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Found 11 Collections

 

Format and Process: Daguerreotypes

#nmahphc

This is a small sampling of photographs, cameras, and apparatus related to daguerreotypes found in the Photographic History Collection.  There are also several short videos that demonstrate the making of daguerreotypes.

Many daguerreotypes are portraits, including two by the Meade Brothers of Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre. The PHC holds images of the Smithsonian's own Spencer Baird, Senators Daniel Webster, Sam Houston, and Henry Clay, and photographers Frederick Langenheim and Samuel Fitz are among other noted individuals. Particular collections include the transfer of cased images from the Anthropological Archives of Native Americans, the Warren Fox Kaynor case collection, John William Draper image and apparatus collection, and daguerreotypes made by African American daguerreotypist Augustus Washington. Many well-known makers are also represented.  Samuel F. B. Morse's camera, hand-crafted using the lens he brought back from Paris in 1839, was the first object cataloged for the collection.  Two contemporary daguerreotypists include Jerry Spigoli's image of President Obama's Inauguration and Mike Robinson's daguerreotype of the Daguerre memorial.

For additional information search collections.si.edu or contact the division.


NMAH Photographic History Collection
39
 

Cameras and Apparatus: Overview

#nmahphc

This is a sampling of cameras from the Photographic History Collection at the National Museum of American History.  

For specific cameras and additional collections, search collections.si.edu or contact the division.

The Photographic History Collection holds a wide range of cameras, plate holders, tripods, illumination, sensitized materials (papers, plates, film, etc), printing and processing equipment, chemicals, studio furniture, and other accessories and apparatus related to picture making.

Types of cameras in the Photographic History Collection include:

  • Aerial
  • Banquet
  • Box
  • Cell phone
  • Daguerreotype
  • Digital
  • Disposable
  • Folding
  • Field
  • Film (35mm, 4X5, 8X10)
  • Gun
  • Hidden 
  • Instant/ Instamatic
  • Magic Lantern
  • Movie
  • Early Motion Picture (amateur, professional, commercial)
  • Multi-lens
  • Patent Model
  • Pinhole
  • Polaroid
  • Press
  • Prototype
  • School Picture
  • Stereo
  • Spy and subminiature (including toy)
  • Tintype
  • Tri-color
  • Twin-Lens Reflex
  • Underwater
  • Video
  • View 
  • Wet collodion

Cameras, apparatus, and/or studio furniture owned by the followed are included in the Photographic History Collection (excluding patent model associations):

  • Thomas Armat
  • J. Ross Baughman
  • Mathew Brady
  • Chester Carlson
  • William Henry Draper
  • William "Doc" Edgerton
  • Rudolf Eickemeyer, Jr.
  • Tom Howard
  • Frederick Eugene Ives
  • Charles Frederick Jenkins
  • Edwin Land
  • Eugene Lauste
  • Morrison Studio
  • Samuel F. B. Morse
  • Frederick Mueller
  • Nickolas Muray
  • Eadweard Muybridge
  • Carl Mydans
  • Louie Palu
  • Addison Scurlock/ Scurlock Studio
  • William Henry Fox Talbot
  • Victor Keppler
  • Edward Weston


NMAH Photographic History Collection
58
 

Subject: Portraits of Photographers

#nmahphc

This is a selection of photographs from the Photographic History Collection depicting self-portraits and portraits of named photographers. 

Note: This collection will expand as images come online and as staff add to the Photographic History Collection.

See the Learning Lab Collection, Charles Rushton for his portraits of photographers in the American southwest in the 1980s. See Learning Lab collection Photographers at Work for ephemera and additional photographers; see also People with Cameras (not yet published).

For additional images, search collections.si.edu.

Some of these photograph may be copyrighted.

Keywords: photographer, camera, portrait, self-portriat, daguerreotype, two-color Kodachrome, gum bichromate, platinum print, photogravure, gelatin silver print, studio portriature, environmental portraiture, fine art photography, photojournalist

Portraits of photographers included in this Learning Lab collections are:

