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three-dimensional picture

National Museum of American History

Conserving Three-Dimensional Objects

Smithsonian American Art Museum
The three-dimensional objects treated in this lab are made of a variety of materials and often times a combination of materials. Conservators working here are trained and equipped to handle different types of stone, wood, metal, bone, shell, ceramic, leather, rubber, and synthetic materials. Treatments vary depending on the size, shape, and composition of the object, from the tiniest miniature locket to multi-ton sculptures. Like all conservators, an objects conservator's responsibilities include research, monitoring environmental conditions, and evaluating preservation concerns for objects on loan, on exhibition, and in storage.

Are Three-Dimensional Spider Webs Defensive Adaptations?

Smithsonian Libraries
Abstract Spider webs result from complex behaviours that have evolved under many selective pressures. Webs have been primarily considered to be foraging adaptations, neglecting the potential role of predation risk in the evolution of web architecture. The ecological success of spiders has been attributed to key innovations in how spiders use silk to capture prey, especially the invention of chemically adhesive aerial two-dimensional orb webs. However, araneoid sheet web weavers transformed the orb architecture into three-dimensional webs and are the dominant group of aerial web-building spiders world-wide, both in numbers and described species diversity. We argue that mud-dauber wasps are major predators of orbicularian spiders, and exert a directional selective pressure to construct three-dimensional webs such that three-dimensional webs are partly defensive innovations. Furthermore, patterns of diversification suggest that escape from wasp predators may have facilitated diversification of three-dimensional web-building spiders.

Three dimensional cubes and woven pattern

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
The use of the pull-carving technique forms the illusion of three-dimensional cubes. A smooth weave goes in and out of the cube pattern and gives a stark contrast.

model of three-dimensional optical processor

National Museum of American History

Multi-Colored Knotted Needle Lace Band With Three-Dimensional Flowers

National Museum of American History
Knotted needle lace flowers. String of multicolored curved band with three three-dimensional flowers in purple, maroon and ecru attached. The same knotted needle lace technique is used in different countries around the Mediterranean under the different names: Oya, Bebilla, Igne Oyalari, Turkish, Armenian Janyak, Mediterranean, and Kene knotted lace. The styles and designs vary among the regions.

Seed Wreath

National Museum of American History

landscape

National Museum of American History

Geometric Model, L. Brill Ser. 19, Model Relating to the Regular Partition of Three-Dimensional Space

National Museum of American History
This white plaster model has numerous flat faces which include triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, a hexagon and an octagon. It is one of a series of models designed by A. Schoenflies in Göttingen to illustrate the regular partition of space. Schoenflies designed “stones" which could be arranged into larger blocks like this one (sometimes with congruent stones and sometimes, as in this case, using stones that were mirror images of one another). The series was first published by Brill in 1891. The plaster stones that comprise the object with museum number 1985.0112.168 could be arranged to form this block with museum number 1985.0112.165. The stones are marked with the letters S and C, indicating whether they adjoin congruent or mirror image stones. Three stones are mirror images of the three others. A model of this block and stones at the University of Göttingen (#327 in their collection) has six stones and a block. The Smithsonian collections also include six stones and a block. This example of the model was exhibited at the Columbian Exposition, a World’s Fair held in Chicago in 1893. References: L. Brill, Catalog mathematischer Modelle. . ., Darmstadt: L. Brill, 1892, pp. 46-47, 90-91. A Schoenflies, “Uber Reguläre Gebietstheilungen des Raumes,” Nachrichten von der Königl. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, #9, June 27, 1888, pp. 223-237. Göttingen Collection of Mathematical Models, presently online at http://modellsammlung.uni-goettingen.de/, accessed September 6, 2019.

Geometric Model, L. Brill Ser. 19, Model Relating to the Regular Partition of Three-Dimensional Space

National Museum of American History
This is one of a series of models designed by A. Schoenflies in Göttingen to illustrate the regular partition of space. Schoenflies designed “stones" that could be arranged into larger blocks (sometimes with congruent stones and sometimes using stones that were mirror images of one another). The series was first published by Brill in 1891. The plaster stones that comprise the object with museum number 1985.0112.177 could be arranged to form a block with museum number 1985.0112.166. These objects have no maker’s marks. A model of this block and stones at the University of Göttingen (#329 in their collection) has two stones and a block. The Smithsonian collections include three such stones as well as a block. This example of the model was exhibited at the Columbian Exposition, a World’s Fair held in Chicago in 1893. References: L. Brill, Catalog mathematischer Modelle. . ., Darmstadt: L. Brill, 1892, pp. 46-47, 90-91. A Schoenflies, “Uber Reguläre Gebietstheilungen des Raumes,” Nachrichten von der Königl. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, #9, June 27, 1888, pp. 223-237. Göttingen Collection of Mathematical Models, presently online at http://modellsammlung.uni-goettingen.de/, accessed September 6, 2019.

