Skip to Content

Found 6 Resources

Host plants and immatures as mate-searching cues in Heliconius butterflies

Smithsonian Libraries
The study of interactions between phytophagous insects and their host plants extends beyond understanding how insects deal with plant chemical defences. Sexual behaviour of these herbivores is integrated in several ways with host plants, as the latter influence timing and location of reproduction, and can provide clues for finding mates. Nevertheless, while numerous studies link butterfly evolution to host plant adaptations, the influence of plants on butterfly sexual behaviour has been little studied. We conducted experiments to determine the role of host plant cues in mate-searching behaviour of Heliconius charithonia butterflies. This species exhibits precopulatory mate guarding behaviour, wherein males find and perch on pupae, then copulate with eclosing females ('pupal mating'). We found that males (1) visited plants damaged by feeding larvae more often than they visited undamaged plants and (2) displayed searching behaviour around the plant and in front of larvae, suggesting that odours signal the location of potential partners (pupae). Although males were attracted to common plant odours released after tissue damage, plants damaged by heterospecific butterfly larvae were less attractive, indicating that species recognition can occur at early life stages. Overall, our results suggest that host plants influence mate-searching behaviour of Heliconius. This might also be true for other species of butterflies with more conventional mating strategies, potentially contributing to the diversification of this group of phytophagous insects. (C) 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sexual Selection Drives the Evolution of Antiaphrodisiac Pheromones in Butterflies

Smithsonian Libraries
Competition for mates has resulted in sophisticated mechanisms of male control over female reproduction. Antiaphrodisiacs are pheromones transferred from males to females during mating that reduce attractiveness of females to subsequent courting males. Antiaphrodisiacs generally help unreceptive females reduce male harassment. However, lack of control over pheromone release by females and male control over the amount transferred provides males an opportunity to use antiaphrodisiacs to delay remating by females that have returned to a receptive state. We propose a model for the evolution of antiaphrodisiacs under the influence of intrasexual selection, and determine whether changes in this signal in 11 species of Heliconius butterflies are consistent with two predictions of the model. First, we find that as predicted, male-contributed chemical mixtures are complex and highly variable across species, with limited phylogenetic signal. Second, differences in rates of evolution in pheromone composition between two major clades of Heliconius are as expected: the clade with a greater potential for male-male competition (polyandrous) shows a faster rate of divergence than the one with typically monoandrous mating system. Taken together, our results provide evidence that for females, antiaphrodisiacs can be both honest signals of receptivity (helping reduce harassment) and chastity belts (a male-imposed reduction in remating).

Butterfly genome reveals promiscuous exchange of mimicry adaptations among species

Smithsonian Libraries
The evolutionary importance of hybridization and introgression has long been debated(1). Hybrids are usually rare and unfit, but even infrequent hybridization can aid adaptation by transferring beneficial traits between species. Here we use genomic tools to investigate introgression in Heliconius, a rapidly radiating genus of neotropical butterflies widely used in studies of ecology, behaviour, mimicry and speciation(2-5). We sequenced the genome of Heliconius melpomene and compared it with other taxa to investigate chromosomal evolution in Lepidoptera and gene flow among multiple Heliconius species and races. Among 12,669 predicted genes, biologically important expansions of families of chemosensory and Hox genes are particularly noteworthy. Chromosomal organization has remained broadly conserved since the Cretaceous period, when butterflies split from the Bombyx (silkmoth) lineage. Using genomic resequencing, we show hybrid exchange of genes between three co-mimics, Heliconius melpomene, Heliconius timareta and Heliconius elevatus, especially at two genomic regions that control mimicry pattern. We infer that closely related Heliconius species exchange protective colour-pattern genes promiscuously, implying that hybridization has an important role in adaptive radiation.

Montage of American Theatrical Figures

National Portrait Gallery

Clarence H. Mackay Trophy

National Air and Space Museum
Gold lined silver cup 4 angels arms extended holding Wright military flyers; cup sitting on mahogany base with engraved silver plaques.

The Mackay Trophy was established in 1911 by Clarence H. Mackay, who was head of the Postal Telegraph-Commercial Cable Companies. It is administered by the National Aeronautic Association of the U.S.A. and is awarded yearly by the U.S. Air Force for the most meritorious flight of the year by an Air Force person, persons, or organization.

Gift of the National Aeronautic Association of the U.S.A.


