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Found 1,999 Collections

 

U.S. Presidents

All of the U.S. Presidents

Lauren Petersen
3
 

U.S. Presidential Inauguration Resources

This teaching collection includes resources, such as video interviews with expert historians, artworks, memorabilia and photographs of the American tradition of presidential inaugurations, including the Oath of Office, the Inaugural Address, the Inauguration Parade and the Inaugural Ball.

Discussion Questions:
-How does a U.S. presidential inauguration compare to a royal coronation?
-How are these events populist (for ordinary citizens)? How are they elitist (for the high class elite)?
-Where can inauguration traditions be traced?
-What is required by the Constitution to occur at a presidential inauguration?
-What events have become a tradition over time?
-What objects help tell the story of inaugurations over time?
Ashley Naranjo
36
 

U.S. Dollars in Liberia

The Value of Money exhibition's new acquisition case is currently featuring a display on the use of U.S. Dollars in Liberia.  This Learning Lab makes this display available digitally. 

U.S. Dollars in Liberia 

From 1820 to 1904, about 16,000 people formerly enslaved in the United States sailed to West Africa and established the country now known as Liberia. The American Colonization Society, which sought to create a colony in Africa for formerly enslaved people, issued currency like this 1833 token and established a government led by white officials. 

In 1847 Liberian migrants declared independence from the American Colonization Society and issued their own coins as a symbol of nationhood. The coins were minted in England and circulated alongside indigenous currencies like the Kissi penny. In the late 19th and early 20th century, the Liberian government struggled with debt, making it difficult for the Liberian dollar to maintain its value. As a result, merchants and then the government began to use the colonial currency of British West Africa instead. 

In 1943, with financial help from the U.S. government, the U.S. dollar replaced British West African shillings as the primary currency in circulation. The Liberian dollar continued to be in use as small change. Today Liberia is one of few nations with a dual currency system, as both American and Liberian dollars circulate alongside each other. In 2019 the National Numismatic Collection acquired contemporary Liberian banknotes to help tell this story. 

Suggested Reading:

Gardner, Leigh A. "The rise and fall of sterling in Liberia, 1847-1943." Economic History Review 67, no. 4 (2014): pp. 1089-1112. 

Rosenberg, Emily S. Financial Missionaries to the World: The Politics and Culture of Dollar Diplomacy 1900-1830. Chapel Hill: Duke University Press, 2007. 


 To see all of the West African currency objects in the National Numismatic Collection, click here.  Please feel free to reach out to Dr. Leigh Gardner or Dr. Ellen Feingold with questions or feedback.

This project was generously funded by the Knowledge Exchange and Impact Fund at the London School of Economics. It was completed in partnership with the Smithsonian’s National Numismatic Collection.




NMAH and London School of Economics
7
 

U Street Riots Two Part Lesson

These six images give a glimpse of the damage done during the 1968 riots on U street following the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King.  The images are all attributed to Scurlock Studios, which students will study more in depth in a separate collection.  

The two day lesson centered around this collection begins with a gallery walk.  The Guiding Question for this lesson are:

-What can primary source photographs tell us about an event in history?

-How did the 1968 riots change Washington DC?


The Big Idea for this lesson is:

One event can have lasting effects on the history of a place.

 Each student will have a packet featuring  six 'See, Think, Wonder' pages, and a final page titled 'Gallery Walk Debrief.'  On Day 1, computers will be set up at six tables throughout the classroom, with all computers on a given table showing one of the six images in the collection.  At the teacher's direction, student partnerships will have 3-5 minutes to stop at each station and fill out one of the 'See, Think, Wonder' pages.  

At the conclusion of the gallery walk, student will meet with their partner for approximately 3 minutes to discuss the important question on the last page of their packet: 'Based on the images you viewed, how do you think the riots on U Street changed Washington DC?'  Once students have discussed, they will have approximately 5 minutes to write at least two sentences in response to this question.

On Day 2 of the lesson, the teacher will use a projectable screen in the class room  to walk through the interactive Washington Post article about the 1968 riots, allowing time to pause and watch each embedded video and answer any pressing questions.  

At the conclusion of the article, students will spend approximately 5 minutes at their tables discussing how their understanding of the 1968 riots has changed or expanded based on the Washington Post piece.  The teacher will then lead a discussion that should convey, at the very least, the following points:

-The U Street riots were widespread and caused major damage to areas of the city including but not limited to the U Street Corridor.  

