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John Peabody Harrington papers: Cakchiquel, 1922

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 7, reel 13. Only original documents created by Harrington, his coworkers and field assistants, or field notes given to him by others were microfilmed.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. For a comprehensive description of these materials, see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 7: A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Mexico/Central America/South America," edited by Elaine L. Mills (1988). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%207.pdf

This subseries of the Mexico/Central America/South America series contains Harrington's Cakchiquel research. His notes on the language are relatively brief. They were recorded during the course of his fieldwork on Quiche with Cipriano Alvaredo and William Gates at the latter's home near Charlottesville, Virginia, in 1922.

There are several sets of numbered pages labeled "B. Cak. notes" and "B. Cak. Gram." These consist of vocabulary and phrases with glosses (mostly in Spanish) and some Quiche (Q.) equivalences. There is also a section of sixteen pages based on a rehearing of Flores' 1753 grammar. Differences between the Quiche, Cakchiquel, and Tzutujil forms are noted here.

Harrington's grammatical notes, labeled "Cak. Grammar," probably dates from 1948. It consists merely of a few observations following heading sheets. The format is based largely on an examination of the Diccionario cakchiquel-espanol by Saenz. There is a large section on phonetics in which reference is made to Gates' Maya Grammar. Most of the forms were excerpted from the records which Harrington made with Cipriano Alvaredo (Cip.) in 1922.

There are also several files relating to Harrington's study of the "Annals of Cakchiquel," composed by Francisco E. Arana Xahila. The first, designated as "Cak. Annals Text," contains a complete transcription of the history dated 1922. The text consists almost entirely of straight dictation from Cipriano Alvaredo, based, evidently, on a rehearing of Brinton's published version of the original folio. There are only a few notations on phonetics and little interlinear translation in this 260-page document. This is followed by 119 pages of a typed English translation of the text copied from Brinton through section 164 (the end of Brinton's CakchiqueI text). A note to Althea "Letty" Warren appears at the top of the first page. A final file contains a 536-page handwritten version of the Cakchiquel text which Harrington's copyist, Marta J. Herrera, made in the early 1930s. Two transcriptions are given, one above the other. The top version was copied directly from Brinton (Br.), through paragraph thirty four (page 100). The second is a modification of the transcription which Harrington first recorded in 1922.

Reproduction Of War Shield

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
From card: "Refer to 153,349 for the original of this spec. [, this copy of] which was apparently made at the instigation of James Mooney, when he was conducting his studies in Kiowa Heraldry in 1904. It has originally been a Crow shield which the Kiowa had captured from them, before they had been removed to the South. The Mooney No. 229,910 which was applied to it does not apply because that number is for a set of tent and shield model poles. This reproduction has a sheet metal base, with a piece of stiff skin on the back and the front made of the proper kind of light-colored skin, probably not deer but cow, though very soft and well prepared. Original observations on this were made by Joseph Weckler, 8/1/41 and amended by R. Elder 5/23/56. Douglas and D'Harnancourt in "Indian Art in the United States, 1941 published an illustration of this specimen, p. 149, with the incorrect No. of 229889 which is that of a model (small size) made for Mooney's studies. 3/16/66 Dr. Donald Collier, Chicago M. Nat. History says that the specimen they have from us [Field Museum Cat. No. is 62,578] is not exactly the same as this copy which Mooney had made." See remarks for E154349-0 for additional information. Design on shield, painted in red and black, represents a black bear facing a row of bullet marks; red stripes on upper right, black stripes on lower right. The bear is represented with only two legs, drawn up under him in a running position, and moving to the left. Five separate bear paw marks are shown in a line to the right behind him.

Shield model. Black bear at center with five tracks behind it, facing row of bullet marks, red stripes on upper right, black stripes on lower right. See 229889-229890 for other models of this shield. 20" (51 cm). Records: Originally a Crow shield, captured by the Kiowas before they were removed to the south. Illustrated in Douglas and Harnoncourt 1941: 149. (C). (from Merrill, William L. et al. 1997. A Guide to the Kiowa Collections at the Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, no. 40. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.)

Part of Clothing Set: Beaded Tunic

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
FROM CARD: "SEE INUA, PL. 286, P. 238 FOR MAN WEARING THIS TUNIC, IDENTIFIED AS INGALIK [i.e. Deg Hit'an]. LOANED TO UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA MUSEUM 6-8-84. RETURNED: 10/9/84."

Source of the information below: Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center Alaska Native Collections: Sharing Knowledge website, by Aron Crowell, entry on this artifact http://alaska.si.edu/record.asp?id=141 , and entry on matching moccasin trousers http://alaska.si.edu/record.asp?id=142 , retrieved 9-21-2011: Tunic. This tunic for a man is made of tanned moose hide, richly ornamented with small "seed" beads that were imported into the Yukon River region by the Hudson's Bay Company during the mid to late 19th century.(1) Bands of color and a wave-like design extend across the chest, shoulders, and back, and beads were also used to decorate the bottom fringes and front of the garment. The neck and the cuffs are bordered with red trade cloth, and red ocher (a mineral pigment) is painted around the bottom inside edge. The tunic was purchased along with matching moccasin trousers (# E64279-0) and mittens (# E64280-0) by Smithsonian collector Edward W. Nelson, who photographed the outfit as worn by its owner, a Gwich'in (Kutchin) man from Fort Yukon. Edward W. Nelson photographed the original owner as he stood with a musket in his hand and wearing the tunic, matching moccasin trousers (see # E64279-0), and a fire bag with beaded floral designs. The glass plate image was probably taken at the fur trade settlement of St. Michael near the mouth of the Yukon River, where Nelson was stationed between 1877-1881.(2) However, museum records list "Innoko River" (in Deg Hit’an/Ingalik country) as the location where the clothing set was collected, and Nelson did visit that region by dogsled in the winter of 1880. 1. Duncan 1989:64-66 2. Duncan 1989:64-65; 1997:23; Simeone and Vanstone 1986:7 3. VanStone 1978

From discussion with Phillip Arrow, Trimble Gilbert, Eliza Jones and Judy Woods at the National Museum of Natural History and National Museum of the American Indian, 5/17/2004-5/21/2004. Also participating: Aron Crowell (NMNH), Kate Duncan (Arizona State University) and Suzi Jones (AMHA). In this entry, the Elders speak in different Athabascan dialects: Phillip Arrow, Deg Xinag; Trimble Gilbert, Gwich’in; Eliza Jones, Central Koyukon; and Judy Woods, Upper Koyukon: Eliza Jones: This is moosehide, tanned and smoked moosehide. And these are really, really old-time beads, because you see how small they are? Judy Woods: Yes, they are. Eliza Jones: This whole top piece is one piece. Kate Duncan: This is one piece wrapped around. Judy Woods: Yes, wrapped around. Kate Duncan: And how is it across the back? Eliza Jones: It’s all one piece, all the way over. Again, the beads are very old-time beads. They look like size fourteen. This one might be sixteen. Some of these are little bigger. Wow. Aron Crowell: And how would they have tanned this skin to get it so soft? Eliza Jones: It’s a long process. If they got this moose in the winter or even in the fall, the first thing you do is you drape it over a pole with the fur turned in. There’s different methods, but one way is to haylgaa [scrape it]. Trimble Gilbert: Nehtthah reh [bone skin scraper]. Eliza Jones: Yes, with the scraper and the heavy weight on top. You just scrape away all the inside tissue from the meat side. When you get that done, then you turn it with the fur side out—still draped over a log—and then you get a knife. You hold the hide and cut the hair off. You cut the hair off the whole hide. And then when you get all that done, you put the hide in water and clean it off. If it’s in winter, you take it outside and you make little peg holes around the edge of the hide. And you get little sticks to stake it down with and make flat place to stake it down. You do it on one side, and then when you get to the other side, you pull on the hide. You pull on the hide so that it’s really taut, tight all around, so that it freezes smooth. And then after it freezes, like the next day, you drape it over maybe a sleigh or something. And you get a maahaa k’edelaaghe [scraper used in tanning moose hides], and you scrape this frozen hide, on the inside first. You finish taking all the tissue off the inside skin, and then you turn the hide over and do the same thing. The epidermis—that’s what that the hair grows on—you have to scrape all that off. Then you wind dry it, and after that it can be tanned. They usually wait until the fall, until it’s the right time. In the meantime, you save the brains from the moose and put it in a container and let it ferment, and you use that to tan it. It’s a long process. There are books on how to tan, because it’s a long process. You have to read about it, I can’t tell you all about it.

Aron Crowell: You end up with a really soft hide. Eliza Jones: Yes. And you take rotten spruce—button spruce—it’s a reddish-brown color, and you make smudge [smoke] in a container, like in a tub. It takes about four hours to color it.

Illus. Fig. 4.21a p. 161 in Thompson, Judy. 2013. Women's work, women's art: nineteenth-century northern Athapaskan clothing. Gatineau: Canadian Museum of Civilization. Identified as a tunic, part of a man's summer outfit (with E64279), Deg Hit'an, tanned, smoked moose hide, glass beads.

