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Psychiatry's Depression

National Portrait Gallery

American Renewal

National Portrait Gallery

Spotted Owl

National Portrait Gallery

Doctors and Patients

National Portrait Gallery

Europe's Youth

National Portrait Gallery

Haley's Comet

National Portrait Gallery

Acid Rain

National Portrait Gallery

Torching the Amazon

National Portrait Gallery

Robert McNamara

National Portrait Gallery

Photographic History Collection: Robert Capa

National Museum of American History
The Capa Collection in the PHC contains sixty-two images made by Robert Capa, famous for “The Fallen Solider” (not part of the collection). The majority of the collection is wartime photographs of soldiers, civilians and refugee with the main focus on his photographs from WWII, but includes images from China, Israel, and Spain. Highlights of the collection include his breakthrough images of Leon Trotsky and the iconic photographs from the invasion of Normandy. The collection also includes a portrait of Capa by Ruth Orkin (7434). His photographs depict every aspect of war, from the battlefield to the propaganda and graveyards. He shows war heroes being celebrated at parades as well as defeated soldiers surrendering to enemy troops. Through his innovative style of war photography, the reality of combat was made apparent to the world, changing the way that people visualized war.

In 1964 an exhibition of Capa’s photographs called Images of War was hosted by the Smithsonian’s Arts and Industries Museum. The exhibition included a selection of the sixty-eight photographs donated by Robert Capa’s brother, Cornell Capa, and appeared in the exhibit book which was published under the same title.

War photographer Robert Capa was born Endre Friedmann to a Jewish Hungarian family on October 22, 1913. Throughout his teens and early twenties he was heavily involved with local politics and protests. Through his activism he became associated with the Communist Party and was arrested and later expelled, at that time he relocated to Germany. In Berlin, he worked as a darkroom assistant for a photographic agency called Dephot. The director developed an interest in Capa, eventually lending him a Leica 35-mm camera. Capa began covering small events, and adopted a candid, intimate style that would later define him as a photographer. His first important assignment in November of 1932, he covered a speech being given by revolutionary Leon Trotsky in Copenhagen. Forced to smuggle his camera in, Capa positioned himself close to the stage and captured images of the event that embodied the energy of the speaker and audience. The photos were given a full page spread in Berlin’s Der Welt Spiegel.

Not long after, Capa relocated to Paris. In Paris he met and developed friendships with a number of rising photographers such as André Kertéz, Henri Cartier-Bresson, and David Szymin (who later became known as “Chim” Seymour). He also met fellow refugee Gerta Pohorylle. Together they changed their names to Robert Capa and Gerda Taro, in an effort to remove themselves from their identifiably Semitic names and create a more Americanized image of themselves. Beginning in 1936, Capa and Taro traveled to Spain together a number of times to cover the Spanish Civil War. During one of these trips Capa took his most famous and frequently debated Loyalist Militiaman at the Moment of Death, Cerro Muriano, September 5, 1936, commonly known as “The Fallen Soldier.” The image depicts a Spanish militiaman at the exact moment that he is struck by a bullet, caught falling backwards, still midair. Capa and Taro made a number of photographs that received attention in England and the United States. In July of 1937, while Capa was on a trip back to France, Taro was killed in Spain. His book of photographs from the Spanish Civil War, Death in the Making, is dedicated to her.

In 1938 Capa photographed the Japanese invasion of China. During his six months there, he created images that were shown in newspapers and magazines in Europe and the United States. When he returned to Europe, Capa worked on a handful of civilian assignments, as well as a project in Mexico photographing political rallies and protests. With the outbreak of World War II, Capa dedicated his film and energy to photographing allied forces both on the front lines in Europe and in England. He photographed troops in North Africa, Germany, Italy, England, and France.

