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Archie B Lawyer, Mark Williams and James Reuben ca 1878

National Anthropological Archives
Digital surrogate produced from reference copy print

"Archie B. Lawyer, Mark Williams and James Reubin are all full (blood) Nez Perce Indians. They were commissioned or appointed by the Indian Department at Washington as teachers to Chief Joseph's Nez Perces in the Indian Territory, reaching there in Dec. 1878. "Archie was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Oregon. He, with Mark, were pupils of S. L. Mc Beth. James was a pupil and afterwards a teacher for Indians (Nez Perce) children of Lapwai, Idaho. Mark is six feet in height, and rather slender. Archie is five feet eleven inches, and larger in proportion, James is about the height of Archie." - Note on photograph.

Copy from album loaned by the Indian Office, Interior Department, October, 1936. (page 44)

Black and white copy negative

As identified by Robert Applegate and Diane Pearson (2/14/2007), from left to right the individuals in the photo are James Reuben, Mark Williams, and Archie Lawyer.

Critic Mark Feeney on William Eggleston

Smithsonian American Art Museum
ThumbnailBoston Globe photography and arts critic, Mark Feeney, presented his lecture "Four Photographers on Three Wheels: William Eggleston's Tricycle and Before" at American Art's McEvoy Auditorium the other night, as the second speaker of this year's Clarice Smith Distinguished Lectures in American Art.

Professor William D. Marks [painting] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Goodrich, Lloyd, "Thomas Eakins," Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press for the National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1982, pg. 56.

Black-and-white study print (8x10).

Orig. negative: 8x10, Nitrate, BW.

copy 1 negative: 8x10, Safety, BW.

Soil bacterial community succession during long-term ecosystem development

Smithsonian Libraries
The physicochemical and biological gradients of soil and vegetative succession along the Franz Josef chronosequence in New Zealand were used to test whether bacterial communities show patterns of change associated with long-term ecosystem development. Pyrosequencing was conducted on soil-derived 16S rRNA genes at nine stages of ecosystem progression and retrogression, ranging in age from 60 to c. 120 000 years since glacial retreat. Bray–Curtis ordination indicated that the bacterial communities showed clear patterns of change that were closely aligned with ecosystem development, pedogenesis and vegetative succession (Mantel test; r = 0.58; P < 0.001). Eighty per cent (80%) of the explained variability in bacterial community structure was observed during the first c. 1000 years of development, when bacterial richness (Simpson's 1/D) declined from 130 to 30. The relatively high turnover of soil bacterial communities corresponded with an integrative 'plant–microbial successional feedback' model that predicts primarily negative feedbacks between plants and soil bacterial communities during progression and early pedogenesis. Positive feedbacks, similar to those of the plant community, could explain the long periods of community stability during later retrogressive stages of ecosystem development. This hypothesized model provides a consistent description linking belowground communities to ecosystem development and succession. The research, using deep sequencing technology, provides the first evidence for soil bacterial community change associated with the process of long-term ecosystem development. How these bacterial community changes are linked to the processes of primary ecosystem succession is not known and needs further investigation.

Philadelphia Contributionship Fire Mark

National Museum of American History
Beginning in the 1750s, some American insurance companies issued metal fire marks to policyholders to signify that their property was insured against fire damage. The fire marks bore the name and/or symbol of the insurer, and some included the customer’s policy number. The company or agent would then affix the mark to the policyholder’s home or business. For owners the mark served as proof of insurance and a deterrent against arson. For insurance companies the mark served as a form of advertising, and alerted volunteer firefighters that the property was insured.

The Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire issued this fire mark for policy number 413 to William Bromwich of 102 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1758. The fire mark consists of the company’s symbol cast in lead showing four hands clasped at the wrist, attached to a varnished shield-shaped wooden backing. The Philadelphia Contributionship was established in 1752, becoming the first successful fire insurance company in America. Benjamin Franklin was one of its founding members. The Contributionship began as a mutual insurance company and this concept is represented by its “Hand in Hand” fire mark. The Philadelphia Contributionship is still in operation.

Mainframe Computer Component, Williams Tube Electrostatic Memory from the Ferranti Mark I Computer