  • Annie Appel
  • Eugene Atget
  • Richard Avedon
  • Thomas Barrow
  • J. Ross Baughman
  • Bobbe Besold
  • Anne Brigman
  • Mathew Brady
  • Cathy Maier Callahan
  • Manuel Carillo
  • Van Deren Coke
  • Will Connell
  • Imogen Cunningham
  • James Cutting
  • Jacques Louis Mande Daguerre
  • F. Holland Day
  • Robert Demarche
  • Baron De Meyer
  • David Douglas Duncan
  • George Eastman
  • Elliot Erwit
  • Henry Fitz, Jr
  • Miguel Gander
  • Betty Hahn
  • George Harris
  • Henry Horenstein
  • Walter J. Hussey
  • Gertrude Kasebier
  • Victor Keppler
  • Sally Mann
  • Bruce McKaig
  • Pirie MacDonald
  • Mr. Mooney
  • Samuel F.B. Morse
  • Eadweard Muybridge
  • Carl Mydans
  • Patrick Nagatani
  • Beaumont Newhall
  • Arnold Newman
  • Phillippe Halsman
  • Ken Regan
  • Henry Peach Robinson
  • Meridel Rubenstein
  • Kosti Ruohomaa
  • Erich Salomon
  • Thomas Smillie
  • Edward Steichen
  • Alfred Stieglitz
  • Paul Strand
  • William Henry Fox Talbot
  • Steve Yates
  • George Kendall Warren
  • Edward Weston
  • Clarence White
  • Joel-Peter Witkin
  • Roy Zalesky

NMAH Photographic History Collection
67
 

foxes

all about foxes my fav!

jen stebbing
6
 

The Athabascan Peoples and Their Culture

By Eliza Jones (Koyukon Athabascan), 2009

(This is shortened version of a longer essay from the Smithsonian book Living Our Cultures, Sharing Our Heritage: The First Peoples of Alaska.)

Sea, Land, Rivers

When I was growing up in the 1940s and ’50s, our family moved in every season – to spring camp for ducks and muskrats, to fish camp in summer, and to hunting and fur-trapping sites during fall and winter. That kind of traveling life was once universal in Athabascan country, from the Arctic Circle to Cook Inlet in Alaska and across the western interior of Canada. It’s a vast territory, hundreds of thousands of square miles covered by boreal spruce and birch forest. The rivers that cross it were highways for dog sledding in winter and canoe voyages in summer. Today the rivers, along with air and snow machine travel, still link our scattered communities, but roads reach only a few.

Athabascan peoples are an ancient family that spread out across the land and gradually grew apart. Koyukon, Gwich’in, Han, Holikachuk, Deg Hit’an, Upper Kuskokwim, Tanana, Tanacross, Upper Tanana, Dena’ina, and Ahtna communities occupy different areas of interior and southern coastal Alaska. Their languages share the same complex grammar yet have developed different vocabularies. The people have varying subsistence practices, customs, ceremonies, and clan structures. The Eyak, who live on the southern Alaskan coast around the mouth of the Copper River, are more distant relatives.

In Athabascan belief, everything around us has life. The land and trees have spirits, and we treat them with respect. If we need to cut a tamarack, which has the best wood for making fish traps, it is Koyukon courtesy to explain our need to the tree and to leave an offering of a bead or ribbon behind. Animals and fish are given the same kind of care. Before bringing a mink carcass into our cabin, my mother or stepfather would rub its nose with grease so that its spirit would not be offended by the human scent inside. If they trapped a fox, they put a bone in its mouth, because the animal was seeking food when it met its death.

Community and Family

Western cultural influence came to Athabascan country in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries when Russian fur traders set up forts in southern Alaska and the Hudson’s Bay Company built a post at Fort Yukon. Later in the century, the U.S. government and the Alaska Commercial Company took over from the Russians. The gold rushes of the 1880s and 1890s brought a flood of miners, settlers, and traders into the region. Our communities became less nomadic, more tied to trapping and a cash economy, and increasingly dependent on clothing, guns, food, and tools from the company stores. Through the efforts of missionaries most Athabascans adopted Christianity by the early 1900s. The twentieth century brought new technologies, mass media and Western schools where the teaching was in English only.

One of the biggest changes in my lifetime has been in the way that our children learn. I grew up in an oral tradition in which all our teachers were family and kin. Story telling time, as we called it, began in October after freeze-up. We would be home in our small cabin, chores finished for the day, our mother sewing by the light of an oil lamp. My stepfather would tell a kk’edon ts’ednee, a story in our language about ancient times when animals were human beings. It would include a lot of repetition to make it easier to learn and remember and a lesson about living in harmony with nature and people. Before he continued the next night, we had to repeat the story back to him, line by line. At other times we listened while adults talked and reminisced but were not allowed to interrupt. If we had a question we asked our grandmother or someone else about it later.

