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Butterfly genome reveals promiscuous exchange of mimicry adaptations among species

Smithsonian Libraries
The evolutionary importance of hybridization and introgression has long been debated(1). Hybrids are usually rare and unfit, but even infrequent hybridization can aid adaptation by transferring beneficial traits between species. Here we use genomic tools to investigate introgression in Heliconius, a rapidly radiating genus of neotropical butterflies widely used in studies of ecology, behaviour, mimicry and speciation(2-5). We sequenced the genome of Heliconius melpomene and compared it with other taxa to investigate chromosomal evolution in Lepidoptera and gene flow among multiple Heliconius species and races. Among 12,669 predicted genes, biologically important expansions of families of chemosensory and Hox genes are particularly noteworthy. Chromosomal organization has remained broadly conserved since the Cretaceous period, when butterflies split from the Bombyx (silkmoth) lineage. Using genomic resequencing, we show hybrid exchange of genes between three co-mimics, Heliconius melpomene, Heliconius timareta and Heliconius elevatus, especially at two genomic regions that control mimicry pattern. We infer that closely related Heliconius species exchange protective colour-pattern genes promiscuously, implying that hybridization has an important role in adaptive radiation.

Original designs of the most celebrated masters of the Bolognese, Roman, Florentine, and Venetian schools : comprising some of the works of Leonardo da Vinci, the Caracci, Claude Lorraine, Raphael, Michel Angelo, the Poussins, and others, in His Majesty's collection : engraved by Bartolozzi, P.W. Tomkins, Schiavonetti, Lewis, and other eminent engravers; with biographical and historical sketches of L. da Vinci and the Caracci / by J. Chamberlaine

Smithsonian Libraries
In two parts, each with special title page: [Part 1]. Imitations of original designs by Leonardo da Vinci, consisting of various drawings of single figures, heads, compositions, horses, and other animals; optics, perspective ... and in particular of ... a variety of anatomical subjects in His Majesty's collection / published by John Chamberlaine. London, printed by W. Bulmer and Co. and sold by George Nicol [and 3 others], 1796 -- [Part 2]. Engravings from the original designs of Annibale, Agostino, and Ludovico Caracci, in His Majesty's collection. Consisting of elegant compositions and studies for the various celebrated pictures in the different palaces and cabinets at Rome, Bologna, Parma, Milan, & Co. / published by John Chamberlaine. London, printed by W. Bulmer and Co. and sold by George Nicol [and 3 others], 1797.

Illustrations are etchings, aquatints, roulette; some printed in colors.

With blank tissue guard-sheets.

Also available online.


CHMRB and SCDIRB each have one copy.

CHMRB copy 39088010945376 is imperfect: the main title page is wanting, although both special title pages are present.

CHMRB copy has a later brown cloth binding with gilt-lettered spine and top edge gilt; stamped: Brooklyn Bookbinding Co.

SCDIRB copy (39088007590870) acquired through the Smithsonian's purchase of the George Perkins Marsh collection, 1849.

SCDIRB copy stamped on title page: Smithsonian Institution Secretary's Library [ink manuscript no.] 4794 (overstamped "cancelled").

SCDIRB copy stamped on verso of title page: Smithsonian Institution National Museum Jun 12 1945 [accession no.] 328763.

SCDIRB copy half bound in red sheepskin and marbled boards, marbled endpapers, gilt edges.