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Architecture

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Image of Art Deco building with pink clouds and airplane.

Ndebele Architecture

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Ndebele Architecture, 1936-1949. Walls and steps are decorated with painted geometric designs. Photograph by Constance Stuart Larrabee, 1936-1949.

Between 1936 and 1949, Constance Stuart devoted much of her spare time to photograph the Ndebele, who lived in settlements near Pretoria. During the week, Stuart operated her studio in town; on weekends she drove to the nearby settlements. She frequently returned to the same places, and became familiar with many Ndebele women. Stuart created portraits, recorded Ndebele architecture, and documented activities, among them wall painting and mat making.

There are no prints of this negative in the Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection. EEPA produced an 8x10 study print for reference purposes.

The cataloging of the Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection was supported by a grant from The Smithsonian Women's Committee.

Ndebele Architecture

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Ndebele Architecture, 1936-1949. Walls and steps are decorated with painted geometric designs. Photograph by Constance Stuart Larrabee, 1936-1949.

Between 1936 and 1949, Constance Stuart devoted much of her spare time to photograph the Ndebele, who lived in settlements near Pretoria. During the week, Stuart operated her studio in town; on weekends she drove to the nearby settlements. She frequently returned to the same places, and became familiar with many Ndebele women. Stuart created portraits, recorded Ndebele architecture, and documented activities, among them wall painting and mat making.

There are no prints of this negative in the Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection. EEPA produced an 8x10 study print for reference purposes.

The cataloging of the Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection was supported by a grant from The Smithsonian Women's Committee.

Ndebele Architecture

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Ndebele Architecture, 1936-1949. Walls and steps are decorated with painted geometric designs. Photograph by Constance Stuart Larrabee, 1936-1949.

Between 1936 and 1949, Constance Stuart devoted much of her spare time to photograph the Ndebele, who lived in settlements near Pretoria. During the week, Stuart operated her studio in town; on weekends she drove to the nearby settlements. She frequently returned to the same places, and became familiar with many Ndebele women. Stuart created portraits, recorded Ndebele architecture, and documented activities, among them wall painting and mat making.

There is one 8x10 black and white fiber-based prin of this negative in the Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection. There is a signature by the photographer at the bottom that reads: "Constance Stuart Larrabee, 1947." There is also a 19 1/2 x 19 cm. black and white vintage print. EEPA produced an 8x10 study print for reference purposes.

The cataloging of the Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection was supported by a grant from The Smithsonian Women's Committee.

Stitching Architecture

Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum
1981-28 Matt Flynn 005Polly Turner’s sampler, worked in 1786, is one of the earliest known examples made at Mary Balch’s school in Providence, Rhode Island. According to tradition, the sampler’s five-bay house represents the residence of the president of Rhode Island College. Polly’s is the first known needlework depiction of the house, which appears on at least six...

Stitching Architecture

Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum
1981-28 Matt Flynn 005Polly Turner’s sampler, worked in 1786, is one of the earliest known examples made at Mary Balch’s school in Providence, Rhode Island. According to tradition, the sampler’s five-bay house represents the residence of the president of Rhode Island College. Polly’s is the first known needlework depiction of the house, which appears on at least six...

Responsive Architecture

Smithsonian American Art Museum

Landscape Architecture

Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum
PWP Landscape Architecture Principal of Peter Walker and Partners in Berkeley, California, Peter Walker has fifty years of experience in the teaching and practice of landscape architecture. His work explores the relationship of art, culture, and context that is grounded in extensive knowledge of history and tradition, understanding of contemporary needs, and mastery of construction....

Architecture Design

Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum
Office dA Office dA is a Boston-based architecture and design firm established in 1991 by principal partners Monica Ponce de Leon and Nadar Tehrani. Recognized for their interdisciplinary approach to architecture and innovative construction techniques, the firm has worked nationally and internationally on projects ranging from affordable housing, to buildings for academic and cultural institutions....