I was taught to read and write in English by my mother, Josie Peter Olin, who was educated as a child at the Allakaket Episcopal mission school. I was fourteen when the first one-room government school was built in our village, and I attended it for three years to finish the work of all twelve grades. I moved to Koyukuk to marry Benedict Jones, and there we raised our children. I worked as a volunteer health aide, and he was village Chief. In 1970 we moved to Fairbanks, where I worked at the Alaska Native Language Center editing a Koyukon Athabascan dictionary compiled by Jules Jetté, a Jesuit priest who came to the region in 1898 and learned to speak our language fluently. That dictionary turned into my life’s work. It contains detailed information about Koyukon culture as well as language, including knowledge that no longer exists in our communities. After we retired and came back to Koyukuk, I taught Koyukon in the school, hoping that a new generation would know and continue our culture despite the huge changes and challenges that affect their young lives.

Ceremony and Celebration

Our midwinter celebrations take place between Christmas and New Year’s. There are church gatherings, children’s programs, snowshoe races, dogsled races and dances. On New Year’s Day we finish with a celebratory potlatch. People save and prepare special foods and make new clothing and beaded moccasins to wear for the dances. Spring Carnival takes place in early April at the end of beaver trapping season. We do a lot of traveling to other villages to share in their celebrations. It’s a wonderful and exciting time, with high-stakes dogsled races, snowshoe competitions, ice-picking contests, Athabascan fiddling and dancing every night.

Today, Athabascan communities hold potlatches on various occasions. Some are informal festivities to celebrate holidays, and others are formal and spiritual occasions to recognize turning points in the lives of community members. Potlatches can mark a first successful hunt, a homecoming, recovery from an illness or settlement of a grievance.

The most important and universal events are memorial potlatches held a year or more after a death to honor the memory of the deceased and to repay those who assisted the family during their time of grief. These are the helpers who built the casket, dug the grave, provided food for the vigil or sewed traditional clothing to dress the body. To prepare for a memorial potlatch, the hosts make, buy and gather large quantities of gifts and food. Often several families join together to share the financial burden. Hosts are not trying to show off their wealth. It is our way of thanking those who generously gave service. The protocols, songs, and dances for memorial potlatches vary among the different Athabascan peoples, yet the fundamental idea of the whole community marking the passage of a human soul to the world beyond is the same for all.

In Koyukuk, a memorial potlatch takes place over a three-day period. Residents and guests from other villages arrive with food for a gathering in the community hall. Friends and relatives sing songs they have composed for the deceased to commemorate his or her unique accomplishments, personality and service to others, and with the songs there is dancing. It is an emotional and difficult time for the family. To lift their spirits everyone joins afterward in singing old familiar songs and dancing to fiddle music or rock and roll. On the last day all of the guests sit down for a feast of special foods, including dishes that the deceased person most enjoyed. After the meal the hosts distribute gifts to everyone in attendance, with the finest presents reserved for the funeral helpers and composers of memorial songs.

Tags: Athabascan, Alaska Native, Indigenous, Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center in Alaska

Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center in Alaska
20
 

"Piecing it Together: Austin Graffiti Art 1984-2004"

"Piecing It Together": Austin Graffiti Art 1984-2004 is an art exhibition focusing on the first three generations of Austin graffiti art, considered the foundation of what many call street art today. The show is organized by each decade which helped shape the backbone of Austin’s vibrant Graffiti Art culture. 1984-1989 is the dawning of Austin's hip-hop culture with high pressure Krylon cans and painting illegally in the streets. These originals were influenced by movies like Style Wars, Beat Street and WildStyle. This first generation understood the four elements of hip hop culture to be a community that embraced graffiti, break dancing, DJing and rapping. 1990-1998 saw a revival of graffiti art with crews forming such as NBK (No Boundaries Krew) which was seminal and a big influence around Texas and beyond. Moving into the 2000’s brought a whole new era of artists with evolving styles and perspective. Low pressure paint cans, a broader color palette, and the internet all allowed more production of and documentation of this previously mercurial art form. Masterpieces could be archived and styles shared with increased access to cameras and computers. Together this group of innovators laid the foundation for the inclusive, diverse, creative graffiti art scene we enjoy today. -Nathan Nordstrom

Nathan “SLOKE” Nordstrom is an Austin, Texas native who has been professionally producing graffiti art since the 1990s. Specializing in the use of spray paint, Sloke travels the world exhibiting and curating art shows, and producing murals for companies including: Apple, Facebook, Nike, Google, Red Bull, Tecate, Jose Cuervo, Pepsi, Scholtzsky’s, Nordstrom, Ray Ban, Pandora, Cartoon Network, Trouble Maker Studios, Univision, Time Warner, Vimeo, Fox Network, CNN, Reagan Outdoor Advertising, SXSW, Nikon, Toyota Scion, Ford Motors, F1 Circuit of the Americas, Rackspace, Tango, R.J. Reynolds, University of Texas at Austin, American Heart Association and many others.