Geometric Models, L. Brill Ser. 19, Models Relating to the Regular Partition of Three-Dimensional Space

National Museum of American History
Each of these four identical white plaster models has the dimensions given. Each has six triangles and two parallelograms for faces. One triangular face of each model has a mark in red: +. The four models can be arranged into a hexahedron which has two parallelograms and six isosceles triangles for faces (When the models are assembled pairs of triangular faces with “+” signs on them touch one another), The resulting figure is not similar to one of the components. This is part of a series of models designed by A. Schoenflies in Göttingen to illustrate the regular partition of space. The series was first published by Brill in 1891. This model has #326 in the Göttingen collection of mathematical models. This example of the model was exhibited at the Columbian Exposition, a World’s Fair held in Chicago in 1893. References: L. Brill, Catalog mathematischer Modelle. . ., Darmstadt: L. Brill, 1892, pp. 46-47, 90-91. A Schoenflies, “Uber Reguläre Gebietstheilungen des Raumes,” Nachrichten von der Königl. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, #9, June 27, 1888, pp. 223-237. Göttingen Collection of Mathematical Models, presently online at http://modellsammlung.uni-goettingen.de/, accessed September 6, 2019.

Geometric Model, L. Brill Ser. 19, Model Relating to the Regular Partition of Three-Dimensional Space

National Museum of American History
This white plaster model has numerous flat faces. It is one of a series of models designed by A. Schoenflies in Göttingen to illustrate the regular partition of space. Schoenflies designed “stones" which could be arranged into larger blocks (sometimes with congruent stones and sometimes using stones that were mirror images of one another). The series was first published by Brill in 1891. The plaster stones that comprise the object with museum number 1985.0112.169 could be arranged to form a block with museum number 1985.0112.164. . A model of this block and stones at the University of Göttingen (#324 in their collection) has six stones and a block. The Smithsonian collections also include six stones and a block. This example of the model was exhibited at the Columbian Exposition, a World’s Fair held in Chicago in 1893. References: L. Brill, Catalog mathematischer Modelle. . ., Darmstadt: L. Brill, 1892, pp. 46-47, 90-91. A Schoenflies, “Uber Reguläre Gebietstheilungen des Raumes,” Nachrichten von der Königl. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, #9, June 27, 1888, pp. 223-237. Göttingen Collection of Mathematical Models, presently online at http://modellsammlung.uni-goettingen.de/, accessed September 6, 2019.

Trojan Doghouse

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Maxim Olshanii: Integrable One-Dimensional Three-Body Problems ...

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
Maxim Olshanii, UMass Boston Physics, during the workshop of "Finite temperature and low energy effects in cold atomic and molecular few-and many-body systems", lecture titled " Integrable One-Dimensional Three-Body Problems Based on Exotic and Non-Crystallographic Root Systems" at the Institute for Theoretical, Atomic and Molecular and Optical Physics, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts on March 25-27. 2013 © Harvard University and Maxim Olshanii The text and images on ITAMP's YouTube channel are intended for public access and educational use. This material is owned or held by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. It is being provided solely for the purpose of teaching or individual research or enrichment. Any other use, including commercial reuse, mounting on other systems, or other forms of redistribution requires permission. ITAMP is supported through grants by the National Science Foundation Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s).

Geometric Models, L. Brill Ser. 19, Models Relating to the Regular Partition of Three-Dimensional Space

National Museum of American History
Each of these three white plaster models has eight triangles and four parallelograms as top faces and an irregular octahedron for the bottom face. Various line segments are indicated. This is one of a series of models designed by A. Schoenflies in Göttingen to illustrate the regular partition of space. Schoenflies designed “stones" which could be arranged into larger blocks (sometimes with congruent stones and sometimes using stones that were mirror images of one another). The series was first published by Brill in 1891. The block of model 1985.0112.160 appears to be made up of stones of the shape 1985.0112.175. This example of the model was exhibited at the Columbian Exposition, a World’s Fair held in Chicago in 1893. References: L. Brill, Catalog mathematischer Modelle. . ., Darmstadt: L. Brill, 1892, pp. 46-47, 90-91. A Schoenflies, “Uber Reguläre Gebietstheilungen des Raumes,” Nachrichten von der Königl. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, #9, June 27, 1888, pp. 223-237. Göttingen Collection of Mathematical Models, presently online at http://modellsammlung.uni-goettingen.de/, accessed September 10, 2019.