"The Stage at Coyote Holes" Mutoscope Movie Poster

National Museum of American History
Posterboard with pre-printed design and painted advertisement for the mutoscope motion picture "The Stage at Coyote Holes" - starring Wally Wales. An attached photograph depicts a scene from the movie in which a man threatens a Native American with a revolver in an "Old West" town. The Western film genre is almost as old as the motion picture itself; Edwin S. Porter's 1902 film "The Great Train Robbery" is often considered the first narrative motion picture, and it also gave birth to the Western genre. The motion picture advertised on this poster stars Wally Wales (born Hal Taliaferro), an actor who appeared in over 200 films and usually played a cowboy or prospector in low-budget "B" Westerns. By the 1920s, when this poster was made, Western films were highly popular among American audiences and stars like Wally Wales could attract audiences who were familiar with their past performances.

The Mutoscope Collection in the National Museum of American History’s Photographic History Collection is among the most significant of its kind in any museum. Composed of 3 cameras, 13 viewers, 59 movie reels and 53 movie posters, the collection documents the early years of the most successful and influential motion picture company of the industry’s formative period. It also showcases a unique style of movie exhibition that outlasted its early competitors, existing well into the 20th century.

The American Mutoscope Company was founded in 1895 by a group of four men, Elias Koopman, Herman Casler, Henry Marvin and William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, to manufacture a motion picture viewer called the mutoscope and to produce films for exhibition. Dickson had recently left the employ of Thomas Edison, for whom he had solved the problem of “doing for the eye what the phonograph does for the ear” by inventing the modern motion picture. Casler and Dickson worked together to perfect the mutoscope, which exhibited films transferred to a series of cards mounted in the style of a flip book on a metal core, and avoided Edison’s patents with this slightly different style of exhibition. The company’s headquarters in New York City featured a rooftop studio on a turntable to ensure favorable illumination, and the short subjects made here found such success that by 1897, the Edison company’s dominance of the industry was in danger. American Mutoscope became American Mutoscope & Biograph in 1899, when the namesake projector, invented by Casler, became the most used in the industry.

Mutoscope viewers were found in many amusement areas and arcades until at least the 1960s. Their inexpensiveness and short, often comical or sensational subjects allowed the machines a far longer life than the competing Edison Kinetoscope. The company also found success in its production and projection of motion pictures, though its activity was mired by patent litigation involving Thomas Edison through the 1910s. The notable director D. W. Griffith was first hired as an actor, working with pioneering cinematographer G. W. “Billy” Bitzer, before moving behind the camera at Biograph and making 450 films for the company.

Griffith and Bitzer invented cinematographic techniques like the fade-out and iris shot, made the first film in Hollywood and launched the careers of early stars Mary Pickford and Lillian Gish. The company, simply renamed the Biograph Company in 1909, went out of business in 1928 after losing Griffith and facing a changing movie industry.

The Museum’s collection was acquired in the years between 1926 and the mid-1970s. The original mutograph camera and two later models of the camera were given to the Smithsonian in 1926 by the International Mutoscope Reel Company, which inherited Biograph’s mutoscope works and continued making the viewers and reels through the 1940s. The viewers, reels and posters in the collection were acquired for exhibition in the National Museum of American History, and were later accessioned as objects in the Photographic History Collection. Many of the mutoscope reels in the collection date to the period from 1896-1905, and show early motion picture subjects, some of which were thought to be lost films before their examination in 2008.

Meissen tea caddy and cover

National Museum of American History
TITLE: Meissen tea caddy and cover (Hausmalerinnen)

MAKER: Meissen Manufactory

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: ceramic, porcelain, hard paste (overall material)

MEASUREMENTS: 4" 10.2 cm

OBJECT NAME: Tea caddy and cover

PLACE MADE: Meissen, Saxony, Germany

DATE MADE: 1717-1720

SUBJECT: The Hans Syz Collection

Art

Domestic Furnishing

Industry and Manufacturing

CREDIT LINE: Hans C. Syz Collection

ID NUMBER: 1987.0896.38 a,b

COLLECTOR/ DONOR: 668 a,b

ACCESSION NUMBER:

(DATA SOURCE: National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center)

MARKS: None

PURCHASED FROM: Hans E. Backer, London, England, 1947.

This tea caddy is from the Smithsonian’s Hans Syz Collection of Meissen Porcelain. Dr. Syz (1894-1991) began his collection in the early years of World War II, when he purchased eighteenth-century Meissen table wares from the Art Exchange run by the New York dealer Adolf Beckhardt (1889-1962). Dr. Syz, a Swiss immigrant to the United States, collected Meissen porcelain while engaged in a professional career in psychiatry and the research of human behavior. He believed that cultural artifacts have an important role to play in enhancing our awareness and understanding of human creativity and its communication among peoples. His collection grew to represent this conviction.

The invention of Meissen porcelain, declared over three hundred years ago early in 1709, was a collective achievement that represents an early modern precursor to industrial chemistry and materials science. The porcelains we see in our museum collections, made in the small town of Meissen in Germany, were the result of an intense period of empirical research. Generally associated with artistic achievement of a high order, Meissen porcelain was also a technological achievement in the development of inorganic, non-metallic materials.

The tea caddy was made in the Meissen manufactory but painted outside by an independent artist. Hausmalerei is a German word that means in literal translation ‘home painting’, and it refers to the practice of painting enamels and gold onto the surface of blank ceramics and glass in workshops outside the manufactory of origin. Beginning in the seventeenth century the work of the Hausmaler varied in quality from the outstanding workshops of Nuremberg, Augsburg, and Breslau (now Wroclaw in Poland), to the less skilled efforts of amateur artists. Early Meissen porcelain was sought after for this purpose, and wealthy patrons of local enameling and gilding workshops purchased undecorated porcelain, often of out-moded or inferior quality, which was then enameled with subjects of their choice. Hausmalerei was at first acceptable to the early porcelain manufactories like Meissen and Vienna, and Meissen sent blank porcelain to Augsburg workshops for decoration, but as the market became more competitive they tried to eradicate the practice. It was a temptation for Meissen porcelain painters to take on extra work as Hausmaler to augment their low pay, and the manufactory cautioned or even imprisoned them if Hausmalerei activity was suspected or discovered.

The tea caddy was painted in Augsburg in the 1730s, probably by Anna Elizabeth Wald (b.1696) and Sabina Hosennestel (b.1706), the daughters of gold worker and Hausmaler Johann Aufenwerth (d. 1728). Two hundred years earlier Augsburg was the center of international merchant banking, and it is no coincidence that it was also a center for goldsmith work of exceptional quality. Although no longer a powerful city in the eighteenth century, Augsburg was still renowned for its high quality artisan trades in precious metals, book production, and textiles. Hausmalerei was one among many subsidiary trades that met demands from other workshops, individual clients, and new manufactories like that of Meissen.

The tea caddy has a hexagonal baluster form and the arrowhead border on top of the cover is a device often seen in Augsburg Hausmalerei. The elaborate scrolled section below the chinoiseries of gentlemen smoking and taking tea, is characteristic of another Augsburg Hausmaler, Abraham Seuter (1689-1747), and may indicate cross influences between the two workshops. It is also possible that the source was a pattern book published by Jeremias Wolff of Augsburg with designs illustrated on early porcelain models from the Meissen manufactory and the DuPaquier manufactory in Vienna (see Cassidy-Geiger, M., “Graphic Sources for Meissen Porcelain: Origins of the Print Collection in the Meissen Archives” Metropolitan Museum Journal, Vol 31(1996) pp.99-126).

On the Augsburg Hausmaler and Hausmalerinnen see Ducret, S., 1971, Meissner Porzellan bemalt in Augsburg, 1718 bis um 1750, Band 1 Goldmalereien und bunte Chinoiserien.

On Hausmaler see Ulrich Pietsch, 2011, Early Meissen Porcelain: The Wark Collection from The Cummer Museum of Art and Gardens, pp. 43-46.

Hans Syz, J. Jefferson Miller II, Rainer Rückert, 1979, Catalogue of the Hans Syz Collection: Meissen Porcelain and Hausmalerei, pp. 508-509.

Meissen leaf dish (Hausmaler)

National Museum of American History
TITLE: Meissen small Leaf dish (Hausmaler)

MAKER: Meissen Manufactory

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: ceramic, porcelain, hard paste (overall material)

MEASUREMENTS: L. 4" 10.2 cm.

OBJECT NAME: Leaf dish

PLACE MADE: Meissen, Saxony, Germany

DATE MADE: 1715-1720

SUBJECT: The Hans Syz Collection

Art

Domestic Furnishing

Industry and Manufacturing

CREDIT LINE: Hans C. Syz Collection

ID NUMBER: 75.194

COLLECTOR/ DONOR: 806

ACCESSION NUMBER:

(DATA SOURCE: National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center)

MARKS: None

PURCHASED FROM: Blumka Gallery, New York, 1948.

