Skip to Content

Found 5,618 Resources

Teaching ELL Students– Small Group Work

Smithsonian Science Education Center
"Quick Tips: Resources for Teachers” is a series of short videos providing down-to-earth advice and instructional tips to teachers of STC™, our signature science curriculum. Each “Quick Tip” offers practical suggestions by experienced teachers for handling materials or managing classrooms in science investigations.

Small group standing along edge of street

National Museum of American History

Small Group of Houses Near Juncture of Two Rivers 1900

National Anthropological Archives
Black and white gelatin glass negative

Front View of Small Group of Wood Frame Houses On Edge of Body of Water 1882

National Anthropological Archives
Cracked and Chipped Corner

Black and white gelatin glass negative

Members of small monkey groups more likely to fight, researchers find

Smithsonian Insider

Small monkey groups may win territorial disputes against larger groups because some members of the larger, invading groups avoid aggressive encounters.

The post Members of small monkey groups more likely to fight, researchers find appeared first on Smithsonian Insider.

View of Small Grouping of Wood Frame Houses On Shore As Seen From Water 1882

National Anthropological Archives
Black and white gelatin glass negative Stereograph

Small group of Igbo wood-masked dancers in various raffia and leaf costumes, Ugwuoba village, Nigeria. [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

Original caption reads, "Masquerade dancers in Ibo village of Ugwuoba, between Awka and Enugu. Masked and costumed men are chosen by their villages to wear costumes and to masquerade during the annual yam festival, called 'Onwasato' in Ibo. The very colorful costumes of reds, whites and greens in stripes are called Iyolo, which means 'fine thing.' The raffia costumes are called Udo, which means 'rope.' The masked men represent various ju-jus, some good, some bad. The dancers are milling up and down the main road through the village, charging back and forth senselessly, dashing through the market area, shouting and jumping, some blowing horns hidden inside their masks. This was the first day of a four-day celebration, and was the first 'showing' of the masquerade costumes." [Master Catalogue: Literary Africa. Eliot Elisofon. 1959. K97, 1-36; K98, 1-20].

"The appearance of the moon governs the communal activities such as the commencement of farm work, festivities and ritual offerings. For example, the seventh moon (Onwa asaa) appears in August and marks the month of the thanksgiving service to the ancestors. The community in turn obtains permission to eat new yams without fear of reprisals from their ancestors. The eighth month is Onwa asato, which appears during the month of September or October. Onwa asaa refers to the month when the ritual feast of new yam is celebrated. The seventh month thus becomes the official title by which the activity is known. During this festival, the appearance of masks and the masquerading features merely mark the celebration of the feast." [Anigbo O., 1987: Commensality and Human Relationship Among the Igbo. University of Nigeria Press]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for Life magazine and traveled to Africa from August 18, 1959 to December 20, 1959.

Small group of Igbo wood-masked dancers in various raffia and leaf costumes, Ugwuoba village, Nigeria. [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

Original caption reads, "Masquerade dancers in Ibo village of Ugwuoba, between Awka and Enugu. Masked and costumed men are chosen by their villages to wear costumes and to masquerade during the annual yam festival, called 'Onwasato' in Ibo. The very colorful costumes of reds, whites and greens in stripes are called Iyolo, which means 'fine thing.' The raffia costumes are called Udo, which means 'rope.' The masked men represent various ju-jus, some good, some bad. The dancers are milling up and down the main road through the village, charging back and forth senselessly, dashing through the market area, shouting and jumping, some blowing horns hidden inside their masks. This was the first day of a four-day celebration, and was the first 'showing' of the masquerade costumes." [Master Catalogue: Literary Africa. Eliot Elisofon. 1959. K97, 1-36; K98, 1-20].

"The appearance of the moon governs the communal activities such as the commencement of farm work, festivities and ritual offerings. For example, the seventh moon (Onwa asaa) appears in August and marks the month of the thanksgiving service to the ancestors. The community in turn obtains permission to eat new yams without fear of reprisals from their ancestors. The eighth month is Onwa asato, which appears during the month of September or October. Onwa asaa refers to the month when the ritual feast of new yam is celebrated. The seventh month thus becomes the official title by which the activity is known. During this festival, the appearance of masks and the masquerading features merely mark the celebration of the feast." [Anigbo O., 1987: Commensality and Human Relationship Among the Igbo. University of Nigeria Press]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for Life magazine and traveled to Africa from August 18, 1959 to December 20, 1959.

