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Studio Portrait: Taymur Mirza and his Sons [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"Taymur Mirza Hisam al-Dawla, born in Shiraz in 1810 was the fifth son of Husayn ali Farmanfarma. He resided in Baghdad till 1864 when he returned to Nasir Al-Din Shah's court to become his chief of hunt and hunting-bird specialist. He wrote a book on the subject of hunting and hunting birds titled Baznama-i Nasiri, published in 1868. He died in 1874 and is buried in Najaf, Iraq." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "Copy print. Pencil marks around the ficus and some of the imperfections of the original print. Pencil marks on the faces and eyes of the figures."

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 58.1: Court ministers (#435)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

North of Tehran (Iran): Imarat-i Bagh-i Firdaws (Palace at Garden of Paradise) at Shimiran [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "444) Shimran Baghi Ferdous." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 58.2: Tehran. Shimran. Baghi Ferdows (444)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Tehran (Iran): Kakh-i Gulistan (Gulistan Palace Complex): Celebration Scene in the Garden [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"Most probably a scene from Aziz al-Sultan's wedding ceremony." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- Handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "1163."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "339) Celebration in Gulistan palace." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 58.3: Tehran. Gulistan Palace. Celebration (339)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Studio Portrait: Two Men in Uniform [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "406) Army officers." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 58.4: Army officers (#406)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Tehran (Iran): Jeanne d'Arc School: Group Portrait of Students (probably early Pahlavi era) [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "341) Jean d'Arc School." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 58.05: Tehran. Jean d'Arc School. (341)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Table Dressed for a Celebration [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

The 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo condition reads, "All four sides are chopped off."

- Faded handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "988."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "343) Loaded table." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 58.6: Loaded table (343)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Group Portrait: Nasir Al-Din Shah's Court Ministers [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- Handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "946."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "340) Ministers of court (?)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 58.8: Ministers of court (?) (340)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Group Portrait: Nasir Al-Din Shah and Court Ministers [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- Handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "1147."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "336) Nasr Din Shah and ministers." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 58.8: Nasr Din Shah and ministers (336)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Tehran (Iran): Maydan-i Tupkhana (also known as Maydan-i Sipah or Square of Canons): View of Tents and Canons [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo condition reads, "All four sides are chopped off."

- Handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "1049."

- Scratched handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "320."

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 58.10: Camp." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Isfahan (Iran): Madrasa-i Madar-i Shah: View of Cossack Officers Standing in front of Entrance Iwan [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo condition reads, "The glass negative is broken."

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 59.1: Iwan." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Province of Gilan (Iran): Port of Bandar Anzali [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The image is part of a series of photos from the port and its new constructions. The photos depict the official buildins of Bandar-I Anzali (also called Bandar-I Pahlavi) or Anzali port. One of the images in the series shows one of the buildings with a sing on top that reads: "[...] Nazmiyya - Bandar-i Pahlavi". the port of Anzali on the south edge of the Caspian sea and to the north of Tehran was renamed to Pahlavi in 1934. As such the photo mush have been taken after the death of Antione Sevruguin and by someone associated with his studio." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "524-527) Pahlevi, new city." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 60.3: Town." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Province of Gilan (Iran): Park Area at Port of Bandar Anzali [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The image is part of a series of photos from the port and its new constructions. The photos depict the official buildins of Bandar-I Anzali (also called Bandar-I Pahlavi) or Anzali port. One of the images in the series shows one of the buildings with a sing on top that reads: "[...] Nazmiyya - Bandar-i Pahlavi". the port of Anzali on the south edge of the Caspian sea and to the north of Tehran was renamed to Pahlavi in 1934. As such the photo mush have been taken after the death of Antione Sevruguin and by someone associated with his studio." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "524-527) Pahlevi, new city." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 60.4: Tehran ? - Pahlevi, new city (524-527)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Province of Gilan (Iran): Walkway at Port of Bandar Anzali [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The image is part of a series of photos from the port and its new constructions. The photos depict the official buildins of Bandar-I Anzali (also called Bandar-I Pahlavi) or Anzali port. One of the images in the series shows one of the buildings with a sing on top that reads: "[...] Nazmiyya - Bandar-i Pahlavi". the port of Anzali on the south edge of the Caspian sea and to the north of Tehran was renamed to Pahlavi in 1934. As such the photo mush have been taken after the death of Antione Sevruguin and by someone associated with his studio." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo condition reads, "The top edge is chopped off."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "524-527) Pahlevi, new city." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 60.5: Avenue." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Province of Gilan (Iran): Park Area at Port of Bandar Anzali [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The image is part of a series of photos from the port and its new constructions. The photos depict the official buildins of Bandar-I Anzali (also called Bandar-I Pahlavi) or Anzali port. One of the images in the series shows one of the buildings with a sing on top that reads: "[...] Nazmiyya - Bandar-i Pahlavi". the port of Anzali on the south edge of the Caspian sea and to the north of Tehran was renamed to Pahlavi in 1934. As such the photo mush have been taken after the death of Antione Sevruguin and by someone associated with his studio." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "524-527) Pahlevi, new city." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 60.4: (?)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Tehran (Iran): Ishratabad Palace [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The palace was built during the reign of Nasir Al-Din Shah. The photo is taken about 15 years after its construction." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo condition reads, "All four sides are chopped off."