PROVENANCE: Collection of Oscar Bondy, Vienna .

This leaf dish is from the Smithsonian’s Hans Syz Collection of Meissen Porcelain. Dr. Syz (1894-1991) began his collection in the early years of World War II, when he purchased eighteenth-century Meissen table wares from the Art Exchange run by the New York dealer Adolf Beckhardt (1889-1962). Dr. Syz, a Swiss immigrant to the United States, collected Meissen porcelain while engaged in a professional career in psychiatry and the research of human behavior. He believed that cultural artifacts have an important role to play in enhancing our awareness and understanding of human creativity and its communication among peoples. His collection grew to represent this conviction.

The invention of Meissen porcelain, declared over three hundred years ago early in 1709, was a collective achievement that represents an early modern precursor to industrial chemistry and materials science. The porcelains we see in our museum collections, made in the small town of Meissen in Germany, were the result of an intense period of empirical research. Generally associated with artistic achievement of a high order, Meissen porcelain was also a technological achievement in the development of inorganic, non-metallic materials.

The leaf dish was made in the Meissen manufactory but painted outside by an independent artist. Hausmalerei is a German word that means in literal translation ‘home painting’, and it refers to the practice of painting enamels and gold onto the surface of blank ceramics and glass in workshops outside the manufactory of origin. Beginning in the seventeenth century the work of the Hausmaler varied in quality from the outstanding workshops of Nuremberg, Augsburg, and Breslau (now Wroclaw in Poland), to the less skilled efforts of amateur artists. Early Meissen porcelain was sought after for this purpose, and wealthy patrons of local enameling and gilding workshops purchased undecorated porcelain, often of outmoded or inferior quality, which was then enameled with subjects of their choice. Hausmalerei was at first acceptable to the early porcelain manufactories like Meissen and Vienna, and Meissen sent blank porcelain to Augsburg workshops for decoration, but as the market became more competitive they tried to eradicate the practice. It was a temptation for Meissen porcelain painters to take on extra work as Hausmaler to augment their low pay, and the manufactory cautioned or imprisoned them if Hausmalerei activity was suspected or discovered.

Painted on Böttger porcelain, probably by the Silesian Hausmaler Ignaz Preissler, the small leaf dish made at the Meissen manufactory imitates the form of Chinese brush washers made in milky white blanc de chine fired in the Dehua kilns in Fujian Province. The dishes were luxury items for the use of scholars who practiced calligraphy. In China the dishes were not decorated except for a floral sprig on the base of the dish that served as a stabilizer. The Meissen copy also has a sprig on the base with the typical twig-shaped handle. On the interior of the dish the European Hausmaler has used iron-red and gold pigment to paint a water nymph holding a basket of fruit while she rests on a dolphin. Painted on the exterior is a stag, some birds and a cupid framed by elaborate strapwork. These motifs are common to many ornamental designs dating back to the sixteenth century. Many examples of leaf dishes exist, but their purpose in a West European context is not clear.

On Hausmaler see Ulrich Pietsch, 2011, Early Meissen Porcelain: The Wark Collection from The Cummer Museum of Art and Gardens, pp. 43-46.

On the work of Ignaz Preissler see Cassidy-Geiger, M., 1989, “’ Repraesentatio Belli, ob successionem in Regno Hispanico....”’: A Tea Service and Garniture by the Schwarzlot Decorator Ignaz Preissler” Metropolitan Museum Journal, Vol. 24, pp. 239-254.

Hans Syz, J. Jefferson Miller II, Rainer Rückert, 1979, Catalogue of the Hans Syz Collection: Meissen Porcelain and Hausmalerei, pp.528-529.

"Biddy the Irish Wash Woman" Mutoscope Movie Poster

National Museum of American History
Posterboard with pre-printed design and painted advertisement for the mutoscope motion picture "Biddy the Irish Wash Woman." The attached photograph depicts a scene from the movie, in which a man dressed as a woman doing laundry falls into a washtub. This poster showcases two comic themes common to early motion pictures - humor based on ethnic stereotypes and gender-bending performances in drag. Both were characteristic features of vaudeville and burlesque shows and therefore, early movie audiences found these subjects humorous and familiar. Mutoscope movies were primarily marketed to an urban and working-class demographic by the 1920s, when this poster was probably made, and films like this one showed a less serious side of America's growing and ethnically-diverse cities.

The Mutoscope Collection in the National Museum of American History’s Photographic History Collection is among the most significant of its kind in any museum. Composed of 3 cameras, 13 viewers, 59 movie reels and 53 movie posters, the collection documents the early years of the most successful and influential motion picture company of the industry’s formative period. It also showcases a unique style of movie exhibition that outlasted its early competitors, existing well into the 20th century.

The American Mutoscope Company was founded in 1895 by a group of four men, Elias Koopman, Herman Casler, Henry Marvin and William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, to manufacture a motion picture viewer called the mutoscope and to produce films for exhibition. Dickson had recently left the employ of Thomas Edison, for whom he had solved the problem of “doing for the eye what the phonograph does for the ear” by inventing the modern motion picture. Casler and Dickson worked together to perfect the mutoscope, which exhibited films transferred to a series of cards mounted in the style of a flip book on a metal core, and avoided Edison’s patents with this slightly different style of exhibition. The company’s headquarters in New York City featured a rooftop studio on a turntable to ensure favorable illumination, and the short subjects made here found such success that by 1897, the Edison company’s dominance of the industry was in danger. American Mutoscope became American Mutoscope & Biograph in 1899, when the namesake projector, invented by Casler, became the most used in the industry.

Mutoscope viewers were found in many amusement areas and arcades until at least the 1960s. Their inexpensiveness and short, often comical or sensational subjects allowed the machines a far longer life than the competing Edison Kinetoscope. The company also found success in its production and projection of motion pictures, though its activity was mired by patent litigation involving Thomas Edison through the 1910s. The notable director D. W. Griffith was first hired as an actor, working with pioneering cinematographer G. W. “Billy” Bitzer, before moving behind the camera at Biograph and making 450 films for the company.

Griffith and Bitzer invented cinematographic techniques like the fade-out and iris shot, made the first film in Hollywood and launched the careers of early stars Mary Pickford and Lillian Gish. The company, simply renamed the Biograph Company in 1909, went out of business in 1928 after losing Griffith and facing a changing movie industry.

The Museum’s collection was acquired in the years between 1926 and the mid-1970s. The original mutograph camera and two later models of the camera were given to the Smithsonian in 1926 by the International Mutoscope Reel Company, which inherited Biograph’s mutoscope works and continued making the viewers and reels through the 1940s. The viewers, reels and posters in the collection were acquired for exhibition in the National Museum of American History, and were later accessioned as objects in the Photographic History Collection. Many of the mutoscope reels in the collection date to the period from 1896-1905, and show early motion picture subjects, some of which were thought to be lost films before their examination in 2008.

Meissen plate

National Museum of American History
TITLE: Meissen plate

MAKER: Meissen Manufactory

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: ceramic, porcelain (overall material)

MEASUREMENTS: D. 10" 25.4cm

OBJECT NAME: Plate

PLACE MADE: Meissen, Saxony, Germany

DATE MADE: 1740

SUBJECT: Art

Domestic Furnishing

Industry and Manufacturing

CREDIT LINE: Hans C. Syz Collection

ID NUMBER: 1983.0565.25

COLLECTOR/ DONOR: 623

ACCESSION NUMBER:

(DATA SOURCE: National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center)

MARKS: Crossed swords in underglaze blue; “/” incised; “67” impressed.

PURCHASED FROM: H. Bachrach, London, England, 1947.

This plate is from the Smithsonian’s Hans Syz Collection of Meissen Porcelain. Dr. Syz (1894-1991) began his collection in the early years of World War II, when he purchased eighteenth-century Meissen table wares from the Art Exchange run by the New York dealer Adolf Beckhardt (1889-1962). Dr. Syz, a Swiss immigrant to the United States, collected Meissen porcelain while engaged in a professional career in psychiatry and the research of human behavior. He believed that cultural artifacts have an important role to play in enhancing our awareness and understanding of human creativity and its communication among peoples. His collection grew to represent this conviction.

The invention of Meissen porcelain, declared over three hundred years ago early in 1709, was a collective achievement that represents an early modern precursor to industrial chemistry and materials science. The porcelains we see in our museum collections, made in the small town of Meissen in the German States, were the result of an intense period of empirical research. Generally associated with artistic achievement of a high order, Meissen porcelain was also a technological achievement in the development of inorganic, non-metallic materials.

The plate, modeled by Johann Joachim Kaendler, has a petal-shaped edge with a brown rim line and floral sprays painted in the Japanese Kakiemon style. In the center of the plate a butterfly rests on a flowering branch in a pattern influenced by Chinese famille verte onglaze and underglaze enamel painting of the K’ang Hsi period (1662-1722); famille verte refers to the group of Chinese porcelains with a color palette dominated by translucent emerald green enamel pigments. Augustus II, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland (1670-1733), collected a large amount of famille verte porcelain from China, and another Meissen pattern, the “hawk” (see ID# 1983.0565.33), was based also on this family of Chinese porcelains.

