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Tehran (Iran): Masjid-i Shah Abd al 'Azim (Shah Abd al 'Azim Mosque) [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Sayyid Mohammad Taqi Motafavi, Asar-I Tarikhi-I Tehran: Amakin-I Mutibarraka, Tehran: Anjuman-I Asar-I Milli, 1982, p:421-423

Albumen print numbered FSA A.15 18; available in Jay Bisno Collection of Sevruguin Photographs, 1969-1985.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The Seljuk Shrine/mosque has a lengthy list of restorations during the years, a few of the most significant of which is from Qajar period. From adding minarets and tile work to restoring the other structures and shrines around the main building, works were carried out in the span of about a hundred years during the reigns of Fath Ali Shah, Nasir al-Din Shah and Muzaffar al-Din Shah Qajar. Its golden dome was added during Nasir al-Din Shah's reign, who ordered the dome to be covered in Gold covered copper sheets around 1850s. The minarets were added around 1890s. Many of the images of the building in the 1900s publications are missing the most recent addition of the minarets. This photograph, however, was taken after the addition of the minarets. It shows the main entrance to the harem." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "Small piece of tape at the back. All the four sides are chopped down and there is a partial number visible (8) on the lower left edge the rest of which is gone with the cut."

- Handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "1132."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper reads, "Shah abdul Azim." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 53.10: Shah Abdul Azim, general view." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Group Portrait: Regiment Dressed in the Austrian Model [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"Regiment dressed in the Austrian model. The Austrian military appointment in Iran was requested in 1878. The instructors arrived in 1879 - along with instructors from Russia - and the regiment was established in 1880. By 1881-2, the Austrian regiment was disbanded. The photo shows the group of men in two seated and one standing row. The middle figure seems to be the higher ranking official. The hoods of the men seem to carry the emblem of Qajar Iran, the sun and the lion. Except for the high ranking figure and a few of the others in the back row, most of the men look elsewhere, not focusing on the gaze of the camera. The poses are highly irregular amongst the group, resembling a group portrait rather than a military regiment. The photographer has touched up the eyes of the figures in the back row, giving most of them a frozen and astonished look." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "All of the faces are touched up with with very sharp pencil."

- Handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "7??."

- Scratched handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "747."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "169) Soldiers or police." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 54.2: Soldiers or police (169)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Waterfall [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "361) Abshar." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 54.3: Abshar (361) river ?" [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Qum (Iran): Hazrat-i Ma'suma Shrine Complex: View of the Mirror Iwan [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Sayyid Mohammad Taqi Motafavi, Asar-I Tarikhi-I Tehran: Amakin-I Mutibarraka, Tehran: Anjuman-I Asar-I Milli, 1982, p:423-425

Gelatin silver print numbered FSA A.4 2.12.Sm.56; available in Myron Bement Smith Collection, ca. 1910-1970.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The initial construction on the site of the holy shrine - with an octagonal plan - in Qum dates back to 13th century. In addition to northward expansion of the whole complex, the original octagonal dome was also modified into a round structure in the earlier years of Safavid dynasty. the southwest corner of the structure houses the tombs of more than a few of Safavid kings, including Shah Sultan Hussayn and Shah Safi. In the 1880s, the new courtyard to the shrine was ordered by Amin al-Sultan, during which the two grand minarets of the western iwan and the two smaller minarets of the entrance were also added to the complex. The golden dome is dated back to Fath Ali Shah-I Qajar, which is consistent with the other restorations to religious buildings of the time. The photo depicts the main entrance to the west side of the shrine and a partial view of the front courtyard, both after the renovations mentioend before." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "All four sides are chopped. Ink spots all over the image covering imperfections and scratches."

- Handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "1093."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "360) Qom." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 54.4: Kum. Kum. Shrine (340)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Tehran (Iran): Kakh-i Gulistan (Gulistan Palace): View of Inner Court's Pool with Swans [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "Royal Summer house, Shimrān." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 54.6: Tehran. Shimran. Royal Summer house." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Group Portrait: Earlier Years of Nasir Al-Din Shah's Court [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The seated figure on the left is Mirza Abd al-Ghaffar Khan Sadiq al-Mulk. he was the first in command of Iran's consulate in Russian, St. Petersburg. He died in 1878. The seated figure on the right is Mahmud Khan-i Qaraguzlu, Farmanfarma. In 1853 he was the second -in-command of Iran's consulate in St. Petersburg. In 1856 he took over the consulate after the council general, Azad al-Mulk was removed from his position. From 1863 till 1866 he was the head of Iran's embassy in London. he was then appointed as the minister of war and army. He died in 1885. The rest of the figures should comprise the officers of the consulate in St. Petersburg or Tbilisi." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "The background of the figures is covered in red ink. It is probably a copy print."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "245) Court of mohammad Shah." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 54.7: Court of mohammad Shah (245)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Shahristanak (Iran): Imarat-i Shahristanak, the Royal Summer Compound [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The building was built in 1877-1878 on the orders of Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar as a summer palace for the court. The architect of the complex was Haji Abulhassan Mi'mar Bashi. The palace was built on route from Tehran to Caspian Sea and the city of Chalus. It was primarily used as a getaway from the capital by the royal court. The exterior and the plan resemble those of Sahibqaraniyya Palace in northern Tehran." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo condition reads, "The top and bottom edges are chopped off."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "365-366) Shimran Royal Summer house." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 54.8: Tehran. Shimran. Royal summer house (366)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Tehran (Iran): Kakh-i Gulistan (Gulistan Palace Complex), Front Courtyard: Salam Ceremony [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

http://www.niavaranmu.com/Menu1/Description.aspx?id=325

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"During the reigns of the first four kings of Qajar dynasty, what is now known as the Salam ceremony had gradually gained a special ceremonial function and was conducted with considerable care and through strict observance of specific rituals. During the ceremony the courtiers, military officials, European officials accompanied, in some cases and in the earlier days of Fath Ali Shah's reign, by the general population would attend the ceremony and paid their respects to the residing Qajar King. The placement of everything from the king's hooka and small seating place on the throne to the arrangement of the different official and military groups in the garden were predetermined and following the traditions set in the earlier days of Qajar dynasty. The photo is taken during one of the official Salam ceremonies on either the occasion of Nowruz in the palace." (Nasir Al-Din Shah the Sultan)." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo condition reads, "Top and bottom edges are chopped off."

- Handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "1113."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "244) Court of Nasr Din Shah." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 54.9: Nasr Din Shah and court." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Studio Portrait: Muhammad Ghafari, Better known as Kamal al-Mulk [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"As one of the most prolific painters of Iran's recent history, Kamal al-Mulk not only enjoyed a privileged position within the court - at least for the better part of his career - but also an astounding public profile as the first and most famous realist painter of Iranian history of art. He was the nephew of Sani' al-Dawla, the official painter of Nasir Al-Din Shah's court and the Dar al-Funun teacher of painting." (Nasir Al-Din Shah the Sultan)." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "The face is thoroughly touched up. There is varnish on the face as well."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "242) Kamal ul Mulk." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 54.11: Kamal ul Mulk (242)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Studio Portrait: Son of King of Bahrain [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "The face is touched up. There is a layer of varnish over the figure."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "239) Son of King of Bahrein." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 54.12: Son of a King of Bahrain (239)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Dasht-i Lar Region: Nasir Al-Din Shah in his Later Years, Being Read To [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"Nasir al-Din Shah and a few of his courtiers at the Yurt Khanlar Khani in Dasht-I Lar. The photograph has a very close relative in Ghasem Safi's book with inscriptipons that include the date of the event and the name of the attendants, some of whom are also visible in this image. The event and its image is dated to June/July of 1890. The figure seated beside the king on the ground is Adib al-Mulk. The rest of the figures, though wearing the same cloths and in very similar poses to the image in the database of Smithsonian, cannot be positively identified as the inscription on the photo only provides a list of the attendants." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo condition reads, "Very thick glass."