-Many business' in DC were forever wiped out because of the riots and entire neighborhoods took, in some cases, decades to fully recover.

- Martin Luther King's death served as the final straw for many African Americans both in DC and around the country who had long been suffering under the crippling effects of segregation, discrimination, and racism.  

- Following the 1968 riots, most white people left the city.  

Following the teacher discussion, students will have approximately 5 minutes to write down an answer to the single question on the worksheet titled Washington Post Article Debrief:  After viewing the Washington Post article about the 1968 riots, what new information did you learn about how the 1968 riots changed Washington DC?

#LearnWithTR




Peter Gamber
10
 

Tyler Badgett 1920s and 1930s Artifacts

The purpose of this project is to explain and show American history.

tyler badgett
10
 

Two approaches to resolving the Great Depression

Objective: To contrast Franklin D. Roosevelt's approach to resolving the Great Depression with Herbert Hoover's approach.

Herbert Hoover did not cause the Great depression, but Americans looked to him as their President to solve the financial and humanitarian crisis. At the beginning of the economic downturn, Hoover followed a hands-off policy.

Franklin D. Roosevelt pledged a "New Deal" for the American people. He believed that the federal government needed to play an active role in promoting recovery and providing relief.

Directions: Review the images in the collection and the information provided with each, determine whether the artifact reflects Herbert Hoover's response to the Great Depression or if it reflects Franklin Delano Roosevelt's response to the Great Depression.

At the end of the collection, you will be asked to sort the images into two categories and answer some evaluative questions.

tags: FDR, Bonus Army, Great Depression, Herbert Hoover, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, New Deal, 1930s,

Scott Karavlan
15
 

Twining Cedar videos

Red cedar bark twined basketry is a distinctive Tsimshian art form. With the passing on of elder master artists and the demands of contemporary lifestyles, it became at risk. A handful of weavers today are working to master and revitalize twined cedarbark basketry, reconnecting with a proud heritage. In 2016, the Arctic Studies Center collaborated with The Haayk Foundation of Metlakatla to document the materials and techniques of cedarbark basketry. The project included a harvesting and processing workshop and a weaving workshop in Metlakatla, and a residency at the Arctic Studies Center in Anchorage where artists studied baskets from museum and private collections, practiced and refined weaving techniques, and taught museum visitors and school children about basketry.

Teaching was led by Haida master weaver Delores Churchill, who learned from master Tsimshian weaver Flora Mather, with assistance from her daughter Holly Churchill, an accomplished weaver. In addition to Metlakatla students, three advanced Tsimshian weavers participated in the project, sharing techniques learned in their families and communities and learning new ones: Kandi McGilton (co-founder of The Haayk Foundation), Karla Booth (granddaughter of Tsimshian master weaver Violet Booth) and Annette Topham (niece of master Tsimshian weaver Lillian Buchert). Metlakatla elder Sarah Booth, a fluent speaker of Sm’algyax (Ts’msyen), assisted Kandi McGilton in documenting indigenous basketry terminology for use in language classes.

The videos below pair with a bilingual guide included here. The videos provide an introduction to the artists and to Tsimshian twined cedarbark baskets, and they provide instruction on how to harvest and process materials and on how to weave a basket from start to finish. A twined cedarbark basket from the Smithsonian collections is also included below.

Tags: Alaska, Native art, museum, education, Indigenous, Tsimshian, cedar, bark, Metlakatla, weaving, basket, David Boxley, Kandi McGilton, Delores Churchill, Karla Booth, Annette Topham, Holly Churchill, Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center in Alaska

Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center in Alaska
18
 

Tsimshian Bilingual Guide: Twining Cedar

Red cedar bark twined basketry is a distinctive Tsimshian art form. With the passing on of elder master artists and the demands of contemporary lifestyles, it became at risk. A handful of weavers today are working to master and revitalize twined cedarbark basketry, reconnecting with a proud heritage. In 2016, the Arctic Studies Center collaborated with The Haayk Foundation of Metlakatla to document the materials and techniques of cedarbark basketry. The project included a harvesting and processing workshop and a weaving workshop in Metlakatla, and a residency at the Arctic Studies Center in Anchorage where artists studied baskets from museum and private collections, practiced and refined weaving techniques, and taught museum visitors and school children about basketry.