1912 Lt. Henry H. Arnold

1913 2nd Lt. Joseph E. Carberry

2nd Lt. Fred Seydel

1914 Capt. Townsend F. Dodd

Lt. S. W. Fitzgerald

1915 Lt. B. Q. Jones

1916-17 No award

1918 Capt. Edward V. Rickenbacker

1919 Lt. Belvin W. Maynard

Lt. Alexander Pearson Jr.

Lt. R. S. Northington

Capt. John O. Donaldson

Capt. Lowell H. Smith

Lt. Col. Harold E. Hartney

Lt. E. M. Manzelman

Lt. B. G. Bagby

Lt. D. B. Gish

Capt. F. Steinle

1920 Capt. St. Clair Streett

1st Lt. Clifford C. Nutt

2nd Lt. Eric H. Nelson

2nd Lt. C. H. Crumrine

2nd Lt. Ross C. Kirkpatrick

Sgt. Edmond Henriques

Sgt. Albert T. Vierra

Sgt. Joe E. English

1921 Lt. J. A. Macready

1922 Lt. J. A. Macready

Lt. O. G. Kelly

1923 Lt. J. A. Macready

Lt. O. G. Kelly

1924 Capt. Lowell H. Smith

1st Lt. Leslie P. Arnold

2nd Lt. John Harding Jr.

1st Lt. Leigh Wade

1st Lt. Eric H. Nelson

2nd Lt. Henry H. Ogden

1925 Lt. James H. Doolittle

Lt. Cyrus K. Bettis

1926 Pan American Good Will Flyers

1927 Lt. Albert F. Hegenberger

Lt. Lester J. Maitland

1928 Lt. Harry A. Sutton

1929 Capt. A. W. Stevens

1930 Maj. Ralph Royce

1931 Brig. Gen. Benjamin D. Foulois

1932 11th Bombardment Squadron, March Field, Calif., 1st Lt. Charles H. Howard,

Commanding Officer

1933 Capt. Westside T. Larson

1934 Brig. Gen. Henry H. Arnold

1935 Capt. A. W. Stevens

Capt. O. A. Anderson

1936 Capt. Richard E. Nugent

1st Lt. Joseph A. Miller

1st Lt. Edwin G. Simenson

2nd Lt. William P. Ragsdale Jr.

2nd Lt. Burton W. Armstrong

2nd Lt. Herbert Morgan Jr.

Tech. Sgt. Gilbert W. Olson

Staff Sgt. Howard M. Miller

Cpl. Air Mechanic 2/c Frank B. Connor

1937 Capt. Carl J. Crane

Capt. George V. Holloman

1938 Lt. Col. Robert Olds, 2nd Bombardment Group

1939 Maj. Caleb V. Haynes

Maj. William D. Old

Capt. John A. Samford

1st Lt. Richard S. Freeman

1st Lt. Torgils G. Wold

Tech. Sgt. William J. Heldt

Tech. Sgt. Henry L. Hines

Tech. Sgt. David L. Spicer

Staff Sgt. Russell E. Junior

Staff Sgt. James E. Sands

M/Sgt. Adolph Cattarius

1940-46 No award

1947 Capt. Charles E. Yeager

1948 Lt. Col. Emil Beaudry

1949 Capt. James G. Gallagher and the fight crew of Lucky Lady II

1950 27th Fighter Wing

1951 Col. Fred J. Ascani

1952 Maj. Louis H. Carrington Jr.

Maj. Frederick W. Shook

Capt. Wallace D. Yancey

1953 40th Air Division, Strategic Air Command

1954 308th Bombardment Wing (M), 38th Air Division, Strategic Air Command

1955 Col. Horace A. Hanes

1956 Capt. Iven C. Kincheloe Jr.

1957 93rd Bombardment Wing, Strategic Air Command

1958 Tactical Air Command's Air Strike Force, X-Ray Tango

1959 U.S. Air Force Thunderbirds

1960 6593rd Test Squadron, Hickham AFB, Hawaii

1961 Lt. Col. William R. Payne

Maj. William L. Polhemus

Maj. Raymond R. Wagener

1962 Maj. Robert. G. Sowers

Capt. Robert MacDonald

Capt. John T. Walton

1963 Capt. Warren P. Tomsett

Capt. John R. Ordemann

Capt. Donald R. Mack

Tech. Sgt. Edsol P. Inlow

Staff Sgt. Jack E. Morgan

Staff Sgt. Frank C. Barrett

1964 464th Troop Carrier Wing, Tactical Air Command

1965 YF-12A/SR-71 Test Force, Edwards AFB, Calif.

1966 Lt. Col. Albert R. Howarth

1967 Maj. John H. Casteel

Capt. Dean L. Hoar

Capt. Richard L. Trail

M/Sgt. Nathan C. Campbell

1968 Lt. Col. Daryl D. Cole

1969 49th Tactical Fighter Wing, Holloman AFB, N.Mex.