National Museum of American History
Not long after the end of World War II, developers in both the United States and Great Britain set out to build new forms of room-sized mainframe computers. One challenge was storing the information generated by with a computer program. Frederick C. Williams and Tom Kilburn headed a team at the University of Manchester in Manchester, England, that developed a computer memory in which bits of data were stored on the charged screen of a cathode ray tube. Information on the screen was refreshed every fifth of a second. Such an electrostatic memory came to be called a Williams tube. Williams tubes were first used on the Manchester Mark I, a computer built at the university there in 1948 and used until 1950. Impressed by the machine, the British government contracted with the Manchester firm of Ferranti, Ltd., to build nine commercial versions of it. These appeared between 1951 and 1957. This Williams tube comes from the Ferranti Mark I built for the AVROE Company in Manchester in 1954. That computer was used there for ten years to solve problems associated with aircraft design, management, and programmable machine tools. The contents of the memory of a Mark I was represented by a grid of dots on the screens of the Williams tubes. As early as 1951, British schoolmaster Christopher Strachey began work on a program that allowed him to play draughts (checkers) on the Ferranti Mark I at the University of Manchester. Using this program, it was possible to make the screen of one Williams tube appear like a checkerboard – though not to show moves of individual pieces. Other computer programmers – and later video game enthusiasts – would go further. References: Accession file. Martin Campbell-Kelly, “Christopher Strachey,” , 7, #1, January, 1985, pp. 19-42. J. W. Cortada, Historical Dictionary of Data Processing Technology, New York: Greenwood Press, 1987, pp. 256-258. Simon Lavington, Early British Computers, Bedford, Massachusetts: Digital Press, 1980.

Mark Hatfield

National Portrait Gallery

Penn Insurance Company Fire Mark

National Museum of American History
Beginning in the 1750s, some American insurance companies issued metal fire marks to policyholders to signify that their property was insured against fire damage. The fire marks bore the name and/or symbol of the insurer, and some included the customer’s policy number. The company or agent would then affix the mark to the policyholder’s home or business. For owners the mark served as proof of insurance and a deterrent against arson. For insurance companies the mark served as a form of advertising, and alerted volunteer firefighters that the property was insured.

The Penn Insurance Company of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania issued this fire mark in 1841. The mark consists of a two dimensional bust of William Penn cast in relief, who is depicted wearing a tricorne hat, cravat, and jacket. Underneath the bust is a crescent-shaped banner that reads “INSURED” in raised block text. The Penn Insurance Company operated from 1841 until 1845, closing after the great fire in Pittsburgh in April of 1845.

Penn Insurance Company Fire Mark

National Museum of American History
Beginning in the 1750s, some American insurance companies issued metal fire marks to policyholders to signify that their property was insured against fire damage. The fire marks bore the name and/or symbol of the insurer, and some included the customer’s policy number. The company or agent would then affix the mark to the policyholder’s home or business. For owners the mark served as proof of insurance and a deterrent against arson. For insurance companies the mark served as a form of advertising, and alerted volunteer firefighters that the property was insured.

The Penn Insurance Company of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania issued this fire mark in 1841. The mark consists of a two dimensional bust of William Penn cast in relief, who is depicted wearing a tricorne hat, cravat, and jacket. Underneath the bust is a crescent-shaped banner that reads “INSURED” in raised block text. The bust is painted gold, and the text is painted brown. The Penn Insurance Company operated from 1841 until 1845, closing after the great fire in Pittsburgh in April of 1845.

Mutual Assurance Company Fire Mark

National Museum of American History
Beginning in the 1750s, some American insurance companies issued metal fire marks to policyholders to signify that their property was insured against fire damage. The fire marks bore the name and/or symbol of the insurer, and some included the customer’s policy number. The company or agent would then affix the mark to the policyholder’s home or business. For owners the mark served as proof of insurance and a deterrent against arson. For insurance companies the mark served as a form of advertising, and alerted volunteer firefighters that the property was insured.

The Mutual Assurance Company for Insuring Houses from Loss by Fire this fire mark for policy number 861 to William Montgomery of 128 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1798. This Mutual fire mark consists of a leaden image of a tree painted green nailed to an oval-shaped wooden board. The policy “No. 861” can be faintly seen at the trunk of the tree. The Mutual was founded in 1784 by former policyholders of the Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire. The Philadelphia Contributionship decided that buildings with trees in front of them posed a fire hazard and would no longer be insured. Since trees were abundant in early Philadelphia, this decision created a rift in the Contributionship. The Mutual was founded to provide insurance to those members whose buildings had trees. The adoption of the “Green Tree” as the company’s fire mark was a nod to the dispute that led to the Mutual’s founding.