His most famous photographs from WWII were taken on D-Day during the Allied invasion of Normandy, June 6, 1944. Though he took approximately 150 photographs that morning as troops waded onto Omaha Beach, a darkroom accident in London ruined all but eleven. Ten of those were published in Life magazine with the disclaimer that they were “slightly out of focus,” a phrase that Capa adopted as the title for his autobiography. Despite the poor quality and damage, these images are celebrated as the best from the invasion. After D-Day Capa continued to cover the war, following the allies as they liberated cities and advanced through Europe. His photographs of German soldiers surrendering are powerful and striking images. Throughout his career he focused both on soldiers he was followed as well as the civilians and refugees who were heavily impacted by the war.

After the war Capa gained citizenship to the United States and briefly pursued a career in California. However, in 1947 he returned to Paris and, with friends Cartier-Bresson, Szymin, George Rodger, and William Vandivert, founded the international photographic agency Magnum. Capa split his time between the Paris and New York City offices and swore-off war photography. He photographed refugees in Israel, created travel journals, and in 1954 left for Japan to photograph children. However, Life magazine called him out of Japan to act as an emergency replacement photographer, making images in what was then referred to as French Indochina. On May 25, 1954, while accompanying a convoy of soldiers, Capa stepped on a landmine while trying to make an image of the soldiers and was killed.

After Capa’s death in 1954, his brother Cornell joined Capa’s photo agency, Magnum Photo. In the late 1960s he began mounting exhibitions, and in 1974 founded the International Center for Photography in New York City.

Robert Carl McFarlane

National Portrait Gallery

Dustin Hoffman and Robert Redford

National Portrait Gallery
All the President’s Men

The Watergate scandal and President Richard Nixon’s subsequent resignation spawned a slew of books ranging from contemporary history to tell-all memoirs by the participants in the wide-ranging affair. In 1974 Bob Woodward turned the results of his and Carl Bernstein’s reporting for the Washington Post into All the President’s Men. The book was constructed as a detective story, the diligent reporter/heroes peeling back the layers of misdirection and obfuscation to establish the links between the White House and the original Watergate burglars. Robert Redford (born 1937) bought the rights to the book, and the film version appeared in 1976, directed by Alan J. Pakula. In their portrayal of Woodward and Bernstein, Redford (right) and Dustin Hoffman (born 1937) helped make journalism a glamorous profession for a time.

Robert Fulton Commemorative Medal

National Museum of American History
The Scovill Manufacturing Company of Waterbury, Connecticut produced this medal during the second half of the 19th century. The Scovill Company was established in 1802 as a button manufacturer and is still in business today. Scovill was an early industrial American innovator, adapting armory manufacturing processes to mass-produce a variety of consumer goods including buttons, daguerreotype mats, and medals.

Obverse: Bust of Robert Fulton facing forward. The legend reads: ROBERT FULTON/BORN 1765 DIED 1815.


General. Robert E. Lee

National Museum of American History
At the outbreak of the Civil War, Robert E. Lee had famously rejected the command of the Federal forces recruited to defend D.C. He instead opted for the rank of general in the Confederate Army, claiming that he could never fight against his fellow Virginians. After graduating second in his class from West Point in 1829, Lee served in the United States Army for 32 years. He saw action during the Mexican-American War and later returned to West Point to serve as its superintendent. There he emphasized equestrian instruction, training future cavalry generals, including Confederate General J.E.B. Stuart and Union General Philip Sheridan. On October 17, 1859, U.S. Marines commanded by Lee – then a colonel – confronted John Brown at Harper’s Ferry, killing many of his raider and arresting the radical abolitionist.

Although he lost his first engagement during the Civil War, Lee eventually proved his worth by repulsing George McClellan’s campaign towards Richmond during the Seven Days Battle. He then launched two failed invasions of the North, which were defeated at Antietam in 1862 and Gettysburg in 1863. In 1864, the new general-in-chief of the Union Armies, Ulysses S. Grant, ultimately gained the upper hand over the Confederacy after a brutal war of attrition. Surrounded by Grant’s armies, Lee finally surrendered his battered Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865.