Small group of Igbo wood-masked dancers in various raffia and leaf costumes, Ugwuoba village, Nigeria. [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

Original caption reads, "Masquerade dancers in Ibo village of Ugwuoba, between Awka and Enugu. Masked and costumed men are chosen by their villages to wear costumes and to masquerade during the annual yam festival, called 'Onwasato' in Ibo. The very colorful costumes of reds, whites and greens in stripes are called Iyolo, which means 'fine thing.' The raffia costumes are called Udo, which means 'rope.' The masked men represent various ju-jus, some good, some bad. The dancers are milling up and down the main road through the village, charging back and forth senselessly, dashing through the market area, shouting and jumping, some blowing horns hidden inside their masks. This was the first day of a four-day celebration, and was the first 'showing' of the masquerade costumes." [Master Catalogue: Literary Africa. Eliot Elisofon. 1959. K97, 1-36; K98, 1-20].

"The appearance of the moon governs the communal activities such as the commencement of farm work, festivities and ritual offerings. For example, the seventh moon (Onwa asaa) appears in August and marks the month of the thanksgiving service to the ancestors. The community in turn obtains permission to eat new yams without fear of reprisals from their ancestors. The eighth month is Onwa asato, which appears during the month of September or October. Onwa asaa refers to the month when the ritual feast of new yam is celebrated. The seventh month thus becomes the official title by which the activity is known. During this festival, the appearance of masks and the masquerading features merely mark the celebration of the feast." [Anigbo O., 1987: Commensality and Human Relationship Among the Igbo. University of Nigeria Press]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for Life magazine and traveled to Africa from August 18, 1959 to December 20, 1959.

Small group of Igbo wood-masked dancers in various raffia and leaf costumes, Ugwuoba village, Nigeria. [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

Original caption reads, "Masquerade dancers in Ibo village of Ugwuoba, between Awka and Enugu. Masked and costumed men are chosen by their villages to wear costumes and to masquerade during the annual yam festival, called 'Onwasato' in Ibo. The very colorful costumes of reds, whites and greens in stripes are called Iyolo, which means 'fine thing.' The raffia costumes are called Udo, which means 'rope.' The masked men represent various ju-jus, some good, some bad. The dancers are milling up and down the main road through the village, charging back and forth senselessly, dashing through the market area, shouting and jumping, some blowing horns hidden inside their masks. This was the first day of a four-day celebration, and was the first 'showing' of the masquerade costumes." [Master Catalogue: Literary Africa. Eliot Elisofon. 1959. K97, 1-36; K98, 1-20].

"The appearance of the moon governs the communal activities such as the commencement of farm work, festivities and ritual offerings. For example, the seventh moon (Onwa asaa) appears in August and marks the month of the thanksgiving service to the ancestors. The community in turn obtains permission to eat new yams without fear of reprisals from their ancestors. The eighth month is Onwa asato, which appears during the month of September or October. Onwa asaa refers to the month when the ritual feast of new yam is celebrated. The seventh month thus becomes the official title by which the activity is known. During this festival, the appearance of masks and the masquerading features merely mark the celebration of the feast." [Anigbo O., 1987: Commensality and Human Relationship Among the Igbo. University of Nigeria Press]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for Life magazine and traveled to Africa from August 18, 1959 to December 20, 1959.

Small group of Igbo wood-masked dancers in various raffia and leaf costumes, Ugwuoba village, Nigeria. [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

Original caption reads, "Masquerade dancers in Ibo village of Ugwuoba, between Awka and Enugu. Masked and costumed men are chosen by their villages to wear costumes and to masquerade during the annual yam festival, called 'Onwasato' in Ibo. The very colorful costumes of reds, whites and greens in stripes are called Iyolo, which means 'fine thing.' The raffia costumes are called Udo, which means 'rope.' The masked men represent various ju-jus, some good, some bad. The dancers are milling up and down the main road through the village, charging back and forth senselessly, dashing through the market area, shouting and jumping, some blowing horns hidden inside their masks. This was the first day of a four-day celebration, and was the first 'showing' of the masquerade costumes." [Master Catalogue: Literary Africa. Eliot Elisofon. 1959. K97, 1-36; K98, 1-20].