Original gallery exhibit was at the Mexican American Cultural Center (ESB-MACC) in Austin, Texas from January 24, 2020 until March 28, 2020. 

Emma S. Barrientos Mexican American Cultural Center
40
 

The St. Lawrence Island Yupik People and Their Culture

By Paapi Merlin Koonooka (St. Lawrence Island Yupik ), 2009

(This is shortened version of a longer essay from the Smithsonian book Living Our Cultures, Sharing Our Heritage: The First Peoples of Alaska.)


Sea, Land, Rivers

Sivuqaq, the Yupik name for St. Lawrence Island, rises out of the Bering Sea in the heart of a vast and bountiful marine ecosystem. All around us, depending on the time of year, we have walrus, whales and seals. Standing on the point at Gambell, you can watch ducks and seabirds flying by in endless motion over the sea. Our island lies just below the Arctic Circle, so the winters are long and often extreme. The wind gusts at fifty miles per hour, and the wind chill can get to minus fifty degrees Fahrenheit or lower. When spring and summer bring longer daylight and new life, people travel out from the villages of Gambell and Savoonga to their hunting and fishing camps around the island. Many of those places are ancient settlements where our ancestors lived up to two thousand years ago.

I was born and raised in Gambell and have been a subsistence hunter there for my entire life, going back to when we traveled with dog teams instead of on snow machines and all-terrain vehicles. Marine mammals, fish, birds, eggs, reindeer and wild plants are important in the island diet throughout the year, far more so than store-bought foods. On the tundra and mountainsides people gather ququngaq (willow leaf), nunivak (roseroot), angukaq (dwarf fireweed) and various edible roots. In late summer the aqavzik (cloudberry) and pagunghaq (crowberry) ripen.

Walrus have always been essential to our way of life. We hunt them in open water and later on the frozen ocean, making use of nearly everything as either food or material. The meat and fat are bundled into large tuugtuq (meatballs) to store in underground food cellars, and in the past that meat sustained our dog teams as well. Good-quality hides of female walrus are stretched, split, cured and stitched to cover the angyapik (hunting boat). Walrus stomachs become heads for drums, and their intestines, ivory and whiskers are transformed into adornment and art. Our predecessors used the skins to make tough rope and covers for the nenglu (traditional house) and interior aargha (sleeping room). They spun walrus sinew into thread and carved the tusks into tools and sled runners.

I am a whaling captain like my grandfather, granduncles and father before me, and I serve on the Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission. Traditionally, the captain prepared for whaling in a religious way, using charms, special songs and rituals that showed the great respect we feel for this animal. While these rituals are no longer practiced, strict hunting protocols and the responsibility of the captain remain unchanged. A bowhead whale is so immense and powerful that hunters, even though armed with modern weapons, are really at its mercy. We use skin-covered boats and sails rather than motors during the approach, keeping absolute silence, because whales have a very sharp sense of hearing. But they know we are there even if there is no sound. That is why we say that a whale decides to let itself be taken, not the other way around. One whale provides an abundance of food that is shared with families on the island and across Alaska.

Our hunting lifestyle has never been harmful to the animal species. Nature has her own way of opening up the ice and sea for us or withholding access. During storms we have to stay at home and wait for a change. When the weather is nice, the conditions may still not be right for going out, even if walrus are floating by on top of the ice floes. Sometimes we will be punished this way if we’ve failed in our respect. But as long as the creatures make themselves available to us, we will gather them for food and traditional needs.


Community and Family

The people of the island have close ties to the Yupik communities of Ungaziq and Sireniki on the Siberian coast, and we speak dialects of the same language. Before the cold war began in the late 1940s, our families traveled back and forth to visit, trade and seek marriage partners. The forty-mile trip took a full day in a skin boat using sail and paddles. Visits resumed in the 1980s after glasnost took hold in Russia, and now with a fast powerboat and calm seas, the crossing takes only two or three hours.

Some of my best memories from childhood are of traveling with my dad. He had a wonderful dog team, and in the wintertime we would go on the sled to trap white fox. Even in the summer we’d take it across the gravel and tundra. When I started raising a family I did the same thing. We would hitch up a team of twelve dogs to pull our heavy sled, which was nine feet long with steel runners. As a child you really look forward to going out with your parents and elders for food gathering and hunting, because you want to learn.