The onglaze enamel painted design on the plate is an example of the Meissen Manufactory’s use of motifs with both Japanese and Chinese origins, and the pattern was intitially in production for the Parisian dealer Rodolphe Lemaire in 1730. Following exposure of Lemaire’s and Count Hoym’s fraudulent activities the pattern was used on services made for the Saxon court; an inventory of the Hubertusburg Royal Saxon Hunting Lodge lists a large service “painted with a butterfly and with a wavy rim.” The lodge was used by Augustus III, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland (1696-1763) not just for hunting in the surrounding forests, but also for lavish court banquets and entertainment. A tureen with the same pattern and with handles modeled in the shape of wild boar heads can be seen in the digital collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum: http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O333593/tureen-meissen-porcelain-factory/

On the Hoym-Lemaire affair see Weber, J., 2013, Meissener Porzellane mit Dekoren nach ostasiatischen Vorbildern: Stiftung Ernst Schneider in Schloss Lustheim, Band I, and for more details and further examples of this pattern see Band II, S. 344-356.

On Chinese famille verte see Valenstein S.G., 1975 (1989) A Handbook of Chinese Ceramics, pp.227-236.

For three Meissen pieces with the same pattern see Pietsch, U., 2011, Early Meissen Porcelain: the Wark Collectionfrom the Cummer Museum of Art and Gardens, pp. 252-253.

On the impact of Chinese porcelain in a global context see Robert Finlay, 2010, The Pilgrim Art: Cultures of Porcelain in World History.

Jefferson Miller II, J., Rückert, R., Syz, H., 1979, Catalogue of the Hans Syz Collection: Meissen Porcelain and Hausmalerei, pp. 168-169.

Meissen chinoiserie coffeepot and cover

National Museum of American History
TITLE: Meissen chinoiserie coffeepot and cover

MAKER: Meissen Manufactory

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: ceramic, porcelain (overall material)

MEASUREMENTS: H. 7⅞" 20cm

OBJECT NAME: Coffeepot

PLACE MADE: Meissen, Saxony, Germany

DATE MADE: 1725-1730

SUBJECT: Art

Domestic Furnishing

Industry and Manufacturing

CREDIT LINE: Hans C. Syz Collection

ID NUMBER: 1982.0796.01 a,b

COLLECTOR/ DONOR: 739

ACCESSION NUMBER:

(DATA SOURCE: National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center)

MARKS: Crossed swords in underglaze blue; “4” in gold (gold painter’s mark).

PURCHASED FROM: Hans E. Backer, London, England, 1947.

This coffeepot is from the Smithsonian’s Hans Syz Collection of Meissen Porcelain. Dr. Syz (1894-1991) began his collection in the early years of World War II, when he purchased eighteenth-century Meissen table wares from the Art Exchange run by the New York dealer Adolf Beckhardt (1889-1962). Dr. Syz, a Swiss immigrant to the United States, collected Meissen porcelain while engaged in a professional career in psychiatry and the research of human behavior. He believed that cultural artifacts have an important role to play in enhancing our awareness and understanding of human creativity and its communication among peoples. His collection grew to represent this conviction.

The invention of Meissen porcelain, declared over three hundred years ago early in 1709, was a collective achievement that represents an early modern precursor to industrial chemistry and materials science. The porcelains we see in our museum collections, made in the small town of Meissen in the German States, were the result of an intense period of empirical research. Generally associated with artistic achievement of a high order, Meissen porcelain was also a technological achievement in the development of inorganic, non-metallic materials.

The coffeepot, with onglaze enamel painting in the chinoiserie style, belongs to the distinctive period in Meissen’s history that began in 1720 with the arrival from Vienna of Johann Gregor Höroldt (1696-1775). Höroldt brought with him superior skills in enamel painting on porcelain, and his highly significant contribution to Meissen was to develop a palette of very fine bright enamel colors that had so far eluded the team of metallurgists at the manufactory, and that were new to onglaze enamel colors on faience and porcelain in general. Höroldt and his team of painters used these colors to great effect in his singular vision of chinoiserie subjects, many of them based on drawings from what later became known as the Schulz Codex; a facsimile copy of the Schulz Codex can be seen in Rainer Behrend’s Das Meissener Musterbuch für Höroldt-Chinoiserien: Musterblätter aus der Malstube der Meissener Porzellanmanufaktur (Schulz Codex) Leipzig, 1978. Application of the term chinoiserie to this class of Meissen porcelains is problematic, however, because Johann Gregor Höroldt and his painters developed ideas from a variety of sources and Höroldt referred to the “chinoiseries” as “Japanese” (Japonische) figures, an early modern generic term for exotic artifacts and images imported from the East.

The chinoiserie scenes on the coffeepot are framed by scrollwork cartouches in gold, iron-red enamel, and purple luster. On one side of the coffeepot we see a woman carrying a tray of objects and attending to a small child, while on the other side a man seated in a rickshaw speaks to a companion while a servant waits to depart: for comparison with a teapot from the George B. McClellan Jr. collection in the Metropolitan Museum of Art see http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online/search/199165. On the cover individual chinoiserie figures attend to food preparation and to a display of vessels on a plinth. Items like this passed through many hands in Meissen’s painting division where artisans applied specialist skills in the enamel painting of figures, flowers and foliage, gold scrollwork, and the polishing of the gold after firing.

Chinoiserie is from the French Chinois (Chinese) and refers to ornamentation that is Chinese-like. The style evolved in Europe as Chinese luxury products began to arrive in the West in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries through the major European trading companies. Artisans were quick to incorporate motifs from these products into their work and to imitate their material qualities, especially the Chinese lacquers, embroidered silks, and porcelains, but their imitation was not informed by first-hand knowledge of China or an understanding of Chinese conventions in two-dimensional representation, and instead a fanciful European vision emerged to become an ornamental style employed in garden and interior design, in cabinet making, faience and porcelain manufacture, and in textiles. Illustrated books began to appear in the second half of the seventeenth century that describe the topography of China, its peoples and their customs, and these sources were copied and used by designers, artists, printmakers, and artisans including Johann Gregor Höroldt at Meissen.

The coffeepot belongs to the same service as the sugar box (ID# 1982.0796.02), and was possibly painted by Johann Gregor Höroldt. Meissen tea and coffee services of this early period were often sent as gifts to members of European royalty favored by the Saxon and Polish courts. They served as tokens of loyalty and affection to relatives in other royal houses with family connections to the Saxon House of Wettin.

For comparison there is a tankard with a similar chinoiserie subject in Hawes, S., Corsiglia, C., 1984, The Rita and Fritz Markus Collection of European Ceramics and Enamels, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, pp. 85-87.

On Johann Gregor Höroldt see Pietsch, U., Banz, C., 2010, Triumph of the Blue Swords: Meissen Porcelain for Aristocracy and Bourgoisie 1710-1815, pp. 17-25.

On the subject of royal and diplomatic gifts see Cassidy-Geiger, M., et al, 2008, Fragile Diplomacy: Meissen Porcelain for European Courts ca.1710-63.

On chinoiserie see Impey, O., 1997, Chinoiserie: the Impact of Oriental Styles on Western Art and Decoration; on the porcelain trade and European exposure to the Chinese product see the exhibition catalog by Emerson, J., Chen, J., Gardner Gates, M., 2000, Porcelain Stories: from China to Europe.

Jefferson Miller II, J., Rückert, R., Syz, H., 1979, Catalogue of the Hans Syz Collection: Meissen Porcelain and Hausmalerei, pp. 60-63.

Shield Of Wood

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
From card: "Prob. ethnological - Dr. H. Collins. Two pieces; pyramidal lug at back of each for grip. Stains of cross braces. Relashed in Mus. Lab. with buckskin thongs; & red painted design retraced. Illus. in The Far North catalog, Nat. Gall. of Art, 1973, p. 52-53. Illus.: Hndbk. N. Amer. Ind., Vol. 5, Arctic, fig. 12, pg. 173." The Far North catalog caption notes about the shield: "Flat shield, wood (stained with modern preservative), with pigment (retraced), modern rawhide lashings."

Illus. Fig. 21, p. 42 in Black, Lydia. 2003. Aleut art = Unangam aguqaadangin. Virginia Beach, VA: Donning Co. Publishers. Identified there as a shield with spiral decoration.

Note re photos: Color digital negative number 2005-35375 is a view of front (painted) side of shield, and 2005-35376 is a view of the back.