"The appearance of the moon governs the communal activities such as the commencement of farm work, festivities and ritual offerings. For example, the seventh moon (Onwa asaa) appears in August and marks the month of the thanksgiving service to the ancestors. The community in turn obtains permission to eat new yams without fear of reprisals from their ancestors. The eighth month is Onwa asato, which appears during the month of September or October. Onwa asaa refers to the month when the ritual feast of new yam is celebrated. The seventh month thus becomes the official title by which the activity is known. During this festival, the appearance of masks and the masquerading features merely mark the celebration of the feast." [Anigbo O., 1987: Commensality and Human Relationship Among the Igbo. University of Nigeria Press]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for Life magazine and traveled to Africa from August 18, 1959 to December 20, 1959.

Small group of Igbo wood-masked dancers in various raffia and leaf costumes, Ugwuoba village, Nigeria. [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

Original caption reads, "Masquerade dancers in Ibo village of Ugwuoba, between Awka and Enugu. Masked and costumed men are chosen by their villages to wear costumes and to masquerade during the annual yam festival, called 'Onwasato' in Ibo. The very colorful costumes of reds, whites and greens in stripes are called Iyolo, which means 'fine thing.' The raffia costumes are called Udo, which means 'rope.' The masked men represent various ju-jus, some good, some bad. The dancers are milling up and down the main road through the village, charging back and forth senselessly, dashing through the market area, shouting and jumping, some blowing horns hidden inside their masks. This was the first day of a four-day celebration, and was the first 'showing' of the masquerade costumes." [Master Catalogue: Literary Africa. Eliot Elisofon. 1959. K97, 1-36; K98, 1-20].

"The appearance of the moon governs the communal activities such as the commencement of farm work, festivities and ritual offerings. For example, the seventh moon (Onwa asaa) appears in August and marks the month of the thanksgiving service to the ancestors. The community in turn obtains permission to eat new yams without fear of reprisals from their ancestors. The eighth month is Onwa asato, which appears during the month of September or October. Onwa asaa refers to the month when the ritual feast of new yam is celebrated. The seventh month thus becomes the official title by which the activity is known. During this festival, the appearance of masks and the masquerading features merely mark the celebration of the feast." [Anigbo O., 1987: Commensality and Human Relationship Among the Igbo. University of Nigeria Press]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for Life magazine and traveled to Africa from August 18, 1959 to December 20, 1959.

Small group of Igbo wood-masked dancers in various raffia and leaf costumes, Ugwuoba village, Nigeria. [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

Original caption reads, "Masquerade dancers in Ibo village of Ugwuoba, between Awka and Enugu. Masked and costumed men are chosen by their villages to wear costumes and to masquerade during the annual yam festival, called 'Onwasato' in Ibo. The very colorful costumes of reds, whites and greens in stripes are called Iyolo, which means 'fine thing.' The raffia costumes are called Udo, which means 'rope.' The masked men represent various ju-jus, some good, some bad. The dancers are milling up and down the main road through the village, charging back and forth senselessly, dashing through the market area, shouting and jumping, some blowing horns hidden inside their masks. This was the first day of a four-day celebration, and was the first 'showing' of the masquerade costumes." [Master Catalogue: Literary Africa. Eliot Elisofon. 1959. K97, 1-36; K98, 1-20].

"The appearance of the moon governs the communal activities such as the commencement of farm work, festivities and ritual offerings. For example, the seventh moon (Onwa asaa) appears in August and marks the month of the thanksgiving service to the ancestors. The community in turn obtains permission to eat new yams without fear of reprisals from their ancestors. The eighth month is Onwa asato, which appears during the month of September or October. Onwa asaa refers to the month when the ritual feast of new yam is celebrated. The seventh month thus becomes the official title by which the activity is known. During this festival, the appearance of masks and the masquerading features merely mark the celebration of the feast." [Anigbo O., 1987: Commensality and Human Relationship Among the Igbo. University of Nigeria Press]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for Life magazine and traveled to Africa from August 18, 1959 to December 20, 1959.