Ebenezer Williams

Smithsonian American Art Museum

Esther Williams

National Museum of American History
Nickolas Muray color carbro photograph of Esther Williams for Modern Screen Magazine ca. 1940s. Williams is wearing a green dress in front of a blue background. Editing marks in pencil are drawn directly onto the photograph. Recto: Signed by artist in lower right corner (pencil). Verso: "Esther Williams #15 Modern Screen Cover." (in pencil) The photograph is mounted on Savage Illustration Board. Photograph appeared on the cover of the March 1951 issue of Modern Screen magazine. Nickolas Muray was born in Szeged, Hungary on February 15, 1892. Twelve years after his birth, Muray left his native town and enrolled in a graphic arts school in Budapest. Enrolling in art school was the first step on a road that would eventually lead him to study a photographic printing process called three-color carbro. In the course of his accomplished career, Muray would become an expert in this process and play a key role in bringing color photography to America. While attending art school in Budapest, Muray studied lithography and photoengraving, earning an International Engraver's Certificate. Muray was also introduced to photography during this time period. His combined interest in photography and printmaking led him to Berlin, Germany to participate in a three-year color-photoengraving course. In Berlin, Muray learned how to make color filters, a first step in the craft that would one day become his trademark. Immediately after the completion of the course, Muray found a good job with a publishing company in Ullstein, Germany. However, the threat of war in Europe forced Muray to flee for America in 1913. Soon after his arrival in New York, Muray was working as a photoengraver for Condé Nast. His specialty was color separations and half-tone negatives. By 1920, Muray had established a home for himself in the up-and-coming artists' haven of Greenwich Village. He opened a portrait studio out of his apartment and continued to work part time at his engraving job. Harper's Bazaar magazine gave Muray his first big assignment in 1921. The project was to photograph Broadway star Florence Reed. The magazine was so impressed with his photographs that they began to publish his work monthly. This allowed him to give up his part time job and work solely as a photographer. It did not take long for Muray to become one of the most renowned portrait photographers in Manhattan. Muray spent much of the early 1920s photographing the most famous and important personalities in New York at the time. In his spare time Muray enjoyed fencing. In 1927, he won the National Sabre Championship and in 1928 and 1932, he was on the United States Olympic Team. During World War II, Muray was a flight lieutenant in the Civil Air Patrol.

Esther Williams

National Museum of American History
Nickolas Muray color carbro photograph of Esther Williams for Modern Screen Magazine ca. 1941. Two images of Williams, a close up on the right wearing a yellow hair piece and three cords of pearls. The other image is a full body view on the left holding a giant yellow daisy (stem is drawn in with green marker). Editing marks in pencil are drawn directly onto the photograph. Recto: Signed and dated by the artist in the lower right corner (pencil). "Modern Screen Cover"(pencil). Verso: "#14 Esther Williams" (in pencil) The photograph is mounted on Savage Illustration Board. Nickolas Muray was born in Szeged, Hungary on February 15, 1892. Twelve years after his birth, Muray left his native town and enrolled in a graphic arts school in Budapest. Enrolling in art school was the first step on a road that would eventually lead him to study a photographic printing process called three-color carbro. In the course of his accomplished career, Muray would become an expert in this process and play a key role in bringing color photography to America. While attending art school in Budapest, Muray studied lithography and photoengraving, earning an International Engraver's Certificate. Muray was also introduced to photography during this time period. His combined interest in photography and printmaking led him to Berlin, Germany to participate in a three-year color-photoengraving course. In Berlin, Muray learned how to make color filters, a first step in the craft that would one day become his trademark. Immediately after the completion of the course, Muray found a good job with a publishing company in Ullstein, Germany. However, the threat of war in Europe forced Muray to flee for America in 1913. Soon after his arrival in New York, Muray was working as a photoengraver for Condé Nast. His specialty was color separations and half-tone negatives. By 1920, Muray had established a home for himself in the up-and-coming artists' haven of Greenwich Village. He opened a portrait studio out of his apartment and continued to work part time at his engraving job. Harper's Bazaar magazine gave Muray his first big assignment in 1921. The project was to photograph Broadway star Florence Reed. The magazine was so impressed with his photographs that they began to publish his work monthly. This allowed him to give up his part time job and work solely as a photographer. It did not take long for Muray to become one of the most renowned portrait photographers in Manhattan. Muray spent much of the early 1920s photographing the most famous and important personalities in New York at the time. In his spare time Muray enjoyed fencing. In 1927, he won the National Sabre Championship and in 1928 and 1932, he was on the United States Olympic Team. During World War II, Muray was a flight lieutenant in the Civil Air Patrol.

Mark Hopkins Medal

Smithsonian American Art Museum

Williams-Farmer duplex telegraph patent model

National Museum of American History
Telegraph relays amplified electrical signals in a telegraph line. Telegraph messages traveled as a series of electrical pulses through a wire from a transmitter to a receiver. Short pulses made a dot, slightly longer pulses a dash. The pulses faded in strength as they traveled through the wire, to the point where the incoming signal was too weak to directly operate a receiving sounder or register. A relay detected a weak signal and used a battery to strengthen the signal so that the receiver would operate.

This is the model that inventor Moses Farmer of Salem submitted along with the application that resulted in US Patent #160,581. Issued in 1875 the patent for an "improvement in Duplex-Telegraph Apparatus." A duplex telegraph sends two messages simultaneously through a single wire. Farmer found that on long lines a static charge built up and interfered with the operation of the circuit. He designed this apparatus with a relay, a duplex transmitter, a rheostat and special induction coils to counter that static charge. It is unclear how much of this device Farmer himself actually constructed since the relay bears the marking of Charles Williams, Jr., a noted telegraph and telephone maker in Boston.