Teaching was led by Haida master weaver Delores Churchill, who learned from master Tsimshian weaver Flora Mather, with assistance from her daughter Holly Churchill, an accomplished weaver. In addition to Metlakatla students, three advanced Tsimshian weavers participated in the project, sharing techniques learned in their families and communities and learning new ones: Kandi McGilton (co-founder of The Haayk Foundation), Karla Booth (granddaughter of Tsimshian master weaver Violet Booth) and Annette Topham (niece of master Tsimshian weaver Lillian Buchert). Metlakatla elder Sarah Booth, a fluent speaker of Sm’algyax (Ts’msyen), assisted Kandi McGilton in documenting indigenous basketry terminology for use in language classes.

The bilingual guide below pairs with a set of 15 instructional videos included here. The guide provides step-by-step details about cedarbark basketry from harvesting materials to twining techniques in Sm’algya̱x (the Tsimshian language) and English. A twined cedarbark basket from the Smithsonian collections is also included below.

Tags: Alaska, Native art, museum, education, Indigenous, Tsimshian, cedar, bark, Metlakatla, weaving, basket, David Boxley, Kandi McGilton, Delores Churchill, Karla Booth, Annette Topham, Holly Churchill, Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center in Alaska

Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center in Alaska
18
 

Truth-Force Heroes

Examining the transformational power of non-violence - an everlasting truth-force! 

#SJ2019LP

Esteban Hernandez
4
 

Troy Pimentel: 1920s and 1930s Artifacts

The purpose of this project is to show what inventions, artifacts, or media are important to this time period.

Troy Pimentel
10
 

Triumph and Tragedy: U.S. Reconstruction, 1865-1877

This collection brings together Smithsonian and other federal resources to support the initial research into a project for National History Day 2019, "Triumph and Tragedy in History." #NHD2019


These resources - including photographs, broadsides, political cartoons, publications, correspondence, ledger books, and government documents - explore the varying experiences, political arguments, and consequences of the period following the American Civil War, known as Reconstruction. Resources highlight the opposing ideas for and against Reconstruction policies - and their consequences - by the federal government and its citizens, including political leaders and activists. Also included are digital resources related to Constitutional Amendments passed during this era, supporting secondary resources, and various cartoons, broadsides, speeches, and imagery portraying the African American response to Reconstruction policies and the promises of citizenship and equal rights. Other primary source documents included provide a glimpse into how Reconstruction may have affected individual lives and businesses, and links to digitized collections (and corresponding transcriptions) of thousands of documents from the U.S. Bureau of Freedmen, Refugees, and Abandoned Lands. 

By no means is this collection comprehensive; instead, it provides a launching point for further research. 

Tags: Civil War, Reconstruction, U.S. Reconstruction, postwar, South, perspective, politics, southern democrats, Radical Republicans, African Americans, Freedmen's Bureau, Records of the Bureau of Freedmen, Refugees, and Abandoned Lands, art, photographs, political cartoons, military, 19th century, 1800s, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, Hiram Revels, amendments, #NHD

Smithsonian Transcription Center
49
 

Triumph and Tragedy: Pittsburgh's History of Innovation in Science

This collection connects the 2019 National History Day theme of "Triumph and Tragedy in History" to a selection of topics related to Western Pennsylvania, science, and innovation. This region’s history features many stories of triumph over tragedy, including two key events: the creation of the polio vaccine at the University of Pittsburgh, and Rachel Carson’s fight against the detrimental effects of pesticides on the environment.

The first half of the collection focuses on the story of the polio vaccine, including context on the polio virus, movements to raise money for a cure, and Salk's work in Pittsburgh. It also mentions Henrietta Lacks, whose cells were used without permission for a range of medical advancements, including the polio vaccine.

The second half of the collection highlights Rachel Carson, her talent for writing and interest in animals as a child, how she came to be interested in the effects of DDT, and her legacy as an environmentalist. 

These objects, images, and sources can be used to help form an idea for a project, provide a new angle on an existing project idea, or lead to new ways of including primary sources into NHD projects. They are drawn from a range of primary source repositories, which can be helpful sources of information for students working on these topics. 

