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The Lupercalian Festivals

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Upper drawing, male figure in classical dress at center, with robe billowing behind him, rushing past smoking altar. Figure at right dancing. In background figures visible through smoke. Lower drawing figure in classical armor, apparently Romulus, at right directing ploughman with two oxen. Other figures at left removing(or setting) stones and timbers.

Headdress For Festivals

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
FROM CARD: "45442-3. MADE OF TAIL FEATHERS OF BALD EAGLE."

Mexico, Festivals Old and New

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Poster design encouraging travel to Mexico via Pan American Airlines. Image of a barefoot woman in canvas clothing and pointed hat, with long black hair, holding a black rooster, and a brown cloth. Behind her, hanging decorations, and at right, two vase on the ground. Upper right, a poster of a bullfighter on a pink ground, with word: TOROS. Above: MEXICO; below: FESTIVALS OLD AND NEW / PAN AMERICAN / THE WORLD’S MOST EXPERIENCED AIRLINE.

Mexico, Festivals Old and New

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Poster design encouraging travel to Mexico via Pan American Airlines. Image of a barefoot woman in canvas clothing and pointed hat, with long black hair, holding a black rooster, and a brown cloth. Behind her, hanging decorations, and at right, two vase on the ground. Upper right, a poster of a bullfighter on a pink ground, with word: TOROS. Above: MEXICO; below: FESTIVALS OLD AND NEW / PAN AMERICAN / THE WORLD’S MOST EXPERIENCED AIRLINE.

Festivals of the Twelve Months

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery

Hanging Decorations for the Five Seasonal Festivals

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery

Great Food Festivals of the World

Smithsonian Magazine

Heirloom tomatoes will star at the Sonoma Heirloom Tomato Festival this September at Kendall-Jackson Winery. Photo courtesy of Flickr user tamaradulva.

Where does a traveler go to best taste the foods and flavors of a region? Local restaurants? Not me. Because when a dish arrives at the table in a fine restaurant, it is more often the artful work of a chef, not the pure product of the land, and I don’t know about you, but I travel to experience a place, not its chefs. When I visit the East Coast of America, I want a steamed lobster, plain and simple—not shredded and rendered into a bisque, or folded into a delicate soufflé. And when I visit Southern California, I want to see the avocados, whole and complete, one variety beside the next, not whipped into some unidentifiable frothy salad dressing or blended into ice cream. And when I travel to Turkey, I want to eat Turkish figs, fresh off the branch as the tree offered them—not wrapped in bacon, doused with oil, stuffed with cheese and grilled. And in Alaska, there may be no better summertime dinner than a steak of salmon, grilled over open flames and drizzled with lemon—no fancy kitchen tricks required.

No, it doesn’t take a culinary college graduate to make good food. The land does it for us—and here are a few walk-around festivals this summer and fall, each starring some of the world’s greatest ingredients.

Tomatoes. The 16th Annual Sonoma County Heirloom Tomato Festival arrives on September 14 for a two-day gala at Kendall-Jackson Winery in Fulton, California, where visitors will meet 175 varieties of tomatoes that have almost slipped to the wayside in the shadow of Romas and other dominating commercial varieties. Tasting opportunities will abound for those interested in discerning the subtle and dramatic differences between varieties, while local star chefs will also get their hands on a few tomatoes for a competitive cook-off. In Valencia, Spain, meanwhile, the annual giant tomato fight arrives again on August 29 as thousands of revelers engage in La Tomatina. There is less food at this event than there is tomato smashing, stomping and squashing, plus half-naked wrestling in freshly pulped tomato sauce.

Figs. In Fresno, California, heart of America’s fig-growing industry, the 11th Annual Fig Fest comes this Saturday, August 11, on the front lawn of Fresno State University. The gathering will feature farmers, each at their own stalls and each showcasing the fruits of their mid-summer labors for guests to see and taste—like the Calimyrna, black mission, Kadota, brown Turkey, panache and other varieties of fig grown in local orchards. Wine and fig-based hors d’oeuvres can also be sampled, while a “Fig Feast” later in the evening at the Vineyard Restaurant will present the sweet and squishy fig in a fine-dining context. I’ll sate myself with unadulterated figs on the university lawn, thank you—though I’ll venture to guess (and correct me if I’m wrong) that those who buy the $75 meal ticket will find figs wrapped in salted swine and grilled.