Source of the information below: Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center Alaska Native Collections: Sharing Knowledge website, by Aron Crowell, entry on this artifact http://alaska.si.edu/record.asp?id=360, retrieved 5-8-2014: For protection against ... deadly weapons, Unangan fighters used wooden shields and body armor made of wooden rods. This shield was taken along with other tools and weapons from a burial cave on Kagamil Island. It is made of split driftwood planks, stitched together with leather cords. Red spirals are painted on the front (a museum restoration of the faded original design). Veniaminov wrote that shields "were used to defend the head from flying arrows, holding on with the left hand to a grip . . . in the middle. The shields were used only in open battle or in an assault on a fortified place." From Elders' discussions of the parka in 2003 with Mary N. Bourdukofsky, Vlass Shabolin, Maria Turnpaugh and Daria Dirks (Tanadgusix Foundation) at the National Museum of Natural History and National Museum of the American Indian, 4/07/2003-4/11/2003. Also participating: Aron Crowell and Bill Fitzhugh (NMNH) and Suzi Jones (AMHA). Aron Crowell: Okay, this shield is from a cave on Kagamil Island, just west of Umnak Island. Mary Bourdukofsky: Oh, a battle shield maybe. To shield their body I guess, when they're fighting. Maria Turnpaugh: That's right. Daria Dirks: We did have a lot of wars amongst each other. Mary Bourdukofsky: Yes they did, I heard. Maria Turnpaugh: Well, I guess the Tlingit too. Aron Crowell: Are there any stories or memories about the days of warfare in the Aleutian Islands that any of you have heard? Maria Turnpaugh: Just what I've read. Vlass Shabolin: I guess in those days they had some bows and arrows, and then they threw rocks at them. They'd bounce right off of there. Daria Dirks: I wonder if the marks on there, the indentations, are from the arrows.

Mary Bourdukofsky: Where the bullets hit maybe, or arrows. Vlass Shabolin: Muskets too, the Russians were shooting at them. Mary Bourdukofsky: I don't think they’re bullet holes, maybe spear holes. Aron Crowell: The paint has been touched up in the museum, and also the lashings were added in the museum. It was repaired for exhibit I think, at one point early on. Maria Turnpaugh: When did they have wood like that? Mary Bourdukofsky: They could get their woods from the beach, Russians. Vlass Shabolin: The Russian boat that went by, yes. Daria Dirks: Traders. Aron Crowell: Is there much driftwood there that comes up on the shore? Maria Turnpaugh: A lot. Vlass Shabolin: A lot, tons and tons of driftwood. Aron Crowell: So the material for anything carved would have to be found on the beach. Mary Bourdukofsky: Yes, on the beach. Vlass Shabolin: It's redwood. Redwood was very popular then, I know.

Maria Turnpaugh: That’s what those old houses in Unalaska are made of, redwood. Vlass Shabolin: And that red wood lasted long. Mary Bourdukofsky: Nothing underneath? It should have something to hold onto. Maria Turnpaugh: No, you see there's a thing where the rod will go in. Vlass Shabolin: The arm. Mary Bourdukofsky: They must have had a string across. Vlass Shabolin: A string across there for their arm.

This object is on loan to the Anchorage Museum at Rasmuson Center, from 2010 through 2022.

Oral history interview with Garry Knox Bennett, 2002 February 1-2

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 157 pages. An interview of Garry Knox Bennett conducted 2002 February 1-2, by Glenn Adamso, in Oakland, California, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America.
Bennett describes his childhood and being raised by his maternal grandparents; what high school was like, working in the wood and metal shops for three hours at a time; attending California College of Arts and Crafts where he discovered sculpture; his marriage to Sylvia Mangum; the A-frame house he built in Lincoln, California; living off the land in Lincoln and country life; being diagnosed with beri-beri, a vitamin deficiency; moving his family back to Alameda when they realized how much they missed living in town. Bennett describes his first studio in Alameda, a former lavatory in the shipyard; the beginnings of Squirkenworks [now known as Gold Seal Plating], and his business venture with Rick Street.
Bennett also discusses his relationship with current partner Gary Spencer and switching from the paraphernalia business to jewelry and plating; the first clock he produced and showing them at Gump's in San Francisco; the other galleries he was selling through including Zara Gallery [now Joseph Chowning], Snyderman Gallery, and Esther Saks; his friend and fellow furniture maker Don Braden, who introduced him to Art Carpenter; his involvement in the Baulines Guild with artists such as Grif Okie, Don Braden, and Tom D'Onofrio; and his first meeting with Wendell Castle and their collaborative work at Penland School of Crafts.
He discusses the significance of the piece "Nail Cabinet," and the numerous places it has traveled; the ColorCore show in 1984, "Material Evidence: Mater Craftsmen Explore Colorcore;" the first Workbench show and Warren Rubin, the first owner of Workbench; the Peter Joseph Gallery; the "100 Lamps" show and how he began by making 25 lamps; and the Furniture Society. Mr. Adamson then does a 10-minute exercise with Bennett; he names people and asks the associations Bennett has with them, including Howard Hack, Mel Ramos, J. B. Blunk, Merryll Saylan, Marvin Lipofsky, Bob Stocksdale, James Prestini, Wendy Maruyama, Gail Fredell, Tage Frid, and numerous others.
Sylvia Bennett discusses her "invaluable" participation in her husband Garry's career; she was instrumental in the numerous administrative aspects with which an artist must deal. The conversation then expands to include Garry and they discuss the book, "Made in Oakland: The Furniture of Garry Knox Bennett," which went through several phases. Sylvia's portion of the interview concludes with her involvement with the Oakland Museum. Mr. Bennett and Mr. Adamson then continue the interview, discussing the museums that have pieces of Bennett's work, including the Jewish Museum in San Francisco, the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, the Renwick, and others. The interview concludes with discussion of "Made in Oakland," and describing the pieces included and what kind of work they entailed.
Bennett also recalls the following people: Dale Nish, David Elsworth, Phil Hanes, Paul Sasso, Leon Paulos, Rosanne Somerson, William Harper, John Dunnigan, Tommy Simpson, Dennis Fitzgerald, Ned Cooke, Jack Hopkins, Donald Fortescue, Jim Krenov, Bernice Wollman, Judy Coady, and others.

Silver Pipe

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
From card: "Inscribed peace and friendship "presented by Major Gen. (William H.) Harrison to the Delaware tribe of Indians, 1814; one of the sacred relics of the Delaware." Etched panel showing spread eagle, another panel showing Harrison presenting the pipe to the Indians. References: American State Papers, Indian Affairs, I, p. 838; Lindsay, G. Carroll. "The Treaty Pipe of the Delawares," Antiques, LXXIV (July 1958), 44-45. Illus.: Hndbk. N. Amer. Ind., Vol. 4, Fig. 3, p. 36. See photo MNH420 of related? pipe. Loaned to Political History for Exhibit. Returned 11-28-84. Lent to National Portrait Gallery 12-20-84, returned 2-26-86. Lent to Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 8/11/87. Loan returned Dec 15 1988."

Information below is excerpted from entry on this pipe on p. 89 of "Presentation Pieces in the Museum of History and Technology" by Margaret Brown Klapthor, Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology, Paper No. 47 [Smithsonian Institution]: Silver presentation pipe formally presented to the Delaware Indians in 1814 by General William Henry Harrison at the conclusion of the second Treaty of Greenville [at Fort Greenville, Ohio]. The treaty was intended to commit the Indians to active resistance in the American cause during the War of 1812. General Harrison and Lewis Cass had been appointed commissioners by the U.S. Government to conclude the treaty. On July 8, 1814, General Harrison read to the Indians a message from the President of the United States, and afterward he presented to the Wyandotte, Delaware, and Shawnee Indian tribes large silver pipes elegantly ornamented and engraved with emblems signifying the protection and friendship of the United States. (Reference: "The Journal of the Proceedings of the Commissioners Plenipotentiary, Appointed on Behalf of the United States to Treat with the Northwestern Tribes of Indians," _American State Papers ... Indian Affairs_, vol. 1, pp. 826-836.) The pipe has an urn-shaped bowl with a bead-edged cover bearing acanthus-leaf decorations. The S-shaped stem is 21 inches long and only one-fourth inch in diameter. The great length of the stem was necessary to cool the smoke; the S-shape added rigidity to the silver. The pipe has no identifying maker's mark. (Reference: G. Carroll Lindsay, "The Treaty Pipe of the Delawares," _Antiques_ (1958), vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 44-45.)

The "spread eagle" design on one of the pipe panels depicts a form of the Heraldic eagle with outspread wings and shield on its chest that is used on the Great Seal of the United States and that has appeared on early U.S. Peace Medals and various U.S. coins, etc..

This pipe was formerly owned by Richard Calmit Adams, who in 1909 lent it to the Smithsonian, under loan acccession no. 49797, catalogue no. 253552. Reference: "Indian Relics For Museum," The Washington Post, February 27, 1909, 5. After Adams' death in 1921, objects from his collection were sold to Victor Justice Evans. See also the remarks in the records for related objects E362062-0, E362064-0, and E362066-0.

Silver pipe E362061 is probably the one referenced on p. 21-22 and p. 36 in Adams, Richard C. 1921. Claims of the Delaware Indians; memorial of the Delaware tribe of Indians ... in support of Senate bill 663 and H.R. 6051. http://archive.org/details/claimsofdelaware00adam .

