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Food

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.

Food ?

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.

Food Offering

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.

Cuisinart Food Processor

National Museum of American History
Chuck Williams, the founder of a successful chain of retail stores (Williams-Sonoma) specializing in kitchenware and household furnishings, began his work in Sonoma, California in 1953. He brought professional and restaurant quality cookware, marketed through mail order catalogues and high design stores, to an American market that looked beyond its domestic roots for food and cookware. Williams, a great home cook, used the products he brought to an American audience including his original Cuisinart and several other models. Williams eventually gave this one, c. 1978, to the Smithsonian.

American inventor Carl Sontheimer developed the Cuisinart food processor as a more domestic version of the semi-industrial French Robot Coupe. In contrast to classic French techniques that call for everything to be prepared painstakingly by hand, the food processor quickly dispatches all the beating, pounding, mixing, mincing, and sieving common to “La Technique.”

Sontheimer gave Cuisinarts to Julia Child and to Chuck Williams, who began selling the machine in his stores. When Julia Child demonstrated cooking around the country, she carried her new favorite cooking tool with her, increasing its exposure to home cooks. When Julia used it, cooks then demanded it, and entrepreneurs like Williams provided these new things that Julia and others had inspired new cooks to use. The regularly improved versions have been best-selling kitchen appliances since their introduction in the early 1970’s.

Food Co-Op Bag

National Museum of American History
This canvas, Food Co-op bag, and the experiences of its donor, recall an important era in American food history—the 1960s and ‘70s, when food became a tool of resistance, consciousness-raising, and self-expression. Activists, many of them students, embraced the motto “You are what you eat,” and rejected food that was mass-produced, distributed, and marketed by large, multi-national corporations. They raised questions about food safety, nutrition, and environmental impacts, while advocating new models for producing food locally and organically, and for sharing and buying it on a community-oriented scale.

Judy C., the donor of this bag, was starting graduate school in 1978 at Case Western Reserve in Cleveland, Ohio. She was thrilled to find the Cleveland Food Co-op near campus and her new apartment, which she shared with two other students. Over the course of several years, Judy had been changing aspects of her diet, primarily because of health-related concerns. Like others at the time, she wondered about the long-term effects of pesticides on produce, preservatives in meats, and chemicals used in processing of grains. By 1978 she was ready to give up red meat and fowl, a decision she announced to her family as they sat down to Thanksgiving dinner. Starting with that first meatless Thanksgiving, she adopted a diet of organically grown vegetables, grains, and dairy, with occasional servings of fish.

The Cleveland Food Co-op was established in 1968 as a volunteer-based, natural foods store. Judy joined the co-op and felt she had found a place that offered the foods she wanted to consume, things like locally grown, organic vegetables that were not available in regular stores or expensive “health food” stores. She enjoyed re-using this canvas bag, remarking that the “Save a Tree” motto appealed to her environmental sensibilities as well. Judy said, “I liked the whole idea of recycling—it was something in the late ‘70s that not everybody did.”

Food Box

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.

Food Mixer

National Museum of American History
Handheld mixer, possibly a whisk or masher, consisting of thin wire, diamond-pattern mesh or netting attached to a slightly concave frame made of two heavier gauge wires twisted at sides and mounted inside a turned wooden handle. No marks.

Bird Food Shipping Crate

National Museum of American History
This end panel of a Crescent Manufacturing Company bird food shipping crate is imprinted with the company’s crescent moon trademark. The company was founded in Seattle, Washington in 1883 as a supplier of vanilla extract to the Pacific Northwest. Later becoming Crescent Foods Inc., the company made its mark on the consumer landscape in 1905 with its Mapleine imitation maple flavoring. Mapleine is still sold today by McCormick, which bought Crescent in 1989.

Bird Food Shipping Crate

National Museum of American History
This end panel of a Crescent Manufacturing Company bird food shipping crate is imprinted with the company’s crescent moon trademark. The company was founded in Seattle, Washington in 1883 as a supplier of vanilla extract to the Pacific Northwest. Later becoming Crescent Foods Inc., the company made its mark on the consumer landscape in 1905 with its Mapleine imitation maple flavoring. Mapleine is still sold today by McCormick, which bought Crescent in 1989.

Food Product's Shipping Crate

National Museum of American History
This shipping crate end panel is imprinted with the “Libby’s” script of the manufacturing firm Libby, McNeil, and Libby. Archibald McNeil and Charles and Arthur Libby founded the company in 1868. Libby’s became one of the country's biggest producers of canned meats in vegetables in the early 20th century. The company was purchased by Nestle in 1971.

Odessa Food Trust

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Low, circular box and lid with printed abstract geometric decoration in olive green, yellow, red and black.

Food, Modified Food

Smithsonian Magazine

Food mold

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Decorated in repoussé with the figure of a lobster.

Food mold

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Decorated in repoussé with snails and a turtle.

Food mold

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Decorated in repoussé with the figure of a lobster.