Fresh figs are decadent as jam and the cause for celebration at the annual Fig Fest in Fresno, California. Photo by Alastair Bland.

Oysters. Any seafood fan knows that the best oyster is a raw one, slurped down minutes after being shucked from its shell—and oyster lovers at the annual International Oyster & Seafood Festival in Galway, Ireland, held the last three days of September, will find no short supply of their favorite cold and clammy mollusk. Events at the the festival include an oyster- shucking contest (watch that knife!) and Irish dancing. And don’t mark my words, but I would bet that somewhere in that three-day spell you could find yourself a pint of oyster stout. We just missed another oyster fest in June in New Orleans, as well as in Arcata, on the wild, black bear-trodden North Coast of California. Pencil them in for next year.

Wild Salmon. In British Columbia more than anywhere else, perhaps, a sharp line separates farmed salmon from wild. The former is abundant, cheap and likely a direct cause of the decline of some wild salmon populations—and proceeds from the annual Wild Salmon Festival of Lumby, British Columbia, held each July, go toward restoring local salmon-spawning habitat. As the event’s website poignantly states, “This festival honors the Wild Salmon who still come here to spawn and die.”

Mangoes. A festival each July in Coral Gables, Florida, features all things mango in one of the only American states where this tropical rock star of fruits can thrive. Florida farmers grow unique local varieties that festival visitors may taste nowhere else. In Guam, a celebration each June in the village of Agat showcases the island’s summer mango harvest with tastings, music, two- and five-kilometer runs and plant sales.

Watermelons arrive in heaps each summer, as do the worldwide festivals that honor them. Photo courtesy of Flickr user UGA College of Ag.

Watermelons. Festivals for America’s favorite and clumsiest fruit abound each summer. In Hope, Arkansas, watermelons take the stage this weekend at the 36th annual Watermelon Festival. Other similar festivals occur in Fair Bluff, North Carolina, in Carytown, Virginia, and in Mize, Mississippi. Throughout the Old World, too, summertime festivities honor the big juicy fruit, native to Eurasia. Upcoming is the annual watermelon festival in Salamanovo, Bulgaria, while the one in Beijing, China, came and went in late May.

Avocados. The Hass is the king of commercial avocado varieties, but hundreds of others can be found in Central American forests, in smaller orchards in California and Florida, and in government tree collections—like the experimental orchard at U.C. Irvine, where we just missed the annual walk-around-and-taste tour of the 80-variety avocado grove. But yet to come this year and early in 2013 are the avocado festival in Carpinteria, California, from October 5 to 7, next February’s avocado festival on the Big Island of Hawaii, where 200 varieties of avocados grow on local farms, and still another festival next April in Fallbrook, California. At each event there is sure to be mountains of guacamole—and even avocado ice cream.

Maine Lobster. We missed this one by a week—but pencil the Maine Lobster Festival into your 2013 calendar. Here, at Harbor Park in Rockland, the East Coast’s favorite crustacean will be served up in almost every manner. Consider getting to know the lobster first with a whole steamed two-pounder before moving on to more complicated dishes, which will be served by competing chefs in the lobster cook-off.

Black trumpets and golden chanterelles take center stage at such fungus celebrations as the Mendocino Wine and Mushroom Festival, coming this fall in Northern California. Photo courtesy of Flickr user portmanteaus.

Mushrooms. They rise unpredictably from the mossy forest floor, in dark, damp places, and in a vast array of colors, shapes and sizes—and the fact that some wild mushrooms are gourmet-grade edibles stirs fascination in millions of human admirers, who wait for them aboveground, frying pans greased to go. And so it’s hardly a surprise that countless fungus festivals celebrate wild mushrooms. In California’s Mendocino County in November, the annual Wine and Mushroom Festival spotlights one of the world’s most productive mushroom hotspots. Visitors will see and taste such culinary stars as the porcini, chanterelle, morel, lobster and black trumpet. Other annual mushroom festivals occur in Madisonville, Texas, Boyne City, Michigan, and Telluride, Colorado. And the world’s favorite underground mushroom, the white truffle, stars at the 82nd Annual International White Truffle Fair, which runs October 6 through November 18 in Alba, Italy.