#NHD2019 #NHD 

HeinzHistoryCenterEducation
35
 

Triumph and Tragedy: Lincoln Assassination

#NHD #NHD2019 #Lincoln #LincolnAssassination #FordsTheatre #FordsTheater #Assassination #Triumph #Tragedy #CivilWar

This collection combines resources from Ford's Theatre, and other scholarly sources, to assist in student research for National History Day 2019. Including documents, objects, artwork, and video, these resources show President Abraham Lincoln’s triumphs and the tragic end of his life by assassination. In particular, this collection contains primary sources about reactions to Lincoln’s assassination, which give us insight into the mood of the still-divided country as the Civil War wound down.

Ford's Theatre
88
 

Triumph and Tragedy at the National Portrait Gallery

This Learning Lab collection has been created to support the 2019 National History Day theme, Triumph and Tragedy in History. Utilizing portraits and other resources from the National Portrait Gallery, this collection is organized by Topics within the Triumph and Tragedy theme. 

Be sure to check out the following at the end of the collection: 

-Reading Portraiture Guide for Educators highlights close looking strategies that can be used with the portraits listed

-Triumph and Tragedy In History Theme Book from National History Day 2019

#NHD2019 #NHD

#NPGteach


Briana White
105
 

Traqueros, part 3: The Art of Martín Ramírez (1895–1963)

Martín Ramírez (1895–1963) was born in Jalisco, Mexico. He emigrated to the U.S. in 1925 to work in California as a miner and a traquero. Poverty and his need to seek steady work forced him to leave his wife Ana and their four children in Mexico. The Great Depression left him unemployed, and acute mental illness led him to be remanded to the DeWitt State Hospital in Auburn, California in 1948, where he lived until his death in 1963.

As told by the curators at the Smithsonian American Art Museum: "Around 1948, Ramírez began to draw on an eclectic array of paper surfaces—brown wrapping paper, laundry lists, paper cups, old letters—which were glued together to form a unified drawing area. He made use of a variety of tools and techniques, including crayons, colored pencils, watercolors, chalk, ink, and collage.

"Ramírez's motifs reflect his life in two distinct cultures. His highly patterned, intricate drawings present fantastic renditions of subjects such as Mexican soldiers, Madonnas, prairie dogs, cars, and trains. In terms of technique, what is most extraordinary in Ramírez's art is his use of line to create the many different kinds of space—niches, frames, stages—in which his protagonists are placed. Although flatness characterizes the overall effect of his technique, the numerous parallel lines in Ramírez's work bring about a sense of visual depth."

About 450 of Martin Ramirez's drawings and collages are known to exist. He is widely regarded as one of the 20th century's greatest autodidactic artists. His work has been presented in solo exhibitions at museums around the world, including the Centro cultural/Arte contemporáneo in Mexico City (1989), the American Folk Art Museum in New York City (2007, 2009), and the Museo nacional centro de arte Reína Sofía in Madrid (2010).

#EthnicStudies #MexicanAmericans #Traqueros #Railroads #SelfTaught #Latinos #Chicanos #Artists #MartinRamirez

David Colon
5
 

Traqueros, part 2: Chain Migration and Boxcar Communities

A profound result of the vast employment of traqueros in the transportation industry was the railroads' corporate strategy to establish means for "chain migration." Chain migration refers to the process of immigrants from a particular region or town following the path of prior immigrants (from their same region or town) to the same destination. 

As the agricultural, petroleum, and cattle ranching industries of the Southwest expanded to a vast scale in the early 20th century, the demand for traquero labor grew as well. To meet this demand, companies like the Santa Fe Railroad incentivized traqueros to bring along their families, including wives and children, to live on sites by the rail yards rent-free. 

A key tactic in this strategy was the practice of housing traqueros in converted boxcars. These converted boxcars would be grouped together into settlements, which tended to be of two types: one was a species of "mobile villages" that moved along the train tracks, whereas the other type was comprised by taking boxcar quarters off the rails and grouping them together on the outskirts of rail yards in areas usually saved for section gangs. Historian Al Camarillo, in his book Chicanos in a Changing Society: From Mexican Pueblos to American Barrios in Santa Barbara and Southern California, 1848-1930 (1979) has termed the process of establishing boxcar settlements as "barrioization," because these family-centered communities demonstrated the sustainability of Mexican American communities, as well as familiarized Mexican immigrants with different parts of the U.S. that would become significant Mexican immigrant destinations.

