annually during National Design Week, with festivities for all ages celebrating design creativity and innovation. Today’s post was originally published on September 9, 2015. “When was the last time someone offered...

Headlines: Project Zero Visible Thinking Routine

SI Center for Learning and Digital Access
A Project Zero "Visible Thinking" routine for capturing the essence of a topic or issue. This routine can also involve students summing things up and coming to tentative conclusions. Asks students to “Write a headline that captures the most important aspect of this [topic/issue],” and to answer “How does your headline differ from what you would have said yesterday?”

HEADLINES

A routine for capturing the essence of a topic or issue

1. Write a headline that captures the most important aspect of this [topic/issue].

2. How does your headline differ from what you would have said yesterday? How has your headline changed based on today’s discussion?

Purpose: What kind of thinking does this routine encourage?

This routine helps students capture the core or heart of the matter being studied or discussed. It also can involve them in summing things up and coming to tentative conclusions.

Application: When and where can it be used?

This routine works especially well at the end of a class discussion or session in which students have explored a topic and gathered a fair amount of new information or opinions about it.

Launch: What are some tips for starting and using this routine?

This routine can be used effectively with Think / Pair / Share. For example, at the end of a class, a teacher might ask, "Think about all that we have been talking about today in class. If you were to write a headline for this topic or issue right now that captured the most important aspect that should be remembered, what would that headline be?" Next, the teacher tells students, "Share your headline with your neighbor." The teacher might close the class by asking, "Who heard a headline from someone else that they thought was particularly good at getting to the core of things?" Student responses to the routine can be written down and recorded so that a class list of headlines is created. These could be reviewed and updated from time to time as the class learns more about the topic. The follow-up question, "How has your headline changed or how does it differ from what you would have said?” can be used to help students reflect on changes in their thinking.

Unveiling Stories: Project Zero Global Thinking Routine

SI Center for Learning and Digital Access
A Project Zero “Global Thinking” routine for revealing multiple layers of meaning. This routine invites students to investigate the world and develop powerful habits of global journalism consumption. The framework asks students to consider five questions: “What is the story?,” “What is the human story?,” “What is the world story?,” “What is the new story?,” and “What is the untold story?”

UNVEILING STORIES

A routine for revealing multiple layers of meaning

1. What is the story?

2. What is the human story?

3. What is the world story?

4. What is the new story?

5. What is the untold story?

Purpose: What kind of thinking does this routine encourage?

This routine invites students to reveal multiple layers of meaning in an image, text, or journalistic report. Each layer addresses a key dimension of quality global journalism: the central, most visible story; the way the story helps us understand the lives of fellow humans; the ways in which the story speaks to systemic global issues; what is new and instructive about the story and issues explored; and the important absences or unreported aspects of the story. This routine also invites students to investigate the world and develop powerful habits of global journalism consumption – habits that are transferable to information consumption more broadly.

Application: When and where can it be used?

This routine can be used in global competence development in the arts, geography, literature, and history.

Launch: What are some tips for starting and using this routine?

You may consider selecting some – not all – of the routine’s questions depending on your goals. You may also consider modifying the order in which the questions are introduced. In using this routine with your students, you may see “the story” interpreted in one of the following ways: 1) “the story” told by the article, image, or material that they read, or 2) “the story” proposed to explain or contextualize the event depicted, i.e. “the human story that led to the contamination of the Mexican gulf begins with our dependence on fossil fuels.”

Reporter’s Notebook: Project Zero Visible Thinking Routine

SI Center for Learning and Digital Access
A Project Zero "Visible Thinking" routine for separating fact and feeling. This routine helps students organize ideas and feelings in order to consider a situation where fairness may be at stake. Asks students: “Identify a situation, story, or dilemma for discussion,” “Identify the facts and events of the situation,” “Identify the thoughts and feelings of the characters/participants involved in the situation,” and “Make your best judgement of the situation based on the information at hand.”

REPORTER’S NOTEBOOK

A routine for separating fact and feeling

1. Identify a situation, story, or dilemma for discussion.

2. Identify the facts and events of the situation. Are these clear facts and events, or do you need more information about them?

3. Identify the thoughts and feelings of the characters/participants involved in the situation. Are these clear facts, or do you need more information about them?

4. Make your best judgement of the situation based on the information at hand.

Purpose: What kind of thinking does this routine encourage?

This routine helps students distinguish facts from thoughts and judgements. By organizing ideas and feelings, students may better consider a situation where fairness may be at stake. It also promotes the fine discernment of information and perspective-taking in order to clarify and make a tentative judgment.

Application: When and where can it be used?

Use this routine in a number of situations, including discussing imagined or real moral dilemmas; topics from history, literature, or science; after reading a chapter or watching a video; or when thinking about actual events from students’ own lives. This routine is most useful “mid-investigation” after some information about a given situation is already on the table – maybe the discussion is becoming convoluted, there are disagreements, opinions are taken as facts, or things are generally getting “messy.” Use this routine to go deeper into an issue to clarify thoughts or to clarify what the issue actually is.

Launch: What are some tips for starting and using this routine?

Ask students to imagine they are a newspaper reporter tasked with differentiating the facts of a given event or topic from involved characters’ thoughts and feelings. The stance of a reporter helps students clarify issues and points of agreement and disagreement by creating distance from their own perspective or initial understanding of a situation. Draw a 4x4 grid. Along the top, write “Clear” and “Need to Check.” Down the side, write “Facts and Events” and “Thoughts and Feelings.” List responses in the appropriate portion of the grid. Make sure students talk about the characters involved and not their own thoughts or feelings. Once the grid is completed, ask students to make their best judgment of the situation based on the information at hand.
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