Zinfandel. The largest single-variety wine tasting in the world, held each January in San Francisco, is a celebration of the Zinfandel grape, but just as much, it is a celebration of California itself, producer of virtually all the Zinfandel wine in the world. This Croatian-native grape variety makes a distinctively sharp and peppery red wine, which may owe its unique qualities in part to the chemistry of California soil. Scientists have found compounds of marine origin in the skins and juice of Zinfandel grapes—delivered, so the theory goes, from ocean to inland valley via migrating Chinook salmon, which die after spawning and whose carcasses were historically hauled from the rivers by bears and eaten in the state’s future vineyards. Taste a Zinfandel today, and you’re tasting California of yesteryear.

Yogurt, garlic, apples, wild game, olives, durians, cheese, jackfruit—foods of almost every sort are celebrated by the people who love them in the lands that produce them. So tell us: Which great or off-the-beaten-path food festivals did we leave out?

Two Pierogi Festivals Face Off Over Trademark

Smithsonian Magazine

This summer, two towns celebrated Polish culture by hosting local festivals devoted to pierogis—stuffed dumplings that form a tasty staple of cuisine across central and eastern Europe. The food at each festival was surely delicious, but relations between the towns have turned sour. As Becky Jacobs reports for the Chicago Tribune, the festivals are now locked in a federal lawsuit over the names of their pierogi extravaganzas.

The town of Whiting, Indiana, has been home to the Pierogi Fest for the past 23 years. The Edwardsville Pierogi Festival in Pennsylvania is a relative newcomer—it held its first event in 2014, and officials over in Whiting were none too pleased. In 2015, the Whiting-Robertsdale Chamber of Commerce, which runs the event in Indiana, sent a letter to the Edwardsville Hometown Committee, threatening to sue the committee for infringing on the name “Pierogi Fest.”

According to the Associated Press, Whiting trademarked the name of its festival in 2007. The registered trademark symbol is indeed stamped across the event’s website, which promises to offer the “wackiest fest in the Midwest.”

In June of this year, Whiting sent a second letter to the Edwardsville Committee, once again calling on officials to "cease all use of the infringing Pierogi Fest mark," according to Jacobs. The letter was also sent to five sponsors of the Edwardsville festival, which has in turn promoted some companies to rethink their support for the event.

Last week, Edwardsville Hometown Committee filed a federal lawsuit against the organizers of the Whiting Pierogi Fest. Court documents allege that Whiting officials "willfully and tortiously interfered with the Hometown Committee's relationship with sponsors" by "threatening them with liability for the claimed trademark infringement," Jacobs of the Tribune reports.

Edwardsville is seeking compensation for damages suffered, reimbursement for attorney fees, and a judge’s permission to continue using the name of its event.

The warring festivals both feature live entertainment, family-friendly activities and—of course—oodles of pierogis. But the event in Whiting is much larger; it draws about 300,000 people every year, while the Edwardsville fest attracts around 5,000.

This is not the first time that Whiting has found itself locked in an epic battle for dumpling domination. Joseph S. Pete of the Times of Northwest Indiana notes that the Whiting-Robertsdale Chamber filed an infringement lawsuit against the Pittsburgh Pierogi Festival “about a year and a half ago”—and it won the case. The latest kerfuffle over pierogi parties, however, finds Whiting as the defendants of a lawsuit. 

Organizers of the Whiting festival say they threatened the other town with legal action because its similarly named event could lead to “consumer confusion.” According to the AP, lawyers for the Edwardsville group “call that absurd, noting the festivals are 700 miles apart.”

How will this food fight end? Only time will tell. At the very least, the legal tussle does not seem to have deterred Pennsylvanians from their Polish-themed smorgasbords. The Kielbasa Festival in Plymouth, Pennsylvania, is slated to kick off this Friday. 

Editor's note, August 9, 2017: This piece initially noted that both festivals take place in the Midwest. Rather, just the Pierogi Fest in Whiting, Indiana, does. The Edwardsville Pierogi Festival takes place in Pennsylvania.