Mexican boxcar communities existed all over the country and in major cities including Chicago, Pittsburgh, Los Angeles, and San Diego. 

On April 18th, 2016, Dr. Antonio Delgado, a former Smithsonian Institution Visiting Scholar (1998), presented his research on Mexican boxcar communities in Chicago at the McHenry County Historical Society Museum. Illinois Humanities sponsored the event, publishing the Daily Herald's notice of the program on the Illinois Humanities' news blog. The online story includes a trailer for local station WTVP's documentary, Boxcar People, for which the now adult children of traqueros were interviewed. 

#EthnicStudies #MexicanAmericans #Traqueros #Railroads #BoxcarCommunities #ChainMigration #Latinos #Chicanos

Rubina Pantoja
6
 

Traqueros, part 2: Chain Migration and Boxcar Communities

A profound result of the vast employment of traqueros in the transportation industry was the railroads' corporate strategy to establish means for "chain migration." Chain migration refers to the process of immigrants from a particular region or town following the path of prior immigrants (from their same region or town) to the same destination. 

As the agricultural, petroleum, and cattle ranching industries of the Southwest expanded to a vast scale in the early 20th century, the demand for traquero labor grew as well. To meet this demand, companies like the Santa Fe Railroad incentivized traqueros to bring along their families, including wives and children, to live on sites by the rail yards rent-free. 

A key tactic in this strategy was the practice of housing traqueros in converted boxcars. These converted boxcars would be grouped together into settlements, which tended to be of two types: one was a species of "mobile villages" that moved along the train tracks, whereas the other type was comprised by taking boxcar quarters off the rails and grouping them together on the outskirts of rail yards in areas usually saved for section gangs. Historian Al Camarillo, in his book Chicanos in a Changing Society: From Mexican Pueblos to American Barrios in Santa Barbara and Southern California, 1848-1930 (1979) has termed the process of establishing boxcar settlements as "barrioization," because these family-centered communities demonstrated the sustainability of Mexican American communities, as well as familiarized Mexican immigrants with different parts of the U.S. that would become significant Mexican immigrant destinations.

Mexican boxcar communities existed all over the country and in major cities including Chicago, Pittsburgh, Los Angeles, and San Diego. 

On April 18th, 2016, Dr. Antonio Delgado, a former Smithsonian Institution Visiting Scholar (1998), presented his research on Mexican boxcar communities in Chicago at the McHenry County Historical Society Museum. Illinois Humanities sponsored the event, publishing the Daily Herald's notice of the program on the Illinois Humanities' news blog. The online story includes a trailer for local station WTVP's documentary, Boxcar People, for which the now adult children of traqueros were interviewed. 

#EthnicStudies #MexicanAmericans #Traqueros #Railroads #BoxcarCommunities #ChainMigration #Latinos #Chicanos

David Colon
6
 

Traqueros, part 1: The Mexican American Railroad Workers

Traqueros ('track workers') were Mexican and Mexican American laborers who were instrumental in the building and expansion of the railroad throughout the U.S., from the mid- to late-19th century until the early- to mid-20th century. 

Following the implementation of the Chinese Exclusion Act (1882), Chinese immigrant labor - central to the construction of the transcontinental railroad (1869) - was extremely curtailed, and Mexican workers were relied upon to fill the labor void. By 1900, U.S. railroads employed over 1 million people, which increased to almost 1.8 million by 1925. According to the late historian Jeffrey Marcos Garcilazo, in his book Traqueros: Mexican Railroad Workers In The United States, 1870-1930 (2012): "Between 1880 and 1930, Mexican track workers constituted almost two-thirds of the track labor forces in the Southwest, Central Plains, and Midwest" (p.34). 

The U.S. federal government's Immigration Act (1917), while curtailing European immigration, exempted Mexican immigrants coming to work in the U.S. from its restrictions, largely because of the abundant reliance on Mexican labor in the railroad industry. By even the 1890s, the U.S. railroad labor force was so largely Mexican that the Southern Pacific Railroad adopted the practice of employing Mexican cooks in their workers' camps to satisfy the appetites of their immigrant laborers. 