1970 Capt. Alan D. Milacek and his nine-man crew

1971 Lt. Col. Thomas B. Estes

Maj. Dewain C. Vick

1972 Capt. Richard S. Ritchie

Capt. Charles B. DeBellevue

Capt. Jeffrey S. Feinstein

1973 Operation Homecoming, Military Airlift Command Aircrews

1974 Maj. Roger J. Smith

Maj. David W. Peterson

Maj. Willard R. Macfarlane

1975 Maj. Robert W. Undorf

1976 Capt. James A. Yule

1977 Capt. David M. Sprinkel and his C-5 aircrew

1978 Lt. Col. Robert F. Schultz, Capt. Todd H. Hohberger, and their crews from the 436th Military Airlift Wing, Military Airlift Command

1979 Maj. James E. McArdle Jr.

1980 Crews S-21 and S-31, 644th Bombardment Squadron, Strategic Air Command

1981 Capt. John J. Walters

1982 B-52 Crew E-21, 19th Bombardment Wing, Strategic Air Command

1983 Capt. Robert J. Goodman and his KC-135 crew, 42nd Bombardment Wing, Strategic Air Command

1984 Lt. Col. James L. Hobson Jr.

1985 Lt. Col. David E. Faught

1986 Capt. Marc D. Felman

Capt. Thomas M. Ferguson

M/Sgt. Clarence Bridges Jr.

M/Sgt. Patrick S. Kennedy

M/Sgt. Gerald G. Treadwell

Tech. Sgt. Lester G. Bouler

Tech. Sgt. Gerald M. Lewis

Staff Sgt. Samuel S. Flores

Staff Sgt. Scott A. Helms

Staff Sgt. Gary L. Smith

1987 Detachment 15, Air Force Plant Representative Office and B-1B System

Program Office, Air Force Systems Command

1988 Military Airlift Wing C-5 Crew, Military Airlift Command

1989 98th Bombardment Wing B-1B Crew, Strategic Air Command

1990 AC-130H Crew, 16th Special Operations Squadron, Air Force Special

Operations Command

1991 MH-53J Pave Low Crew, 20th Special Operations Squadron, Hurlburt Field, Fla., Air Force Special Operations Command

1992 C-130 Aircrew, 310th Airlift Squadron, Howard AFB, Panama, Air Combat


1993 B-52 Aircrew, 668th Bomb Squadron, Griffiss AFB, N.Y.

1994 HH-60G Aircrews 206 and 208, 56th Rescue Squadron, Keflavik NAS, Iceland,

Air Combat Command

1995 B-1B, BAT-01 Flight, 9th Bombardment Squadron, Dyess AFB, Tex., Air Combat


1996 B-52H, Duke 01 Flight, Combat Air Command

1997 MC-130H, 7th Special Operations Squadron, Crew of Whisk 05

1998 Air Force Rescue 470, 210th Rescue Squadron, Kulis ANGB, Anchorage, Alaska

1999 Capt. Jeffrey G. J. Hwang

2000 AIREVAC E10E1 and E10E2 Missions, 75th Airlift Squadron, 86th Aeromedical

Evac Squadron

2001 20th Special Operations Squadron KNIFE 04

2002 GRIM 31, 16th SOS

2003 VIJAY 10, 7th Airlift Squadron

2004 41st Rescue Squadron and 38th Rescue Squadron, Jolly 11 and Jolly 12

2005 Train 60

2006 Capt. Scott L. Markle

2007 Panther One One

Col. Charles L. Moore

Lt. Col. Stephen C. Williams

Capt. Lawrence T. Sullivan

Capt. Kristopher W. Struve

2008 The Crew of BONE 23

2009 The Crew of PEDRO 16

2010 DUDE Flight (DUDE 01 and DUDE 02)

2011 The Crews of PEDRO 83 Flight

2012 The Crews of PEDRO 83 Flgiht

2013 The Crews of ROOSTER 73 Flight

2014 The Crew of IRONHAND 41 Flight

2015 The Crews of WEASEL 41 and WEASEL 51 Flight

2016 The Crew of SPOOKY 43 Flight

2017 The Crew of BOAR 51 Flight

2018 The Crew of DRACO 42 Flight