After the war, Lee was transformed into a legend. He became the personification of the Lost Cause, an interpretation of the war in which Confederate soldiers were remembered as heroic figures, fighting to preserve their way of life, eventually overpower by superior Northern resources and manpower. The myth of the Lost Cause remained popular throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries, obscuring the actual history of the Civil War and the roles of slavery and race in the South. As the legend of Lee grew, so did the desire for printed portraits of the man. Printing had suffered during the war, and most of the post-war Lee prints were produced in the North, for both Northern and Southern audiences. In this 1867 lithograph from Philadelphia, the general poses in his military uniform, juxtaposed with the portrait’s lavishly-decorated civilian setting. He stands in front of a marble column, his left hand holding his sword and his right resting on a large map. The work bears a striking resemblance to several earlier paintings and sculptures of George Washington. Lee’s pose and the setting of the print hearken back to the earlier “Grand Manner” style of American portraiture, meant to further express the dignified status of the sitter. A facsimile of Lee’s signature has been included in the lower margin of the print.

This lithograph was delineated by Anton Hohenstein, who was born in Bavaria in 1824. He immigrated to Philadelphia in 1850 and changed his name to Anthony Hochstein sometime during the 1860s. It was printed by George Spohny, a French-born lithographer, who worked under other Philadelphia printers, including Joseph Hoover and Jacob Haehnlen, and became known for his lithographs of historical events. This print was published by Thomas Kelly, a successful Irish-born lithographer who had learned the craft in Philadelphia from his father. He moved to New York, where he established a print and frame dealership and continued to publish picturesque scenes of American life. He is possibly the same Thomas Kelly who printed Catholic Bibles and prayer-books in New York, winning an award for these at the 1876 Centennial Exposition.

West Greenland Expedition (Accession 144924), 1937

Smithsonian Field Book Project
This field book is part of a collection of field notes by Robert (Bob) A. Bartlett (1875-1946). Bartlett was born in Brigus, Newfoundland. He spent much of his career at sea in the Arctic, taking part in and later leading expeditions in the region. This field book includes notes taken during an expedition to West Greenland. The notes are written on loose pages in a fabric cover, and they record the collection of birds' stomachs as well as dredge and haul work, with plankton collection.

Grumman G-21 Goose

National Air and Space Museum
49ft. span, 38ft. gin. long, 16ft. 2in. high; empty weight 5,425 lbs.; World War II.

First flown in 1937, the G-21 Goose was Grumman's first single-wing aircraft, its first twin-engine aircraft, and its first aircraft used as a commercial airliner. Capable of alighting on water or land, this remarkable aircraft has served for many decades in a variety of roles that have confirmed the strength and durability of its original design.

The G-21 was designed as an "air yacht" for wealthy New York businessmen, so they could commute from their homes on Long Island to their Manhattan offices. It soon found a market as an airliner, military transport, and utility aircraft. After World War II, small airlines in Alaska, the Caribbean, and California adopted G-21s. This Goose flew with several airlines before the Naval Aviation Museum acquired it and later transferred it to the Smithsonian. Buehler Aviation Research of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, restored it.

Affectionately nicknamed "Goose," the G-21 was Grumman’s first monoplane to fly, its first twin-engined aircraft, and its first aircraft to enter commercial airline service. This remarkably versatile amphibian has served for over fifty years in a variety of roles that have confirmed the strength and durability of its original design.

The inspiration for the G-21 came from a syndicate of ten wealthy New York businessmen and aviators led by Wilton Lloyd-Smith who were seeking a replacement for the Loening Air Yacht they used to commute from their Long Island homes to their offices in Manhattan. In 1936 they approached Grover Loening, who declined but suggested that the syndicate contact the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, for which Loening consulted and which he had helped finance. Leroy Grumman accepted and immediately went to work with designer and company cofounder William Schwendler, as well as hydrodynamicist Ralston Stalb to build the new G-21 amphibian air yacht.’