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 60.8: House and garden." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Tehran (Iran): Kakh-i Gulistan (Gulistan Palace Complex): Celebration Scene in the Garden [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"Most probably a scene from Aziz al-Sultan's wedding ceremony. Small sticker on the bottom right side with '111' on it." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 60.9: Court." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Portrait of Shaykh-i Khaz'al (1863-1936) [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"Also known as Nusrat al-Mulk, Mu'iz al-Saltana, Sardar Arfa' and Sardar Aqdas, he was the governor of Khuzestan form 1898 for around thirty years. Shaykh Khaz'al entered into an agreement with the British government at the beginning of the World War I, upon which the British government agreed to protect the sovereignty of Khaz'al's rule against any government - including the central government of Iran. After the war and a following unsuccessful attempt at establishing a sovereign Arab state in Khuzestan, he was arrested and brought to Tehran in 1926 where he stayed until his death/murder on May 25th of 1936." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "Black paper on the front. Black ink in between the paper and the figure. Pencil marks on the face. Small yellowish piece of paper on the bottom left."

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 60.12: Man." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Tehran (Iran): Darvaza Dawlat (Dawlat City gate), Viewed from Inside the City [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The structure of Darvaza Dawlat dates to Nasir Al-Din Shah's time. After the expansion of Tehran, which started in 1867, six gates were added to the city walls of Tehran, one of the most elaborately designed one of which was Darvaza Dawlat. The gate was built in 1871 by Mohammad Rahim Khan 'Ala al-Dawla (Amir Nizam). Located on the north side of the wall, Darvaza Dawlat, along with Shimiran and Yusif Abad Gates, marked the northern boundaries of the city. The view of the gates usually differed from the side facing the city to the side facing the outside. Almost all of the twelve gates of the city were torn down during the later expansion of Tehran in 1930s. The gate went under extensive reconstructions in late 1880s and early 1890s that removed a top arch from the main archway. This photo is taken after the reconstruction." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo condition reads, "Piece of black paper on the border of the photo."

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 61.5: City gate." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Rasht (Iran): Spice Shop [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Iraj Afshar, Ganjina'i Akshay-i Iran, 1984, p:280

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The sugar cones in the shop have the logo of a sugar factory and refinery. The logo reads: "FABRYKA CUKRU/KONSTANCYA" which seems to be the name of a polish refinery. Another sugar cone logo in the shop reads: "CUKROWNIA/MICHALOW", also a brand of polish sugar refinery. The images in both Iraj Afshar's book and Zayn al'Abedin Maragha'i's travelogue of 1903 shows a bit more of the surrounding area of the shop than the one showed in the negative." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- Faded handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "12."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "396) Shop in Resht." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 61.6: Gilan. Resht. Shop (396)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Tehran (Iran): Nasir Al-Din Shah's Royal Carriage [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo condition reads, "The glass is broken."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "47) Landeau of Nasri Din Shah." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 61.7: Landeau of Nasr Din Shah." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Rayy (Iran): Zoroastrian Tower of Silence (Khamushan Tower) [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Gelatin silver print numbered FSA A.4 2.12.Sm.86; available in Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.12: Antoin Sevruguin Photographs

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "Red ink over the sky. Black paper sandwiched in between the two pieces of glass. Copy print."

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo condition reads, "The negative is doubled up: there are two glass-plates glued together, probably to prevent the crack on the original negative from spreading. There is extensive discoloration (red color0 on the negative as well."

- Faded handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "1271."

- Scratched handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "1032."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "298) Tower of silence." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 61.9: Towers of silence (298)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Studio Portrait: Western Woman in Studio Posed with Chador and Hookah [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "56) Persian woman with galeon." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 61.10: Persian woman with galeon (56)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Qazvin (Iran): Imamzada Hussayn Mosque (Shahzade Hossein Tomb Complex): View of Bazaar in front of Iwan [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, although his family studio continued for some time as a commercial enterprise.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

According to the official minutes of the fourth meeting of the Committee for Islamic Culture, held on September 15, 1951, Myron Bement Smith viewed and purchased 82 black-and-white gelatin silver photoprints of part of Antoin Sevruguin's negatives when he visited Sevruguin's shop in Tehran (Iran) in 1934.

- On recto of the print, handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "837."

- On recto of the print, handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "457."

- On recto of the print, scratched handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "837."

- On recto of the print, scratched handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "---(?)."

- On verso of the print (lower left corner), original stamp, in French and Persian, reads, "Photographie Sevruguin."

- On verso of the print, Myron Bement Smith caption in English reads, "Bazaar Scene in front of Mosque."

Naqsh-i Rajab (Iran): Sasanian Rock Relief (Relief IV) Picturing High Priest Kartir and Middle Persian Inscription [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Glass negative numbered FSA A.4 2.12.GN.38.11; available in Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.12: Antoin Sevruguin Photographs.

Gelatin silver print numbered FSA A.6 04.PF.05.v2.355; available in Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 4: Photographic Files, 1903-1947.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, although his family studio continued for some time as a commercial enterprise.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

According to the official minutes of the fourth meeting of the Committee for Islamic Culture, held on September 15, 1951, Myron Bement Smith viewed and purchased 82 black-and-white gelatin silver photoprints of part of Antoin Sevruguin's negatives when he visited Sevruguin's shop in Tehran (Iran) in 1934.

- On recto of the print, handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "221."

- On recto of the print, scratched handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "51."

- On verso of the print, handwritten number (penciled) reads, "38.11."

- On verso of the print (lower left corner), original stamp, in French and Persian, reads, "Photographie Sevruguin."

- On verso of the print, Myron Bement Smith caption in English reads, "Persia; Fārs; Naqsh-I Rajab; Kartir high priest raising finger in respect."
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