Geometric Model, L. Brill Ser. 19, Model Relating to the Regular Partition of Three-Dimensional Space

National Museum of American History
This white plaster model has three pentagons on top, three pentagons and three rectangles on the sides, and a regular hexagon on the bottom. Numerous line segments are indicated. It has no maker’s marks. It is one of a series of models designed by A. Schoenflies in Göttingen to illustrate the regular partition of space. Schoenflies designed “stones” which could be arranged into larger blocks (sometimes with congruent stones, sometimes using stones that were mirror images of one another and sometimes, as in this case, apparently being quite distinct). The series was first published by Brill in 1891. The plaster stone that comprises the object with museum number 1985.0112.178 could be arranged to be part of the block with museum number 1985.0112.163. A model of this block and stones at the University of Göttingen (#328 in their collection) appears to have three differently shaped blocks made from this kind of stone. Only one of these blocks is in the Smithsonian collections. This example of the model was exhibited at the Columbian Exposition, a World’s Fair held in Chicago in 1893. References: L. Brill, Catalog mathematischer Modelle. . ., Darmstadt: L. Brill, 1892, pp. 46-47, 90-91. A Schoenflies, “Uber Reguläre Gebietstheilungen des Raumes,” Nachrichten von der Königl. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, #9, June 27, 1888, pp. 223-237. Göttingen Collection of Mathematical Models, presently online at http://modellsammlung.uni-goettingen.de/, accessed September 6, 2019.

Geometric Models, L. Brill Ser. 19, Models Relating to the Regular Partition of Three-Dimensional Space

National Museum of American History
The dimensions given those of each of the six white plaster models. All of them are eleven-sided polyhedra. Three models are identical; three others are identical and mirror images of the first. Each model has five triangular, two pentagonal and four quadrilateral faces. This is part of a series of models designed by A. Schoenflies in Göttingen to illustrate the regular partition of space. Schoenflies designed “stones" like these which could be arranged into larger blocks (sometimes with congruent stones and sometimes using stones that were mirror images of one another). The series was first published by Brill in 1891. The plaster stones that comprise the object with museum number 1985.0112.168 could be arranged to form a block with museum number 1985.0112.165. The stones are marked with the letters S and C, indicating whether they adjoin congruent or mirror image stones. A model of this block and stones at the University of Göttingen (#327 in their collection) has six stones and a block. The Smithsonian collections also include six stones and a block. This example of the model was exhibited at the Columbian Exposition, a World’s Fair held in Chicago in 1893. References: L. Brill, Catalog mathematischer Modelle. . ., Darmstadt: L. Brill, 1892, pp. 46-47, 90-91. A Schoenflies, “Uber Reguläre Gebietstheilungen des Raumes,” Nachrichten von der Königl. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, #9, June 27, 1888, pp. 223-237. Göttingen Collection of Mathematical Models, presently online at http://modellsammlung.uni-goettingen.de/, accessed September 6, 2019.

Geometric Models, L. Brill Ser. 19, Models Relating to the Regular Partition of Three-Dimensional Space

National Museum of American History
Each of these three identical white plaster models has the dimensions given. These U-shaped solids have six quadrilaterals, two triangles and an octagon for faces. They are part of a series of models designed by A. Schoenflies in Göttingen to illustrate the regular partition of space. Schoenflies designed “stones” which could be arranged into larger blocks (sometimes with congruent stones and sometimes using stones that were mirror images of one another). The series was first published by Brill in 1891. The congruent plaster stones that comprise the object with museum number 1985.0112.177 could be arranged to form a block with museum number 1985.0112.166. These objects have no maker’s marks. A model of this block and stones at the University of Göttingen (#329 in their collection) has two stones and a block. The Smithsonian collections include these three such stones and a block. This example of the model was exhibited at the Columbian Exposition, a World’s Fair held in Chicago in 1893. References: L. Brill, Catalog mathematischer Modelle. . ., Darmstadt: L. Brill, 1892, pp. 46-47, 90-91. A Schoenflies, “Uber Reguläre Gebietstheilungen des Raumes,” Nachrichten von der Königl. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, #9, June 27, 1888, pp. 223-237. Göttingen Collection of Mathematical Models, presently online at http://modellsammlung.uni-goettingen.de/, accessed September 6, 2019.
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