Crest Hat

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
From card: "Twined weaving; totemic whale painted on the body. Raven head carved from wood and painted, afixed to top of hat." For small illustration (hat only, not the raven head carving) see Hat 107, p. 221 in Glinsmann, Dawn. 2006. Northern Northwest Coast spruce root hats. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Washington, 2006. Glinsmann identifies the hat as of Haida manufacture.

Accession record 41512 calls this "Chilkat straw [sic] hat and raven's head", and also, more correctly, identifies it as a painted spruce root hat. See also accession file for Accession 41221, which contains information about objects from several Emmons accessions. It appears to contain information about hat # E221177? It may be the hat referred to on a list at the end of that file as "Spruce root dance hat painted with wooden bird on top from Metlakatla, Annette Island [Alaska]."

This object is on loan to the Anchorage Museum at Rasmuson Center, from 2010 through 2022.

Source of the information below: Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center Alaska Native Collections: Sharing Knowledge website, by Aron Crowell, entry on this artifact http://alaska.si.edu/record.asp?id=296 , retrieved 12-30-2011: Crest hat This woven spruce-root crest hat is topped with the wooden head of Raven, yet the design painted on the crown is the Killer Whale, a crest belonging to the Eagle moiety. The combination of symbols from opposing moieties on a single hat is rare. It might represent trade with the Haida, where this combination is allowed, or mockery of an unpaid Raven debt to social opposites. Even more rarely a child may be given permission to use a crest of his grandfather’s clan, always of the opposite moiety, creating a mix of designs.

Canoe (Waka)

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
A contemporary Maori canoe (waka) made from a totara (Podocarpus totara) tree by three master Maori carvers, Jacob Tautari, James Eruera, and James Rickard. The canoe was carved as part of "Tuku Iho / Living Legacy", an extended public program of Maori cultural arts and performances in Q?rius, The Coralyn W. Whitney Science Education Center, National Museum of Natural History (July 22-30, 2017), and funded by the New Zealand Maori Arts and Crafts Institute (NZMACI). The canoe was designed and created at New Zealand's national canoe school - Te Tapuwae o te Waka. The hull was made in New Zealand from a single 100-year old totara tree (a native New Zealand hardwood) sourced from a significant location and gifted by the landowners to the project. The hull was made over a period of three weeks and took three months to dry and ready for carving. The canoe sections were shipped to the United States, and the canoe's side strakes, bow and stern were then carved on-site in Q?rius, and all the parts of the canoe were fitted and lashed together and decorated. The carving on the canoe prow represents an early 20th century style that was most likely derived from a double hulled sailing vessel. The designs on the sides represent the ebb and flow of tides. See: "Maori carvers complete traditional canoe as gift to Smithsonian." 25 July 2017. Tourism New Zealand web site: https://media.newzealand.com/en/news/maori-canoe-at-the-heart-of-new-zealand-exhibition/.

Tichkematse book of drawings, 1887 April

National Anthropological Archives
Tichkematse a.k.a. Squint Eyes, Quchkeimus (1857-1932) was one of the best known groups of Plains artists was among the men held prisoner at Fort Marion in Saint Augustine, Florida, from 1875-1878. Tichkematse, a Cheyenne, was one of these prisoner artists. While imprisoned, he learned to speak English and to read and write. Upon release he attended school at the Hampton Institute in Virginia for about a year before coming to the Smithsonian. There he was trained in the preparation of bird and mammal specimens for study and display. During his time at the Smithsonian, he also produced drawings illustrating his old life on the Plains, full of buffalo hunts and battles as well as everyday camp life. In 1880 he returned to the Cheyenne and Arapaho Reservation in what is now Oklahoma, but he continued his affiliation with the Smithsonian. He was active in collecting bird and mammal specimens as well as craft items acquired from Cheyenne friends and relatives, which he shipped to the museum. For additional information on Tichkematse, see Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion by Karen Daniels Petersen (University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK 1971), "Squint Eyes: Artist and Indian Scout" by Bob Rea, (2002) /www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/scout, and "Tichkematse: A Cheyenne at the Smithsonian" by Candace Greene, (2000) /www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/squint_eyes/squint_eyes.htm. For further information on the Cheyenne scouts and their artwork, see "Artists in Blue: the Indian Scouts of Fort Reno and Fort Supply," by Candace S. Greene (American Indian Art Magazine, Winter 1992, pp.50-57) Major John Dunlop was a supply sergeant in San Antonio before the Civil War, then went to Mexico, and later to Washington. While in Washington he met Col. Bliss and the maintained a friendship over time, resulting in his visiting Bliss in Indian Territory and participating in the hunt depicted.

Fort Supply, established in 1868, was initially designated as a supply camp where U.S. Cavalry troops could restock and refresh themselves. It was from this post that Custer and the Seventh Cavalry marched to the Battle of Washita. Over the next twenty-five years, soldiers from Fort Supply performed duties that included peace-keeping and monitoring of the Cheyenne and Arapaho reservation and the Cherokee Outlet as well as monitoring the Land Run of 1893. From 1869 to early 1870, the post served as the temporary location for the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indian Agency. For more information on Fort Supply see Fort Supply, Indian Territory: Frontier Outpost by Robert C. Carriker, 1990 Norman: University of Oklahoma Press; and "History of Fort Supply" at http://www.ok-history.mus.ok.us/mus-sites/fshistory.htm.

Purchase/donation from Mr. and Mrs. David D. Longmaid, April 24, 1991. David Longmaid was the grandson of Major John Dunlop. The Tichkematse notebook was passed down through the family, eventually coming into Mr. and Mrs. Longmaid's possession. In the 1970s, the drawings were loaned to the NAA for study and a photographic record made of the entire book (Photo Lot 79-24). After return to the owner, drawings were separated from their binding and many were sold separately to individual collectors. In 1991the remaining drawings were acquired by the NAA in a purchase/donation.

Drawings in a small notebook of ruled paper, now disbound, covers retained. Drawings document an 1887 hunting excursion taken by Colonel Bliss of Fort Supply (in Indian Territory) and Major John Dunlop, a visitor to the fort from Washington D.C.. Included in the manuscript are a cyanotype picture featuring Colonel Bliss, end papers, and covers of the book as well as a typescript note pasted to the inside cover describing the drawings. The inscription reads as follows: "This pictorial history of various hunts made by Cheyenne Indians, and white men, was drawn and painted entirely by Squint Eye, a Cheyenne and Sergeant of the Scouts at Fort Supply, Indian Territory, April 1887. It will be observed that Sergt. Squint Eye, and Major Dunlop are the most important personages represented ; and it will also be observed that the Sergt. never forgets to put on his stripes, or chevrons. If any difference is noticed between the verbal report made by the major, of his encounter with the Catamount, and Squint eye's representation of it, it will please be ascribed to the native Scotch and Cheyenne modesty of the participants. Fort Supply, I.T., April 17, 1887, with compliments of Z.R. Bliss, on this his birthday." Many drawings are inscribed names identifying the figures, most of whom are Cheyenne men who were enlisted as Army scouts.

Damascened Sword And Scabbard

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
FROM CARD: "THERE IS A SIMILAR, BUT MORE ELABORATE SWORD OF THIS TYPE PRESENTED BY THE SAME KING TO PRES. JAMES BUCHANAN IN 1861 AND THANKED FOR BY PRES. AB. LINCOLN, WHICH WAS RETAINED BY THE STATE DEPT. AND LATER DEPOSITED IN THE COLLECTIONS OF THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES, WHERE IT NOW IS. -MARCH 1969. THE DESCRIPTION IN THAT LATER GIFT FITS THE GENERAL TYPE OF THIS SPECIMEN: "AN IRON SWORD MANUFACTURED IN SIAM AFTER THE FASHION OF THE FAMED JAPANESE SWORDS, DONE IN BLACK AND GOLD NIELLO.." THE SPECIMEN AS CORRECTLY IDENTIFIED IN THE MUSEUM IN APRIL 1969 WAS AS FOLLOWS: A HEAVILY DAMASCENED BLADE OF IRON WITH THE DAMASCENED PATTERN IN PROMINANT RELIEF. SINGLE EDGED, SLIGHTLY BACK CURVED WITH A FAIRLY BROAD POINT. HANDLE IS OF TWO PIECES OF WOOD COMPLETELY COVERED WITH PUNCTATE SHEET BRASS (IN IMITATION OF THE RAY SKIN ON THE JAP.[ANESE] SPECIMENS). ON TOP OF THIS ARE THE TWO SMALL CAST DECORATIVE ORNAMENTS BOUND DOWN BY THE ALMOST COMPLETE WRAPPING IN BLACK AND WHITE BRAIDED SILK TAPE, WHICH ALSO HOLDS ON THE GILDED SILVER BUTT CAP. AT THE INNER END IS A BAND OF THE SAME METAL AS IS THE HEAVY GUARD (TSUBA) WITH INCISED FLORAL DESIGNS. (THESE DESIGNS WERE ORIGINALLY FILLED IN WITH BLACK NIELLO ENAMEL BUT NOW ONLY FAINT TRACES NOW REMAIN BECAUSE SOMEONE IN THE PAST WITHOUT ANY KNOWLEDGE HAS REMOVED ALL THE ENAMEL -- ROBERT ELDER) THE SCABBARD IS A SINGLE PIECE OF HOLLOWED OUT WOOD (INSTEAD OF TWO PIECES AS IN THE JAPANESE ONES) IN NATURAL COLOR, AND HAVING THE SAME GILDED SILVER TIP AND REAR BAND. CALLED "KEW" WOOD."