Five Can’t-Miss Summer Light Festivals

Smithsonian Magazine
From Sydney to Providence, the world will be set aglow with millions of lights this season

Festivals of the Dead Around the World

Smithsonian Magazine

In the United States, Halloween is big business: The National Retail Federation estimates that Americans spent over 6 billion dollars on candy, costumes and ghoulish decor during the 2013 holiday. But what has become a commercial feast for candy producers and pumpkin farmers actually has its roots in an ancient Celtic festival, Samhain, which marked the beginning of winter. The Celts believed that the night before Samhain, spirits from the other world came and destroyed vegetation with their breath, leaving the land barren for winter. People would leave food and wine on their doorsteps to appease the spirits, and wear masks when they left the house to blend in with them. Eventually, the pagan tradition was co-opted by the Christian church in the eighth century, and Samhain became All Saint's Day—or All Hallows. The night before became Hallows Eve (later Halloween for short).

Halloween retained its spiritual and macabre nature through many centuries, thanks to traditions like souling, where the poor would beg for pastries on November 2 (All Souls Day) in exchange for prayers for deceased relatives. In the 19th century, Irish and Scottish immigrants in America began to revive these traditions—with more of an emphasis on trick-or-treating than religious introspection—and by 2013, more than 150 million consumers participated in the modern American iteration of Halloween.

Around the world, many cultures have festivals intended to honor the dead. Like Samhain, some of them are linked to the change of seasons and the harvest, while others mirror the influence of Christianity, spread by missionaries throughout the world. If you're interested in checking out holidays for the dead—without fun-sized candy bars and jack-o'-lanterns—consider taking a trip to one of these seven festivals. But note that while many feature jubilant celebrations replete with dancing and music, they're meant first and foremost as a way to honor dead relatives and ancestors, and should be approached with respect.

Don't Miss These Dazzling, Iconic Flower Festivals

Smithsonian Magazine

It might be September, but that doesn’t mean it’s time to start bundling up quite yet. In fact, depending on what part of the world you live in, flower season might just be getting ready to kick off. While March through June might be peak time for flower season in most of the United States, no matter where you go you can find some wild celebrations of brightly colored flowers. Here are some of the world’s craziest, unmissable flower festivals:

A typical float at the Bloemencorso Zundert can be made up of hundreds of thousands of flowers. (Foto van Hassel BV via Wikimedia Commons)

Bloemencorso Zundert floral parade

Over the weekend, flower lovers descended on the tiny Dutch town of Zundert for the Bloemencorso Zundert – a days-long party celebrating the town’s iconic dahlias. The tradition dates back 80-some years, and while the parade may have started out as a relatively modest display of flower-adorned bicycles and horse-drawn carts, it’s since become something crazier and more surreal, involving massive floats covered in hundreds of thousands of flowers. Over the course of the first week of September, float-makers bustle about trying to complete their highly detailed displayed in time for the annual parade, and they can get crazy. Between the moving parts, the intricate designs, the yearly themes and the speed with which the floats are assembled, the Bloemencorso Zundert is as much a celebration of wild invention as it is the Netherlands’ dahlias.

The design of the 2016 Brussels Flower Carpet was based off of Japanese patterns. (Wim Vanmaele)

Brussels Flower Carpet

While the Brussels Flower Carpet only makes an appearance every other year, the spectacular display showcases some of the world’s most intricate flower arrangements. Starting in 1971, on every other August 15, the Belgian capital takes its iconic Grand-Place square and covers it in a literal carpet of sweet-smelling begonias. The Flower Carpet was originally started by a local landscape architect named Etienne Stautemas who made his name by designing flower carpets for cities across Europe throughout the 1950s. However, he saved his most remarkable feats for his country’s capital. These days, the Brussels Flower Carpets are made up of about 600,000 begonias each year, and are so closely packed together that every square yard can contain about 300 individual flowers. Remarkably, the entire venture is pieced together in only a few hours. With so much planning, effort and coordination necessary to get it done, it’s no wonder it is a biannual event.

A Buddhist temple of flowers constructed for the 2012 Lalbagh Flower Festival. (Shashidharus via Wikimedia Commons)

Bengaluru Flower Festival

Since the 18th century, the Lalbagh Botanical Garden has been a popular site for visitors to Bengaluru (previously Bangalore), the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. While the Botanical Garden has its own storied history, it is also home to two of India’s most vibrant flower festivals, celebrating India’s Independence Day and the founding of the Indian Republic. To celebrate, the gardens bring in some of the country’s most prominent horticulturists to show off India’s variety of vibrant flowers and indigenous plants in gorgeous displays and flower-covered structures. While past years have included massive centerpieces based on Buddhist and Hindu temples, this year to honor the 70th Independence Day, the Bengaluru Flower Festival constructed a large replica of India’s House of Parliament, decking the structure with local flowers like goa and maharashtra.