The outline of the new design emerged quickly, revealing a stubby yet graceful aircraft. Constructed of 24ST AlcIad aluminum, the G-21 was an all-metal, high-winged monoplane powered by two 450-horsepower Pratt and Whitney Wasp Jr. nine-cylinder, air-cooled radial engines mounted on the leading edge of the high-set wings. The deep fuselage served also as a hull and was equipped with hand-cranked retractable landing gear. Inside the cabin was room for four to six passengers and a flight crew of two. Depending on the level of comfort desired by the individual customer, the G-21 could be fitted with a galley and a lavatory. Floats were suspended beneath each wing and a conventional cruciform tail section installed.

On May 29, 1937, the G-21 completed its first test flight, piloted by Robert L. Hall and Bud Gillies from Grumman’s Bethpage, New York, factory. Flight trials went smoothly and after a lengthening of the hull step to improve the aircraft’s performance on the water, the aircraft was readied for production. The performance of the G-21 was praiseworthy for its time and rivaled commercial airliners in service. With a cruising speed of 290 kilometers per hour (180 miles per hour), the G-21 possessed a range of 1,300 kilometers (800 miles).

On July 3, just five weeks after its maiden fright, the first of twelve G-21s ordered was delivered to its initial customers, Wilton Lloyd-Smith and department store heir Marshall Field Ill. Soon other wealthy owners were enjoying the exemplary flight characteristics and handling of the G-21 Goose. Among those customers were financiers Henry H. Morgan and E. Roland Harriman, C. W. Deeds of United Aircraft, Colonel McCormick of the Chicago Tribune, Boris Sergievsky, test pilot for Sikorsky Aircraft, and Britain’s Lord Beaverbrook. In addition, two were purchased by Asiatic Petroleum. Soon these aircraft were modified to G-21A standards with Wasp Jr. SB-2 engines, an increase in certificated gross weight from 7,500 to 8,000 pounds, and a slightly modified hull to reduce water spray.

The popularity of the G-21 spread as its versatility became well-known throughout the aviation community. Soon orders came in to Grumman from airlines, the military, and foreign customers, impressed by the G-21 ‘s potential. Lloyd Aereo Boliviano (LAB) was the first airline to purchase the G-21 but did not put it into service. KNILM, the Dutch East Indies subsidiary of KLM, acquired two G-21’s and operated them from 1940 until early 1942 when the last one was shot down by the invading Japanese. The coming of World War II prevented the adoption of the Goose on a wider scale by airlines until after the cessation of hostilities.

In 1938, the Royal Canadian Air Force was the first military service to recognize the abilities of the Goose when it ordered one in June of that year, followed soon by orders from the U.S. Army and Navy, as well as the Peruvian Air Force and the Portuguese Navy. During World War II, the Army was the first to order a substantial quantity, operating 26 as OA-9s and OA-13s. The U.S. Navy and Coast Guard operated 169 "Gooses" designated as JRFs in utility, transport, and antisubmarine duty. In total, the air forces and navies of eleven nations have flown the Goose. France flew at least fifteen in combat in Indochina where several JRFs were armed with bombs and machine guns. A total of 345 G-21s were produced by October 1945 when production ended.

While most of the G-21s were quickly phased out of military service after World War II, the Goose renewed its career as an airliner in earnest. Uniquely adapted for travel in virtually any environment, the Goose saw widespread service with small airlines in the Caribbean, California, and Alaska. Among those flying the G-21 were Reeve Aleutian Airways, Alaska Coastal Airlines, Chalk’s Flying Service, and Mackey Airlines. Antilles Air Boats was particularly noted for flying the Goose around the Caribbean from their base in St. Croix in the Virgin lslands. Avalon Air Transport (later Catalina Airlines) competed for a while with Catalina Seaplanes, connecting southern California with Catalina Island.