FROM CARD: "WHEN THIS WAS ORIGINALLY ENTERED IN THE ANTHROPOLOGY CAT. BOOK IT WAS CALLED A PART OF THE MATTHEW PERRY COLLECTION INCORRECTLY. ONLY EXAMINATION OF THE RECATALOGING REVEALED CORRECT IDENTIFICATION. INVENTORIED 1968."

Illustrated and described in McQuail, Lisa. 1997. "Treasures of Two Nations: Thai Royal Gifts to the United States of America" Smithsonian Institution. p. 84

Information from Toshihiko Suekane, Norifumi Mochizuki and Melissa Rinne of the Kyoto National Museum 11/17/2015: The blade is not gilded silver but gold-silver alloy; there was no niello, the previous record is incorrect. The braided cord wrapping in the hilt is braided from navy or black silk and metal-wrapped (gold or silver?) white silk threads. Various aspects of this sword are different from existing swords of the type in Thailand: damascened blade, spacer etc. The metal used for the hand guard is an alloy of gold and silver (nearly half and half, lightly more gold) 60-70% gold. The blade is 96% iron with a small amount of nickel. Very accurate duplication of Japanese blade attributed evidences detailed understanding of Japanese production techniques. The construction of the blade is three layers. One layer in the center for the blade wrapped in another layer. Designs on gilded mounting fitting: peony (scabbard) stylized peonies, Chinese-style flowers on the hand guard. The scabbard is beech wood with varnish-like finish seemingly one piece – remarkable craftsmanship. The hilt peg (menuki) holes seem to exist but they are in fact imitations made to resemble these holes. The blade was definitely made in Thailand because of the presence of nickel. It has an outstanding shape, a blade ridge and various elements represent sophisticated understanding of Japanese swords. The plain scabbard is an anomaly. Normally high-ranking diplomatic gifts should have cloisonné scabbards or at least gold or black lacquer. Very specific ranks were awarded specific materials.

House Model

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
Northwest Coast wooden house model with peaked roof; house frontal totem pole with circular entrance doorway in front. Interior empty / undecorated. Four carved killer whales formerly decorated the front roof line, though one is currently missing. Painted designs in black and red on front and both sides, including killer whale motifs. Has been attributed as possibly Haida? No catalog number visible on artifact, which has also been checked with the blacklight. Object was loaned to Museo Nacional de Antropologia, Mexico City, Mexico, in 1964; loan returned in 2012.

Per Robin Wright, Burke Museum, 4-12-2012, this house model is probably Haida, though she is not sure who the artist might be. House frontal entrance pole is a Salmon with a human figure.

A photo of what appears to be this house model on display at the Smithsonian circa 1879 (photo may actually date more specifically to 1882 - early 1885) is in the collections of the Smithsonian Institution Archives: Photo ID 2962 or MNH-2962, Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 95, Box 41, Folder: 4, https://siarchives.si.edu/collections/siris_sic_8263 . House model is one of the small ones, second from left, on shelf in front of house front in back of photo. If this house model does date to this time period, James G. Swan would most likely be the collector. It also appears on the left in an old photo of exhibits at the U.S. National Museum (in what is now the National Museum of Natural History building), Negative # 38121B. It is behind glass and there are reflections, but the exhibit label appears to identify it as Haida and lists James G. Swan as the collector.

In James G. Swan correspondence in accession record No. 5260, Swan talks about sending two Haida house models. However, only one was catalogued, # E23547. It is possible house model ET14554/ET24468 or house model ET24565 may be from this accession?

Feather Cape

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
FROM T NUMBER CARD: "NO. 66. WAMWAMI (OR WAMAMI)? [sic, presumably Wanganui] NEW ZEALAND. COLLECTOR/DONOR CAPT. WILSON (OR WIKNO)? SMALL - VARIEGATED FROM KAHU HURA [sic, more probably this should be kura, not hura]. INCLUDES PEACOCK FEATHERS. FOUND IN COLLECTIONS WITH NO NUMBER." Formerly on exhibit in NMNH Exhibit Hall 8, Case 48, "Maori Life Group." (Exhibit dismantled in 2004)

Based on old original tags with artifacts, ET9350, ET11446 and ET12245 appear to be from the same collection. It seems, though these tags are faded and fragmentary, that they say Wanganui on them, as well as identifying the pieces. It appears that ET105 is from this same collection as well, though it has no old tag with it. The information on the T number card, including the number 66, seems to be quoting from the now missing tag. The tag for ET12245 appears to be written on/over a visiting card printed with a name R W Woon. There was a Richard Watson Woon (1834 - 1888) who was a Native Interpreter and Clerk to the Bench and Resident Magistrate in Wanganui, New Zealand in the 1800's. The handwriting on these tags matches Woon's handwriting in letters in the collections of the Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, N.Z.

See pp. 615 - 617 in Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute Volume 9, 1876; link to p. 617 here: http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/image/rsnz_09/rsnz_09_02_0749_0617_ac_01.html . On 16 September 1876, Dr. James Hector gave an account of his travels to a meeting of the Wellington Philosophical Society, including information on the New Zealand exhibits at the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia: "He mentioned the objects which appeared to attract most attention, and referred particularly to the exhibition of Feather Furs by Mr. Liardet, a magnificent series of Photographs by Mr. Deveril, Messrs. Burton Bros., and others, and a fine collection of Maori exhibits forwarded by Mr. Richard Woon, R.M., of Wanganui." On p. 223 of the book Norton, Frank H., and Frank Leslie. 1877. Frank Leslie's historical register of the United States Centennial Exposition, 1876. Embellished with nearly eight hundred illustrations drawn expressly for this work by the most eminent artists in America. Including illustrations and descriptions of all previous International exhibitions. New York: Frank Leslie's Pub. House, there is a description of the New Zealand section at the Centennial Exposition, including descriptions of Maori artifacts displayed there: "There are also ... flax mats, ornamented with red feathers of the kaka, or mounted parrot; others interwoven with feathers of the native wood-pigeon, one in particular intended as a gift to the President of the United States ... ."

ET105 is a flax and feather cape or cloak, with wide bottom border, and narrow side borders, of taniko (geometric patterning) of black-dyed and natural muka (flax fiber). See the list of the collection made by Richard Watson Woon for display at the New Zealand exhibit of the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia; see list on p. 335 of Great Britain. Executive commission, Philadelphia exhibition, 1876. 1876. Official catalogue of the British section, Part I. London: Printed by G.E. Eyre and W. Spottiswoode, for Her Majesty's stationery office, http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015067183486;view=1up;seq=345 . Presuming ET105 is indeed from Woon, despite an apparent mismatch of original numbers, this object appears to be the one listed as: "38. [original owner] Captain Wirihana Puna. - Kakahu Kura, ornamented flax and feather mat; intended as a gift to the President of the United States." [Ulysses S. Grant was the President in 1876.] Kakahu kura, also called Kahu kura, are cloaks woven with the feathers of of the New Zealand kaka (Nestor meridionalis), a native parrot.

James Hector of the (New Zealand) Colonial Museum and Geological Survey was the Representative Commissioner for the New Zealand exhibits at the Philadelphia Centennial. In addition to material sent from New Zealand, these exhibits also included some artifacts borrowed from the Smithsonian through Joseph Henry. A group of Maori artifacts provided by Richard Watson Woon were a subset of the New Zealand Centennial exhibit. Hector, while in the U.S. in 1876, also visited Washington, DC and Spencer Baird. Though Woon indicated that the majority of the Maori exhibits should return to New Zealand, two artifacts were designated as gifts for the President of the United States, and a few other pieces also were not returned to New Zealand. The objects intended as presidential gifts, ET12245 and ET105, and also at least two other pieces, ET9350 and ET11446, all became part of the Smithsonian collections, under Accession No. 5733, though the Department of Anthropology never seems to have assigned catalogue numbers to them. The Archives at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa has correspondence in their files from Woon related to the Centennial exhibition artifacts; see in particular MU000177/001/0160. The Te Papa archives also has a letter, MU000177/001/0002/0001, dated July 8, 1876, from Spencer Baird to James Hector, thanking Hector for transferring objects that had been displayed at the Centennial to the Smithsonian U.S. National Museum. See also New Zealand. 1858. Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand. Auckland [N.Z.]: Printed for the House of Representatives by W.C. Wilson at the Printing Office; Report of Royal Commission Appointed To Secure The Representation Of New Zealand, Philadelphia Centennial International Exhibition of 1876. https://books.google.com/books?id=cSxAAQAAMAAJ&lpg=RA4-PA49&dq=motumotu%20flax%20new%20zealand&pg=RA5-PA1#v=onepage&q=motumotu%20flax%20new%20zealand&f=false .