The legacy of traqueros is largely forgotten in U.S. history books about labor and the building of our country, but recent and ongoing scholarship is revealing the vital role of traqueros in the strengthening of the U.S. economy, transportation system, and large-scale industry since the Civil War.

#EthnicStudies #MexicanAmericans #Traqueros #Railroads #Latinos #Chicanos


David Colon
3
 

Transportation in America

#tuteach

Kelly Herndon
37
 

Transitional Justice around the World

Images and symbols of countries that can be considered subjects for the study of transitional justice. Transitional justice relates to justice methods used to approach societies scarred by major human rights violations.

Danny Rivas
6
 

Transcontinental Railroad: the 19th Century "Network" of the Future

In 1862, the Pacific Railroad Act chartered the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific Railroad Companies, and tasked them with building a transcontinental railroad that would link the United States from East to West. Over the next seven years, the two companies would race toward each other starting from Sacramento, California in the West and Omaha, Nebraska to the East, both teams struggled to overcome  great engineering obstacles and physical risks to their workforce before the two lines were joined at Promontory, Utah, on May 10, 1869. This "network" connecting our nation and  continent, was a huge technological step forward for our country that incited many other technologies and industries.

Jodi Halligan M.Ed
13
 

Trail of Tears

What was the Trail of Tears? What incidents led to the Trail of Tears? Who was removed from their native land? Where did they resettle? What was President Andrew Jackson's opinion on Indian removal? What was John Ross's opinion on Indian removal? What is your opinion on the event?

This Collection was created to be used as an introduction to the "Trail of Tears" event that occurred during the period of Westward Expansion. This Collection contains images of then President Andrew Jackson, John Ross, Chief of the Cherokee nation, and General Winfield Scott. It also includes Jackson's message to Congress, "On Indian Removal", the Treaty of New Echota along with a letter that Chief Ross wrote to the U.S. Congress denouncing the Treaty of New Echota which the government used as legal authority to remove the Cherokee from their native land.

Background Information:
In 1838 and 1839, President Andrew Jackson ordered the relocation of the Cherokee people from their native lands east of the Mississippi River to an area in what is known as present-day Oklahoma.
The Cherokee people called this forced migration the, "Trail of Tears" because of its devastating effects. The Cherokee people suffered hunger, disease, and exhaustion during their journey, resulting in 4,000 deaths out of the 15,000 Cherokees who were forced to relocate.

Source citation: "Trail of Tears." Africans in America. PBS Online. nd. Web. 7 Jan 2016.
Linda Muller
11
 

toys in 1860

        In the 1860's toys where not as big and showy as they are now. they where very light hearted and simple but would still entertain the kids who had fun playing with them. Toys like the rocking horse were very simple in design providing only one thing which was to rock back and forth. The toy ark on the following picture is simple in design as well since it really doesn't do anything however it seemed to be a good way to educate kids back then about Noah's ark which is a fundamental Bible story. simple small rolling toys like the train seem simple now a days but where very popular amongst boys back in the 1860's.  

        The crank carousel is not to weird as there are many modern counterparts but basically it is really used by just cranking the lever until it starts moving around and maybe making some music which was really a basic form of amusement for kids in the 19th century.  The cat toy was a simple wooden toy that seem to have something in between it that made a sound when pushed. The Cradle seemed to be made for dolls since its unlikely to be made for an actual baby. The Dog toy seemed to be made and work the same way as the cat toy did. 

       The doll was a main toy little girls played with and seemed to be made out of wood all around with a simple dress as a cover. The Doll that follows the first doll seem to be a more elegant doll that was most likely reserved for wealthier families with little girls. The Duck toy worked and was made in the same way as the cat and dog toys were where you pressed on it and made a noise. The farm set was basically just a set of farm animals with a farm house included it like a lego set but with out the building aspect it was more of a toy for the imagination. 


Miguel Ramon
10
 

Toys and Games Children Played with During and After the Colonial Period

This collection includes toys and games from the colonial period and after. Like most items created during this time frame, these toys and games were usually handmade out of easily accessible items like wood, cotton, and paper. This collection includes a variety of toys such as two dolls, checkers and dominoes, a rattle ball, a board game, jackstraw, a carousel, playing cards, and a shuttlecock used during the game of Badminton. Each one of these items symbolized how products from this time period were individualistic and could be made right at home. 

Joycelynn Thomas
10
193-216 of 1,999 Collections