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 55.1: Landscape." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Shahristanak (Iran): Imarat-i Shahristanak, the Royal Summer Compound: View of Upper Room of the Palace [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The building was built in 1877-1878 on the orders of Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar as a summer palace for the court. The architect of the complex was Haji Abulhassan Mi'mar Bashi. The palace was built on route from Tehran to Caspian Sea and the city of Chalus. It was primarily used as a getaway from the capital by the royal court. The exterior and the plan resemble those of Sahibqaraniyya Palace in northern Tehran. The image is related to another negative, 51.12, both seem to be of the same room." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- Handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "1040."

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 55.2: Salon of an embassy (?)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Unidentified Landscape [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"On the left side of the foreground a brick garden can be seen , where bricks are laid in the sun to dry." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulaion reads, "Black and red ink on the sky."

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo condition reads, "The four sides are chopped off."

- Faded handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "913."

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 55.6: Mountain." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Unidentified Property Entrance [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"Four Pahlavi guards, a man and two young boys are standing in front of what seems to be a palace entrance. Could be Sa'd-abad palace entrance." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulaion reads, "Red ink on the sky. The top of the gate posting the right is in ink. The actual post must have been hidden behind the trees."

- Faded handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "913."

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 55.7: Gardens." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Tehran (Iran): Imarat-i Sorkh-i Hisar (Sorkh-i Hisar Palace) or Kakh-i Yaqut (Ruby Palace): View of the Kushk-i Biruni Palace [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

http://www.niavaranmu.com/Menu1/Description.aspx?id=325

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The palace is built by Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar." (Nasir Al-Din Shah the Sultan)." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo condition reads, "Top and bottom edges are chopped off."

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 55.8: Landscape and cottage." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Tehran (Iran): Street Scene [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The sign reads: The branch of Haji Abd al-Rahim Rizayof Shirvani Brothers. According to a letter to the congress in 1910, the headquarters of the family business was located in Rasht, Gilan. The view in the photograph, however, suggests that the photo was taken in Tehran. The street scene is the same as the one photographed in Neg.17.7. the point of view of this one is a bit further to the north of the street." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "Bright orange ink on the sky ."

- Faded handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "1113."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "408) Khiabani Nasiriyeh." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 52.7: Teheran. Khiaban-i Nasiriyeh (408)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Portrait of a Dervish or Cleric [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Gelatin silver print numbered FSA A.4 2.12.Up.53; available in Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.12: Antoin Sevruguin Photographs

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "The number is on the original print and not on the negative. A piece of black paper is stuck to the bottom of the negative."

- Handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "151."

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 56.2: (P) [black-and-white print on hand] Mullah." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Tehran (Iran): Kakh-i Gulistan (Gulistan Palace Complex): View towards the Inner Courtyard [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The building is most probably facing the Harem portion of Gulistan Palace. The lamp post in the foreground is in the figure of a statue." (Nasir Al-Din Shah the Sultan)." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo condition reads, "Top and left edges are chopped off."

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 56.4: Official building." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Tehran (Iran), Shimiran, Pul-i Rumi [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "Red ink on the sky covered with black ink. Pencil marks on the mountains."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "507) Pol-i Rumi Shimran." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 56.5: Tehran. Shimran. Pol-i Rumi." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Persepolis (Iran): Throne Hall, Northern Wall, West Jamb of Eastern Doorway: View of Relief Picturing Enthroned King Giving Audience, as well as Registers Picturing Persian and Median Guards [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Gelatin silver print numbered FSA A.4 2.12.Sm.28; available in Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.12: Antoin Sevruguin Photographs

Gelatin silver print numbered FSA A.6 04.05.v3.007b; available in Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 4: Photographic Files, 1903-1947.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"Persepolis, One of the north entrance doorways to Talar-i Takht (Throne hall, or Sad-Sutun) or One hundred column hall. The king appears immediately below the top section depicting Ahura Mazda with his guards and facing towards the interior of the hall." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "The crack in the structure is covered with pencil marks, highlighting the stone."

- Handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "914."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "505) Persepolis." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 56.6: (P) [black-and-white print on hand] Fars. Persepolis. Carving." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Firuzkuh (Iran): Qajar Rock Relief Depicting Fath Ali Shah in Royal Hunt [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Gelatin silver print numbered FSA A.6 04.24.017; available in Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 4: Photographic Files, 1903-1947.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The Shah is surrounded by twenty-one of his sons and courtiers. In the case of the Qajar princes, the names of each is carved beside their head in the relief. The princes are carved in almost identical attires. The date of construction of the relief is estimated to be the twentieth year of Fath Ali Shah's reign in 1817-18. Fath Ali Shah Qajar was the second king of Qajar dynasty in Iran that rulled the country for around 37 years (1797-1834). He was born to Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar's brother and since Aqa mohammad Khan did not have a child, Fath Ali shah assumed the position of the king upon his death." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo condition reads, "Top and right edge are chopped off."

- Faded handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "1041."

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 56.7: Carving." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Province of Gilan (Iran): Walkway at Port of Bandar Anzali [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The image is part of a series of photos from the port and its new constructions. The photos depict the official buildins of Bandar-I Anzali (also called Bandar-I Pahlavi) or Anzali port. One of the images in the series shows one of the buildings with a sing on top that reads: "[...] Nazmiyya - Bandar-i Pahlavi". the port of Anzali on the south edge of the Caspian sea and to the north of Tehran was renamed to Pahlavi in 1934. As such the photo mush have been taken after the death of Antoine Sevruguin and by someone associated with his studio." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 56.10: Train station (?)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Amin al-Sultan and Attendants in Campsite and About to be Served with Food [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The photo depicts a tent in a campsite with people sitting under the tent, on the edge of the carpet in front of it and standing on both sides of it. The focus of the image though seems to be the figures sitting in the darkest part of the image, under the tent. The most visible of these figures, sitting on the right side of the group under the tent is Amin al-Sultan, the vizier of Nasir al-Din Shah, Muzaffar al-Din Shah and Muhammad Ail Shah. The other figures, through repeating in some of the other royal images, are not identified. The people standing on the either sides of the tent carry trays of covered and uncovered plates along with breads and two pieces of cloth. the group seems to be on the verge of being served their lunches, with the attendants bringing the plates and dinning cloths. Interesting to note in another figure under the tent, holding a pen and paper, seemingly in the midst of writing something of official stature." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo condition reads, "The four sides are chopped off."

- Handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "1076."

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 56.11: Camp." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Tehran (Iran): Masjid-i Shah Abd al 'Azim (Shah Abd al 'Azim Mosque) [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Sayyid Mohammad Taqi Motafavi, Asar-I Tarikhi-I Tehran: Amakin-I Mutibarraka, Tehran: Anjuman-I Asar-I Milli, 1982, p:421-423

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The Seljuk Shrine/mosque has a lengthy list of restorations during the years, a few of the most significant of which is from Qajar period. From adding minarets and tile work to restoring the other structures and shrines around the main building, works were carried out in the span of about a hundred years during the reigns of Fath Ali Shah, Nasir al-Din Shah and Muzaffar al-Din Shah Qajar. Its golden dome was added during Nasir al-Din Shah's reign, who ordered the dome to be covered in Gold covered copper sheets around 1850s. The minarets were added around 1890s. Many of the images of the building in the 1900s publications are missing the most recent addition of the minarets. This photograph, however, was taken after the addition of the minarets. It shows the main entrance to the harem." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo condition reads, "The four sides are heavily chopped off. It is a copy print."

- Handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "1044."

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 56.12: Mosque." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]
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