The Goose still flies today, in its original form and also modified with turboprop engines for increased performance. For over fifty years the rugged and versatile G-21 has performed its daily tasks providing much needed service carrying passengers and freight throughout the world.

The Grumman G-21A, c/n 1048, in the National Aeronautical Collection of the National Air and Space Museum was built in 1938 for the Venezuela Oil Development Branch of the Asiatic Petroleum Company. It was delivered on December 10 without luxury appointments but with special cactus-proof tires for operation in remote areas. It was later sold and flown in Ecuador until 1951 when it was returned to Grumman, refurbished with soundproofing and a camera door, and repainted. In 1954 this aircraft was acquired by Chalk’s Flying Service and flown out of Miami, Florida, to the Bahamas. On February 22, 1977, it was acquired by Catalina Airlines. In December 1982, the aircraft was transferred to Warbirds West and eventually acquired by the Naval Aviation Museum, which in turn transferred title of the aircraft to the National Air and Space Museum on June 30, 1983. The aircraft was then restored by Buehler Aviation Research of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, and placed on display in the Hall of Air Transportation in 1989. The aircraft moved to the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in December, 2003.

Dr. Robert G. Murray gives pastoral remarks at the historic First Baptist Church, Norfolk, Virginia 2005

National Museum of African American History and Culture
A black-and-white photograph of Dr. Robert G. Murray speaking into a microphone. He is wearing a dark colored robe with light colored stripes along the breast and cuffs. A cross is on the right side breast of the robe. He is holding a book and several pieces of papers in his left hand. His hands are resting on a large open book at the bottom of the photograph. The print is signed on the front. No inscriptions on the back.

Robert Edward Lee [sculpture] / (photographed by De Witt Ward)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
On photo mount label: G. T. Brewster. Portrait bust of Robert E. Lee (1807-1870). New York, New York University. Hall of Fame. 1923, erected. Photographed by De Witt Ward. Classification Number: 282/B848/600. Accession: 160090. Lantern Slide: E87817.

1 photographic print : b&w, 9 3/8 x 7 3/4 in. (trimmed), mounted on 9 3/4 x 13 7/8 in. board.

Geometric Model by Robert Chaffe, a Student of A. Harry Wheeler, Hyperbolic Paraboloid

National Museum of American History
Suppose two opposite sides of a rectangle are joined by straight lines parallel to the other two sides. Lifting two opposite corners of the rectangle—and keeping the lines taut—one obtains a saddle-shaped figure known as a hyperbolic paraboloid. This model of a hyperbolic paraboloid was made from balsa wood by Robert Chaffe, a high school student of A. Harry Wheeler in the class of 1937. It is likely that this person is Robert C. Chaffe (1918–1991) who was born in Connecticut, attended high school in Worcester, Massachusetts, graduated from the Worcester Polytechnic Institute in 1942, and seems to have spent his career as a salesman and sales engineer in Worcester and nearby Auburn. References: Gerd Fischer, Mathematical Models, vol. 2, Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, 1986, pp. 3–4. U.S. Census records. Massachusetts city directories.

Nancy Wilson - Convention Hall, Atlantic City, N.J. - 1980

National Museum of African American History and Culture
This image depicts musician Nancy Wilson singing. Wearing a black strapless dress, a single chain choker necklace, she stands holding a microphone cupped in both hands up to mouth level. She turns her face away from the microphone in front of her, towards the viewer, eyes closed. Taken from below, the angle gives her a monumental aspect.

Nancy Wilson - Convention Hall, Atlantic City, N.J. - 1980

National Museum of African American History and Culture
This image depicts Nancy Wilson, singer and entertainer. Wearing a fitted strapless black dress, she holds a microphone up to her open mouth with her right hand. Her left hand is held loosely at waist height. She wears a ring on the fourth finger of her left hand, a simple chain choker, and small earrings. Shot from below, the angle of the picture gives her a monumental aspect.

Inflation Fighter

National Portrait Gallery

Self-Portrait, Drawing

Smithsonian American Art Museum
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