APF Mark V Handheld Electronic Calculator

National Museum of American History
This relatively early, relatively large, handheld electronic calculator has an array of nine digit keys with a zero bar and a decimal point key below. To the right are clear entry, clear, multiplication, division, addition, and subtraction keys, as well as an equals bar. Sliding the on/off switch to the on position opens a window to reveal the eight-digit fluoresent tube display. A mark at the top front reads: aPF Mark V. A metal plaque on the back has the title: OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS. It reads in the bottom right: JAPAN. A mark scratched below the plaque reads: M. R. (/) Williams. A sticker attached to the cover for the batteries reads: A.P.F. ELECTRONICS, INC. (/) MODEL NO. MARK-V (/) D.C. 6.0 VOLTS (4 TYPE C-CELLS) (/) CAUTION - USE ONLY MODEL (/) M5 AC ADAPTOR (/) SERIAL No. 27680 JAPAN. The microprocessor inside the calculator is marked: TMS0101ANC[delta] (/) 7305. this indicates that the chip was made in the fifth week of 1973. It also has the logo of Texas Instruments. A mark on the back of the circuit board reads: MODEL PB-5001 E46473. A mark on the fluorescent tube reads: Toshiba (/) 6520 (/) . . . A 1973 advertisement in the New York Times lists the calculator as selling, with power adapter, for $79.95. This example has no power adapter. Reference: New York Times, May 6, 1973, p. 46.

Aviation rag : march & two-step / by Mark Janza

Smithsonian Libraries
For piano.

Publisher's advertisement on verso of p. 5 has first page of music and the illustrated title pages of two pieces: Someday you'll love me / words by William R. Clay ; music by Chas. L. Johnson. Dream of the fairies : waltzes / Chas. L. Johnson. Also lists 10 other vocals and instrumentals.

"Mr. Easy Mark" Mutoscope Movie Poster

National Museum of American History
Green posterboard with painted advertisement for the mutoscope motion picture "Mr. Easy Mark." The two attached photographs are stills from the film showing two men walking in a park.

The Mutoscope Collection in the National Museum of American History’s Photographic History Collection is among the most significant of its kind in any museum. Composed of 3 cameras, 13 viewers, 59 movie reels and 53 movie posters, the collection documents the early years of the most successful and influential motion picture company of the industry’s formative period. It also showcases a unique style of movie exhibition that outlasted its early competitors, existing well into the 20th century.

The American Mutoscope Company was founded in 1895 by a group of four men, Elias Koopman, Herman Casler, Henry Marvin and William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, to manufacture a motion picture viewer called the mutoscope and to produce films for exhibition. Dickson had recently left the employ of Thomas Edison, for whom he had solved the problem of “doing for the eye what the phonograph does for the ear” by inventing the modern motion picture. Casler and Dickson worked together to perfect the mutoscope, which exhibited films transferred to a series of cards mounted in the style of a flip book on a metal core, and avoided Edison’s patents with this slightly different style of exhibition. The company’s headquarters in New York City featured a rooftop studio on a turntable to ensure favorable illumination, and the short subjects made here found such success that by 1897, the Edison company’s dominance of the industry was in danger. American Mutoscope became American Mutoscope & Biograph in 1899, when the namesake projector, invented by Casler, became the most used in the industry.

Mutoscope viewers were found in many amusement areas and arcades until at least the 1960s. Their inexpensiveness and short, often comical or sensational subjects allowed the machines a far longer life than the competing Edison Kinetoscope. The company also found success in its production and projection of motion pictures, though its activity was mired by patent litigation involving Thomas Edison through the 1910s. The notable director D. W. Griffith was first hired as an actor, working with pioneering cinematographer G. W. “Billy” Bitzer, before moving behind the camera at Biograph and making 450 films for the company.

Griffith and Bitzer invented cinematographic techniques like the fade-out and iris shot, made the first film in Hollywood and launched the careers of early stars Mary Pickford and Lillian Gish. The company, simply renamed the Biograph Company in 1909, went out of business in 1928 after losing Griffith and facing a changing movie industry.

The Museum’s collection was acquired in the years between 1926 and the mid-1970s. The original mutograph camera and two later models of the camera were given to the Smithsonian in 1926 by the International Mutoscope Reel Company, which inherited Biograph’s mutoscope works and continued making the viewers and reels through the 1940s. The viewers, reels and posters in the collection were acquired for exhibition in the National Museum of American History, and were later accessioned as objects in the Photographic History Collection. Many of the mutoscope reels in the collection date to the period from 1896-1905, and show early motion picture subjects, some of which were thought to be lost films before their examination in 2008.

Necklace

National Museum of the American Indian
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