The nighttime, illuminated parades are some of the highlights of the annual Jersey Battle of Flowers. (Alex Walters via Wikimedia Commons)

Jersey Battle of Flowers

Some flower festivals may be highly competitive, considering the amount of effort and planning that goes into making their displays and floats, but the Jersey Battle of Flowers was once a battle in a literal sense. Like the Bloemencorso Zundert, the annual parade on this tiny island in the English Channel features intricate floats covered in thousands of flowers, chrysanthemums in this case. The "Battle of Flowers" earned its right to the name. Originally, the beautiful floats were torn apart as the flowers were used as ammunition in a flower-flinging fight. That part of the tradition has faded since the first Battle in 1902, and has since been replaced by a tamer tossing of flowers from the floats into the crowd. However, the excitement and spirit of competition remains, with exhibitors keeping their designs close to the chest until it is time for the parade.

A squad of sea creatures adorn this float from the 2015 Pasadena Rose Parade. (Prayitno via Flickr)

Pasadena Rose Parade

It would be almost criminal to put together a list of iconic flower festival and not give a nod to the Pasadena Rose Parade. Held every New Year’s Day since 1890 (as long as it doesn’t fall on a Sunday), the Rose Parade features crazy floats, marching bands and equestrian displays to ring in the new year. While the parade has gone hand-in-hand with the Rose Bowl, the parade actually predates the football game, which is also sponsored by the Tournament of Roses Association. To this day, the Rose Parade is one of the most popular New Year’s events in the United States, drawing hundreds of thousands of people to watch the parade in person and millions more who watch the stunning displays (and sunny, 75-degree weather) on their television sets.

Anthropology Teaching Activities: Studying Community Festivals

SI Center for Learning and Digital Access
Classroom activity explains the anthropological importance of studying festivals. Includes guiding questions to help students observe and report on a community festival.. Example observation and further reading also included.

Canela songs of other festivals (1959-5), 1959 [sound recording]

National Anthropological Archives
Digitization and preparation of these materials for online access has been funded through generous support from the Arcadia Fund.

Recorded in Maranhão (Brazil), R-Canela

The 29 Can't-Miss Summer Festivals of 2016

Smithsonian Magazine

What would summer be without a fantastic festival? Whether it’s chowing down on hot dogs or haggling with a vendor selling Victorian furniture at an antique show, there’s a plethora of summer festivals you won’t want to miss. We’ve taken care of the guesswork, rounding up the top 29 festivals of the season.  

Festival Video: 2014 Smithsonian Folklife Festival

Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
Welcome to the forty-eighth annual Smithsonian Folklife Festival. This year we celebrate the cultures of Kenya and China. With overRead More

Where to See the Best Mural Festivals Around the World

Smithsonian Magazine

Mural festivals are art fairs taken up a notch—a building-sized notch. Artists flock to different cities around the world to transform urban architecture into stunning pieces of visual craftsmanship.

In the U.S., the world of large-scale, outdoor murals can be traced back to the boom of government-commissioned public art under Roosevelt’s New Deal. Over the years, particularly in the 60s and 70s, graffiti began to appear and evolve alongside the murals, leading to the rise of the street art movement. Beginning in 1984, the Anti-Graffiti Network proposed using murals once again as public works, often to cover up the illegal graffiti coating city walls. It was a combination of both street art and government-commissioned murals that launched a global festival movement to beautify cities across the globe.

The majority of the festivals either invite artists to participate or have them apply for spots to paint designated walls. They're usually accompanied by other events—like concerts, parties and workshops held by the artists themselves. And afterwards, most of the art stays put to keep the city colorful.

Take part in the paint-filled fun at these city-sanctioned mural festivals around the world.