Small group of Igbo wood-masked dancers in various raffia and leaf costumes, Ugwuoba village, Nigeria. [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

Original caption reads, "Masquerade dancers in Ibo village of Ugwuoba, between Awka and Enugu. Masked and costumed men are chosen by their villages to wear costumes and to masquerade during the annual yam festival, called 'Onwasato' in Ibo. The very colorful costumes of reds, whites and greens in stripes are called Iyolo, which means 'fine thing.' The raffia costumes are called Udo, which means 'rope.' The masked men represent various ju-jus, some good, some bad. The dancers are milling up and down the main road through the village, charging back and forth senselessly, dashing through the market area, shouting and jumping, some blowing horns hidden inside their masks. This was the first day of a four-day celebration, and was the first 'showing' of the masquerade costumes." [Master Catalogue: Literary Africa. Eliot Elisofon. 1959. K97, 1-36; K98, 1-20].

"The appearance of the moon governs the communal activities such as the commencement of farm work, festivities and ritual offerings. For example, the seventh moon (Onwa asaa) appears in August and marks the month of the thanksgiving service to the ancestors. The community in turn obtains permission to eat new yams without fear of reprisals from their ancestors. The eighth month is Onwa asato, which appears during the month of September or October. Onwa asaa refers to the month when the ritual feast of new yam is celebrated. The seventh month thus becomes the official title by which the activity is known. During this festival, the appearance of masks and the masquerading features merely mark the celebration of the feast." [Anigbo O., 1987: Commensality and Human Relationship Among the Igbo. University of Nigeria Press]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for Life magazine and traveled to Africa from August 18, 1959 to December 20, 1959.

Small group of Igbo wood-masked dancers in various raffia and leaf costumes, Ugwuoba village, Nigeria. [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

Original caption reads, "Masquerade dancers in Ibo village of Ugwuoba, between Awka and Enugu. Masked and costumed men are chosen by their villages to wear costumes and to masquerade during the annual yam festival, called 'Onwasato' in Ibo. The very colorful costumes of reds, whites and greens in stripes are called Iyolo, which means 'fine thing.' The raffia costumes are called Udo, which means 'rope.' The masked men represent various ju-jus, some good, some bad. The dancers are milling up and down the main road through the village, charging back and forth senselessly, dashing through the market area, shouting and jumping, some blowing horns hidden inside their masks. This was the first day of a four-day celebration, and was the first 'showing' of the masquerade costumes." [Master Catalogue: Literary Africa. Eliot Elisofon. 1959. K97, 1-36; K98, 1-20].

"The appearance of the moon governs the communal activities such as the commencement of farm work, festivities and ritual offerings. For example, the seventh moon (Onwa asaa) appears in August and marks the month of the thanksgiving service to the ancestors. The community in turn obtains permission to eat new yams without fear of reprisals from their ancestors. The eighth month is Onwa asato, which appears during the month of September or October. Onwa asaa refers to the month when the ritual feast of new yam is celebrated. The seventh month thus becomes the official title by which the activity is known. During this festival, the appearance of masks and the masquerading features merely mark the celebration of the feast." [Anigbo O., 1987: Commensality and Human Relationship Among the Igbo. University of Nigeria Press]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for Life magazine and traveled to Africa from August 18, 1959 to December 20, 1959.

Small folivorous primate groups exhibit behavioral and physiological effects of food scarcity

Smithsonian Libraries
The influence of diet and food distribution on the socioecology of group-living species has long been debated, particularly for primates. It has typically been assumed that folivorous primates experience relatively little feeding competition due to the abundant, widespread nature of their food, freeing them to form large groups in response to predation, to disperse with relative ease, and to have egalitarian female social relationships. Recent studies, however, have come to different conclusions about the extent to which folivorous primates are limited by food and experience food competition and how these factors affect folivore socioecology. To better understand the selective pressures that diet places on folivores, we investigated how 2 small highly folivorous groups of colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza) in Kibale National Park, Uganda, responded behaviorally and physiologically to a steep reduction in availability of their most important foods. The monkeys decreased their reliance on their 2 most frequently eaten food species and increased their daily path length, number of feeding patches visited/day, size of individual feeding areas, percentage of time spent feeding, and dietary diversity. They also showed evidence of physiological costs, in that lactating females' urinary C-peptide levels (i.e., insulin production) declined as top foods became scarce, and parasite loads slightly, but significantly, increased in 2 of 3 adult females examined. These results suggest that highly folivorous primates, even in very small groups, may experience behavioral and physiological effects of food limitation, within-group scramble competition for food, and possibly substantial selective pressures during periods of food scarcity.