I sometimes think of early days when everyone was living in nenglut (traditional houses). They would go seal hunting on the ice, pulling whale baleen toboggans behind them to bring back the meat. You had a backpack and a rifle slung over your shoulders and an ice tester to see where it was safe to walk. You had to observe the ice and the direction it was moving, making sure not to get caught on an outgoing current. Boys were doing all that by the age of ten or twelve, and by fifteen you had to know everything. Your parents and elders made sure you were ready, or you weren’t allowed to go alone.

Our culture is changing rapidly in some ways, more slowly in others. Fluency in the Yupik language is declining in the younger generations, although among the older people our daily conversation continues to be in Yupik. There is less respect among some young people now for their parents and elders, too much television and video gaming, problems with drugs and alcohol. We need to find a balance between traditional and modern ways, and I believe the best way to do that is through education. If you can be successful in your formal education, you will be in a strong position to help preserve your Yupik heritage. I’m glad to see so many young people still going out with their families to the places where we have always hunted and fished, even if now they travel on machines instead of on foot or by dog sled. They are still eating the same foods that we have always gathered and staying connected to our land and way of life.

 

Ceremony and Celebration

The remoteness of the island has helped to sustain some of the ways of our forebears. The practices of atuq and aghula (Yupik drumming, singing and dancing) were never interrupted, despite the introduction of Christianity, and people continue to compose new songs and motions. Both communities on the island hold dance celebrations where we welcome visitors and performers from mainland Alaska, Russia and beyond. Other ceremonies are more family-oriented, marking life events such as marriage and the birth and naming of a child. When a young person catches his first seal, a special small celebration is held to share the catch with relatives, making sure that everyone gets a taste. The same thing happens with your first bird.

Many of the former ceremonial practices pertained to hunting, especially whaling. To prepare for the season, a captain would use certain songs that were specific to each clan. The purpose was to please the whale spirits. When the hunters captured a whale, the boats would come back in a line with the successful captain and crew in front. Everyone was deeply thankful, and they celebrated by feasting, singing and dancing. That feeling of appreciation and gratitude for the food that has been provided is just as strong today, even though our beliefs and customs have been modified.

The Yupik culture has a very long, rich history, and at the Smithsonian you will see artifacts that our ancestors created hundreds or even thousands of years ago. Today many of the island’s residents are world-renowned Native artists whose work is shown in national and international museums and art galleries. Some of the ivory they use comes from archaeological sites, and this material, crucial to sustaining life generations ago, is equally important today because of the income generated by art sales. But much more than that, their work is a celebration of our culture, heritage and continuing way of life.

Tags: St. Lawrence Island Yupik, Yupik, Alaska Native, Indigenous, Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center in Alaska

Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center in Alaska
20
 

Power of Manipulation

Based off the story of the fox and the crow.

DANIEL SANCLEMENTE
10
 

Slavery in the south

This is a collection of items portraying the life of slaves in the south. The cotton gin was a main reason the south kept slavery. These other items are what the slaves used or made during their lives. Some of the items shows how talented the slaves are from making the drum to making textiles. The paintings shows how terrible slavery is from feeling like cattle at an auction to feeling like a fox being hunted by a pack of dogs. This collection should give you mix feelings about how terrible slavery was but at the same time you should feel proud that the slaves are very talented.

Jonathan Craig
10
 

Storm Clouds Gather

Name: Andile Gova

Course: ARTT-127

Date: 6/2/2017

Prof. S. Jorgensen

Media Round Up

Image by Albie Hartshill

This is a tornado picture. The storm clouds are gathering before the tornado. The lines in the clouds are think as they're curvaceous. The change in color from dark grey to light grey, they move from bold to pale as they are creating the curve. The shape of the clouds can be also organic because the edges are not sharp. The last line on the think clouds turn from dark grey to black and all those are bold colors. The clouds have the rough texture and it connotes the fact that the clouds are not friendly.

The linear perspectivelines of the fence and the electric lines are thin and they aright flowing on the direction of the storm. The electric poles on the right side side have imaginary lines.In the bottom of the thick cloud where the thin lines are pointing at, the colors are subtle and they createharmony that moves from pale to yellow gold and there is a broken color that separates grey and yellow gold. Rightbelow the rough cloud there is flowing between the clouds and the colors. The thin lines complements the whole bottom part of the picture.

That is picture represent the storms clouds gathered.

Andile Gova
0
 

Hannah fox

Take this collection, and make it your own by finding at least 5-10 more "space" objects and artifacts.

Hannah fox
7