Food mold

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Decorated on bottom with repoussé trophy composed of helmet of laurel; on sides, with repoussé hemicylinders.

Food mold

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Concave mold, top fitted with high rim, for support, enframing repoussé figure of a lamb. Side gadrooned in repoussé. Base edged with twisted molding, border inscribed with "ELISABET HALDERE EN[backwards]DE 1656" (upside down as if decoration for mouth of a bowl); fitted with a ring for hanging.

Food Tattoos

Smithsonian Magazine

Pouch, Food Restrainer

National Air and Space Museum
This pouch was used as a restraint for the food during the course of rehydration, and during eating.

The plastic food pouch was closed inside this exterior pouch, which was designed to provide the astronaut with some protection from the heat of the food, and accidental breakage. It was equipped with small velcro tabs which enabled the food to be fastened to the spacecraft to prevent it from floating away.

Transferred to the National Air and Space Museum in 1971.

Food Tray, Shuttle

National Air and Space Museum
The Space Shuttle did not have a table for crew meals. Instead, the astronauts placed their food containers on a tray, strapped it to one of their legs, and then fiound a place to anchor themselves while they ate. This tray is an early design that had tracks and cavities to hold the food containers and a magnet to hold the utensils in place. A later tray had a smooth surface and strips of Velcro to lock Velcro-backed food containers in place. The tray is a small example of the big challenges of doing normal tasks, like eating, in weightlessness. NASA transferred this tray and a variety of Shuttle foods to the Museum in the 1980s.

Infant Food, Nestle's Lactogen

National Museum of American History
This example of Nestle's Lactogen, a pediatric food product claiming to be "highly suitable for nursing mothers, convalescents and others in delicate health," was collected from the shelves of Tupper's Pharmacy, a neighborhood drugstore that existed in Summerville, S.C., from 1902 to 1977.

Lactogen is manufactured by the Nestle Company, the Swiss firm founded by pharmacist Henri Nestle, inventor of the first fully artificial infant milk formula, "Farine Lactee." Farine Lactee, a malt- and cow milk-based product, was first introduced in the 1860s. It and other commercial pediatric formulas of the time attempted to reproduce the nutritional formula found in breast milk.

Companies continued to try to create synthetics that more closely replicated human milk. Gerstenberger and Ruh introduced SMA (Synthetic Milk Adapted) in 1919; Nestle introduced Lactogen, and Franklin Foods, Similac, soon after. These new products gained the trust of the medical establishment, and the 1950s saw a sharp increase in infant formula use within the United States. Use of infant formula peaked within the 1970s, when approximately 75 percent of American newborns received formula instead of being breastfed. The reasons for this increase include successful marketing campaigns, including the provision of free products; mid-century consumer confidence in "scientific products"; the acceptance of infant formula's nutritional value by nurses and pediatricians; and the increase of women in the workforce.

The use of infant formulas has decreased greatly in recent years; today only three out of ten newborns in the United States are given formula. This change is primarily due to more recent medical studies determining that while babies can thrive on formula, breast milk is superior, especially in that it strengthens the immune system. Nestle and other commercial infant food manufacturers have come under worldwide censure for the aggressive marketing of formulas within third-world countries.

Hassel Smith's sculpture Adventures in food

Archives of American Art
1 photographic print : b&w ; 25 x 20 cm. Handwritten notes on verso: Hassell Smith, East-West Gallery, San Francisco, 1950 (?); Adventures in food in collection of Mr. and Mrs. Pete Martin, now resident in San Francisco at 2000 Vallejo St.
A line is drawn from the title of the work pointing to a handwritten list: peanut butter and jellyfish sandwich; pickled [...]; foul bowel; paté de frou frou, etc.
Sculpture consists of an open cabinet with shelves holding jars and an object wrapped in wax paper. Some of the jars are labeled: smoked bung; marshmallow pudding; the sage.

Food Steamer, Bamboo

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.

Rotary Food Mixer

National Museum of American History
Rotary style egg beater or food mixer, molded metal housed in a glass mason jar. Mixing apparatus comprised of two two-winged bulb-shaped blades, bent sheet metal, connected with bent metal wire, attached at top to two cog wheels which enable the mixing action with the connected crankwheel when turned with attached wooden handle. Molded metal handle at top. Apparatus is attached to metal cap with screw threads to attach to top of mason jar.

Mason jar is transparent blue glass, embossed on front: "Ball/SPECIAL"; bottom of jar is embossed with the number "8", has white sticker with "403" handwritten on it. Crankwheel is debossed: "HOLT'S IMPROVED PATENTED/MADE BY/HOLT-LYON CO TARRYTOWN, N.Y. U.S.A."

Related patent: US 646736 A, April 3, 1900, Thomas Holt, Tarrytown, New York, for "Egg beater".

Jar dates to 1910-1923, based on "Ball" logo.

Maker is Holt-Lyon Company, Tarrytown, New York; Ball Brothers Glass Manufacturing Company, Muncie, Indiana.
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