DISEÑO | Architecture

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Live from El Teatro at El Museo del Barrio Lively panel discussion on contemporary architecture. Leaders in the field, Diana Agrest of Agrest and Gandelsonas Architects, Enrique Norten of TEN Arquitectos and Mónica Ponce de León of MPdL Studio, discuss urban development, private and public space, and environmental considerations with architect and moderator Warren James. DISEÑO is a partnership between Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum, and El Museo del Barrio. This program received federal support from the Latino Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center.

Architecture Design

Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum
Blackwell00_MarlonBlackwell_745x456_Option4_Marlon Blackwell Architects Marlon Blackwell is one of the nation’s most respected regional modernist architects. His Fayetteville, Arkansas–based practice, Marlon Blackwell Architects, combines vernacular traditions with rigorous formalism to create architecture that responds to the physical and cultural eccentricities of a place. In addition to his professional practice, Blackwell serves as the E. Fay Jones...

Pueblo Architecture

National Museum of the American Indian

Trellis architecture

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Trellis architecture.

Progressive Architecture

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Origamic Architecture

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
January & February

Origamic Architecture

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
November & December

Origamic Architecture

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
May & June

Origamic Architecture

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
July & August

Origamic Architecture

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
September & October

Origamic Architecture

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Origamic Architecture

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
March & April

Origamic Architecture

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Instruction manual for 1985 calendar

Architecture Design

Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum
WEISS/MANFREDI Founded by Marion Weiss and Michael A. Manfredi, WEISS/MANFREDI expands the territory of architecture by connecting landscape, art, infrastructure, and architecture. The New York firm’s projects, including the Seattle Art Museum’s Olympic Sculpture Park, Brooklyn Botanic Garden’s Visitor Center, Penn’s Nanotechnology Center, Cornell Tech’s Tata Innovation Center, and the U.S. Embassy in New Delhi,...

Castle Architecture

Smithsonian Magazine

A castle is a fortified residence for a medieval noble. Castles come in all shapes and sizes, but knowing a few general terms will help you understand them.

The Keep (or Donjon): A high, strong stone tower in the center of the castle complex that was the lord's home and refuge of last resort.

Great Hall: The largest room in the castle, serving as throne room, conference center, and dining hall.

The Yard (or Bailey or Ward): An open courtyard inside the castle walls.

Loopholes: Narrow slits in the walls (also called embrasures, arrow slits, or arrow loops) through which soldiers could shoot arrows at the enemy.

Towers: Tall structures serving as lookouts, chapels, living quarters, or the dungeon. Towers could be square or round, with either crenellated tops or conical roofs.

Turret: A small lookout tower projecting up from the top of the wall.

Moat: A ditch encircling the wall, often filled with water.

Wall Walk (or Allure): A pathway atop the wall where guards could patrol and where soldiers stood to fire at the enemy.

Parapet: Outer railing of the wall walk.

Crenellation: A gap-toothed pattern of stones atop the parapet.

Hoardings (or Gallery or Brattice): Wooden huts built onto the upper parts of the stone walls. They served as watch towers, living quarters, and fighting platforms.

Machicolation: A stone ledge jutting out from the wall, fitted with holes in the bottom. If the enemy was scaling the walls, soldiers could drop rocks or boiling oil down through the holes and onto the enemy below.

Barbican: A fortified gatehouse, sometimes a stand-alone building located outside the main walls.

Drawbridge: A bridge that could be raised or lowered, using counterweights or a chain-and-winch.

Portcullis: A heavy iron grille that could be lowered across the entrance.

Postern Gate: A small, unfortified side or rear entrance used during peacetime. In wartime, it became a "sally-port" used to launch surprise attacks, or as an escape route.

Excerpted from Rick Steves’ Germany.

For all the details on castles in Germany, please see Rick Steves’ Germany.

Rick Steves (www.ricksteves.com) writes European travel guidebooks and hosts travel shows on public television and public radio. Email him at rick@ricksteves.com, or write to him c/o P.O. Box 2009, Edmonds, WA 98020.

© 2010 Rick Steves

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