Non-Native Group Around Small Geyser or Hot Spring Called "Indian Sweat Bath" n.d

National Anthropological Archives
Black and white Photoprint on Paper Mount in Album

Small market, Ozizza subgroup, Afikpo Village-Group, Nigeria. [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title source: Dr. Simon Ottenberg, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Simon Ottenberg Papers are located at the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.

Donated by Simon Ottenberg, 2000.

This photograph was taken by Dr. Simon Ottenberg while conducting field research at Afikpo village-group, southeastern Nigeria, from September 1959 to December 1960.

Original title reads, "Small market of Ozizza sub-group of villages of Afikpo. In the north of Afikpo." [Ottenberg field research notes, September 1959-December 1960, Part I].

"The major Afikpo trading center is eke market, named for the day on which it meets. It is one of a connected series of markets found in adjoining village-groups to the west and north, which generally meet on different days of the four-day Igbo week. Men and women from Afikpo trade regularly in almost all of these markets. While they contain similar goods, they differ in price and the available quantities of certain products. The Ozizza subgroup contains Ametta, Amikpo, Amorie, Amozera, Imama, and Orra Village." [Ottenberg S., 1968: Double Descent in an African Society; the Afikpo Village-Group. University of Washington Press].

Small Shabtis

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
Group of 11 small blue shabtis.

dish, group

National Museum of American History

Cheating monkeys undermine group strength in enemy territory

Smithsonian Libraries
In many social animals, group-mates cooperate to defend their range against intrusion by neighboring groups. Because group size tends to be highly variable, such conflicts are often asymmetric. Although numerical superiority is assumed to provide a competitive advantage, small groups can generally defend their ranges, even when greatly outnumbered. The prevailing explanation for this puzzling phenomenon is that individuals in relatively large groups experience a greater temptation to flee from conflicts, in effect leveling the balance of power. Using playback experiments simulating territorial intrusions by wild capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) groups, we show that such a collective action problem does indeed undermine the competitive ability of large groups. Focal capuchins were more likely to run away from territorial intrusions when their group had a numeric advantage; each one-individual increase in relative group size raised the odds of flight by 25%. However, interaction location had a more important impact on individuals' reactions, creating a strong home-field advantage. After controlling for relative group size, the odds that a focal animal fled were 91% lower in experiments that occurred in the center compared with on the edge of its group's range, whereas the odds that it rushed toward the speaker were more than sixfold higher. These location-dependent patterns of defection and cooperation create a competitive advantage for residents over intruders across a wide range of relative group sizes, which may stabilize range boundaries and provide a general explanation for how groups of widely divergent sizes can coexist, even in the face of intense intergroup competition.

7th Special Forces Group Airborne Green Beret

National Museum of American History
Physical Description

Green beret of rifle-green wool, with a black leather sweat band. Lined with yellow cloth and marked: "Bancroft/Military Caps/Framingham Mass." The crown bears the insignia of the 7th Special Forces Group—a red felt shield and a pin of black and silver and black crossed arrows over a sword with the motto "De Oppresso Liber" or "to free the oppressed".

Specific History

United States 7th Special Forces Group Green Beret, worn by SP/5C R. J. Schmidt in Vietnam in 1964.

General History

The U.S. Army Special Forces are commonly known as the Green Berets, from their distinctive headgear. They are small groups of highly trained officers and non-commissioned officers whose mission is to conduct "behind-the-lines" operations in enemy territory, reconnaissance, target acquisition and damage assessment, and precision strikes on strategic targets. Special Forces units have another unique mission, which is to train and operate insurgency and counterinsurgency units in the field, a mission they performed admirably in Vietnam. They are well-schooled in foreign languages and customs, and are the units of choice when a training mission is done in another nation.

The 7th Special Forces Group was first formed as the 1st Company, First Battalion, 1st Special Service Force in July 1942 at Camp William Harrison in Montana. Disbanded after World War II, it was reactivated at Fort Bragg in 1953 as the 77th Special Forces Group. In 1960, the 77th Special Forces Group was designated the 7th Special Forces Group (Airborne), as they are still known today. Under President Kennedy, the 7th served as the cadre and building block for the formation of other special forces units. In 1961 the 7th was sent to Vietnam to advise the South Vietnamese Army and was also involved in Laos and Thailand. The first Medal of Honor earned in Vietnam was awarded to Captain Roger Donlon, a member of the 7th.
1-24 of 5,618 Resources