Upfest; Bristol, United Kingdom—July 28-30, 2018

Since its inception in 2008, Upfest has grown to be the biggest street art and graffiti festival in Europe. Now in it's 10th year, about 400 artists come to Bristol for the event, taking over spaces throughout the city with live art and music, workshops and kids’ activities. Over the course of the festival and afterward, many of the artworks are made into exclusive prints and sold as a fundraiser for charity.

Murals in the Market; Detroit, Michigan—September 13-22, 2018

Heading into its fourth year, Murals in the Market has already produced more than 120 murals in Detroit’s Eastern Market neighborhood—the densest collection of street art in all of Detroit. This year, the festival is gaining another day, going from nine to 10, and is adding a family reunion-style block party to kick off the painting. There will also be new art-walk maps this year that will lead visitors on a tour of all the murals, past and present.

Graffiato Street Art Festival; Taupo, New Zealand—October 19-22, 2018

Now one of several, Graffiato was New Zealand’s first street art festival. About 120 murals have been created throughout the years the festival has been running, which makes makes Taupo home to the largest collection of public murals by local artists in New Zealand. Among the specialties of artists coming to paint at Graffiato: pieces dedicated to and in honor of the country’s native Māori tribes.

MURAL Festival; Montreal, Canada — June 2019 (Exact dates not yet announced)

Image by Davi Tohinnou / MURAL Festival. (original image)

Image by Davi Tohinnou / MURAL Festival. (original image)

Image by Davi Tohinnou / MURAL Festival. (original image)

Image by Davi Tohinnou / MURAL Festival. (original image)

Image by Davi Tohinnou / MURAL Festival. (original image)

Image by Davi Tohinnou / MURAL Festival. (original image)

Image by Davi Tohinnou / MURAL Festival. (original image)

Heading into its 7th edition, MURAL is one of the world’s largest street art festivals. The majority of the murals created for past festivals are concentrated along Boulevard Saint-Laurent, and visitors to the city can tour the roughly 100 artworks created since the festival began in 2013 year round. This past June's event featured artists from the U.S., as well as Mexico, Spain and the U.K. The festival also includes scheduled parties, concerts and walking tours of the art.

Stencibility; Tartu, Estonia—June 2019 (Exact dates not yet announced)

Stencibility takes street art to a realm outside the standard murals-on-designated-walls type festival. Here, every surface is a potential spot for art—whether it be a plain wall, a smokestack or even a piece of sidewalk. The organizers make a point to show that street art is more than just murals. Past years have included entire buildings painted to take advantage of the architecture, sculpted faces emerging from walls, knitted installations and spray paint-free sidewalk art—think sculptures, chalk spray, and firepit art installations.

Wonderwalls, Australia (Dates not yet announced)

One of the Wonderwalls murals from a past festival. (Flickr by Dan O'Cker)

Keep an eye out for Wonderwalls, an as-yet-unscheduled annual mural festival in Australia. The festival packs a ton of activities into a few short days. In addition to large- and small-scale murals across various cities hosting the event—it has occurred in several different locations—there are also exhibitions on technique, processes and styles. The artists host discussions on how they’ve created their artworks and how their processes have changed over time.

ARTLAB+ Video Production Team at Smithsonian Heritage Family Festivals

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
Smithsonian has joined with the Pearson Foundation to train ARTLAB+ teens to document personal stories at Smithsonian Heritage Month Family Festivals. ARTLAB+ is a design studio for teens based out of the ArtLab space in the Hirshhorn Museum's Sculpture Garden. To find out more about ARTLAB+ programs visit artlabplus.si.edu.

12 of the Best Food Festivals Happening This Fall

Smithsonian Magazine
Where to eat, drink and play across the U.S. this autumn

Text of material on Festivals, by Joshua Buck 1895

National Anthropological Archives
Partly translated W.N.F., 1941.

Latino Festival

Anacostia Community Museum Archives
A woman and man perform a folk dance from Guatemala in the Parade of Nations at the 1991 Latino Festival on Constitution Avenue in Washington, D.C.

To the left, a woman wears a red huipil, long beaded necklaces, a skirt and a folded blanket over her head. To the right, the man wears a red and white striped Euro-American style pants and a long sleeve shirt.

Festival Audio: ‘Sawasawa’ by Makadem

Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
During the 2014 Smithsonian Folklife Festival, Makadem, a genuine entertainer, amused audiences with his “Anglo-Ohangla” style, a fusion of traditionalRead More
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