Fiber Mat Cape Or Cloak

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
Based on old original tags with artifacts, ET9350, ET11446 and ET12245 appear to be from the same collection. It seems, though these tags are faded and fragmentary, that they say Wanganui on them, as well as identifying the pieces. The fragmentary tag with ET9350 appears to say: "40. Wanganui, Toi Mat, Pehira; 40. [To]i mat [dy]ed black [Peh]ira Turei." It appears that ET105 is from this same collection as well. The tag for ET12245 appears to be written on/over a visiting card printed with a name R W Woon. There was a Richard Watson Woon (1834 - 1888) who was a Native Interpreter and Clerk to the Bench and Resident Magistrate in Wanganui, New Zealand in the 1800's. The handwriting on these tags matches Woon's handwriting in letters in the collections of the Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, N.Z.

FROM LOGBOOK: TWINED FIBER MAT.

See pp. 615 - 617 in Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute Volume 9, 1876; link to p. 617 here: http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/image/rsnz_09/rsnz_09_02_0749_0617_ac_01.html . On 16 September 1876, Dr. James Hector gave an account of his travels to a meeting of the Wellington Philosophical Society, including information on the New Zealand exhibits at the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia: "He mentioned the objects which appeared to attract most attention, and referred particularly to the exhibition of Feather Furs by Mr. Liardet, a magnificent series of Photographs by Mr. Deveril, Messrs. Burton Bros., and others, and a fine collection of Maori exhibits forwarded by Mr. Richard Woon, R.M., of Wanganui." On p. 223 of the book Norton, Frank H., and Frank Leslie. 1877. Frank Leslie's historical register of the United States Centennial Exposition, 1876. Embellished with nearly eight hundred illustrations drawn expressly for this work by the most eminent artists in America. Including illustrations and descriptions of all previous International exhibitions. New York: Frank Leslie's Pub. House, there is a description of the New Zealand section at the Centennial Exposition, including descriptions of Maori artifacts displayed there: "There are also ... flax mats, ornamented with red feathers of the kaka, or mounted parrot; others interwoven with feathers of the native wood-pigeon, one in particular intended as a gift to the President of the United States ... ."

Comparing the information on the artifact's original handwritten tag against the list of the collection made by Richard Watson Woon for display at the New Zealand exhibit of the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia; see list on p. 335 of Great Britain. Executive commission, Philadelphia exhibition, 1876. 1876. Official catalogue of the British section, Part I. London: Printed by G.E. Eyre and W. Spottiswoode, for Her Majesty's stationery office, http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015067183486;view=1up;seq=345, this object appears to be the one listed as: "40. [original owner] Pehira Turei Queen's pensioner - Toi Mat made from Toi plant found at foot of Tongariro, or the burning mountain." This appears to be a kahu toi style rain cape, see http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/topic/3635 : "Kahu toi are prestigious warrior capes made of leaf fibre from the hardy toi (mountain cabbage tree)."

James Hector of the (New Zealand) Colonial Museum and Geological Survey was the Representative Commissioner for the New Zealand exhibits at the Philadelphia Centennial. In addition to material sent from New Zealand, these exhibits also included some artifacts borrowed from the Smithsonian through Joseph Henry. A group of Maori artifacts provided by Richard Watson Woon were a subset of the New Zealand Centennial exhibit. Hector, while in the U.S. in 1876, also visited Washington, DC and Spencer Baird. Though Woon indicated that the majority of the Maori exhibits should return to New Zealand, two artifacts were designated as gifts for the President of the United States, and a few other pieces also were not returned to New Zealand. The objects intended as presidential gifts, ET12245 and ET105, and also at least two other pieces, ET9350 and ET11446, all became part of the Smithsonian collections, under Accession No. 5733, though the Department of Anthropology never seems to have assigned catalogue numbers to them. The Archives at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa has correspondence in their files from Woon related to the Centennial exhibition artifacts; see in particular MU000177/001/0160. The Te Papa archives also has a letter, MU000177/001/0002/0001, dated July 8, 1876, from Spencer Baird to James Hector, thanking Hector for transferring objects that had been displayed at the Centennial to the Smithsonian U.S. National Museum. See also New Zealand. 1858. Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand. Auckland [N.Z.]: Printed for the House of Representatives by W.C. Wilson at the Printing Office; Report of Royal Commission Appointed To Secure The Representation Of New Zealand, Philadelphia Centennial International Exhibition of 1876. https://books.google.com/books?id=cSxAAQAAMAAJ&lpg=RA4-PA49&dq=motumotu%20flax%20new%20zealand&pg=RA5-PA1#v=onepage&q=motumotu%20flax%20new%20zealand&f=false .

Oral history interview with John Marshall, 2001 April 5

Archives of American Art
Sound recording: 6 sound files (3 hrs., 2 min.) digital, wav Transcript: 45 pages An interview of John Marshall conducted 2001 April 5, by Lloyd Herman, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, in Edmonds, Washington.
Marshall speaks of his childhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; participating in an educational program with the Carnegie Museum; his exposure to art while in grade school and throughout his education; joining the army after high school; spending time in Germany with the army and experiencing the metalwork of that area; learning to work hard from his father; his family background; attending Grove City College, then working in construction during the day and going to classes at Carnegie Tech during the night; finally attending Cleveland Institute of Art; some of his teachers at the Institute, Kenneth Bates, Toshiko Takaezu, and John Clague; his first experiences with metal, Fred Miller, and learning how to design metal pieces; getting a job as head of the metals department at Syracuse and completing his MFA there; meeting Paul Smith and Lee Nordness, and participating in Objects: USA; his travels throughout Europe; the many commissions he has done for churches, everything from baptismal bowls, chalices, and crosses; Patrick Lannan, and how instrumental he was in Marshall's career, his collection of work that Lannan bought and where it all is now located; the different types of communities in the different areas he lived; commissions and how they were important to his career; how he challenges himself with new ideas and creations; the Handy and Harman Workshop; the difference between a university trained artist and one who has learned his/her craft outside academia; his students and how much satisfaction he has received from teaching; the decline in metal working programs at the university level; the influence of other faculty members on his work, such as Lee DuSell; the critics of metalwork, Bruce Metcalf and Gary Griffin; his involvement in the Society of North American Goldsmiths; and his two sons. Marshall also recalls John Paul Miller, Winifred Lutz, Ramona Solberg, Ruth Penington, Michael Scott, Don Bacorn, Annie Hauberg, and others.

Oral history interview with Doug Aitken, 2017 July 22-24

Archives of American Art
Audio: 8 sound files (6 hrs.,11 min.) digital, wav Transcript: 83 pages. An interview with Doug Aitken conducted 2017 July 22 and 24, by Hunter Drohojowska-Philp, for the Archives of American Art, at Aitken's home in Venice Beach, California.
Mr. Aitken discusses growing up and his early schooling in Palos Verdes, California, and his first introductions to making art at a young age; his parents intellectual curiosity and his early visits with them to museums in the Los Angeles area; the family's many travels to the Southwest, Latin America and Europe, as well as his subsequent travels hitchhiking alone as a teenager; the impact of his high school art teacher Chizuko de Queiroz; his time as a young teenager exploring the new wave and punk rock scenes in the Los Angeles area; his time at the Art Center College of Design in Pasadena, California and the mentorship there of the illustrator and artist Phil Hays; his focus on photography and illustration and his work for the magazine Ray Gun in the '90s; his decision to move to New York City after graduating from Art Center and his first artist studio residence there with Lawrence Carroll; his almost monastic life at first in New York City working on art with very little social interaction; his first ideas for an artwork using moving image and his first use of film and video; the impact of the concept of "timecode" from video editing and its application as a construct with which to perceive time and consciousness; and his early art exhibitions in non-commercial spaces with the AC Project Room group in New York. Mr. Aitken also describes his multimedia work Diamond Sea and the filming for it in Namibia; his first commercial art gallery shows at 303 Gallery in New York City; his current MOCA retrospective Electric Earth; his piece Song 1 and the inspiration for it; the ideas behind the performance and exhibition series Station to Station that was realized on trains and train stations with the help of many fellow artists and his studio assistants; his mirrored architectural work Mirage in Palm Springs; the mirrored ocean environmental works Underwater Pavilions; the appeal of the ocean and the story of his drowning and near-death experience; the ideas behind his work Migration using animals and anonymous American hotel rooms; his multiscreen film Eraser shot on the island of Montserrat after the volcanic devastation there; the impact of the work of the musician Terry Riley on his art and their subsequent friendship and collaboration; his romantic relationships; the work done building his current house in Venice, California, and his incorporation of sonic elements and visual interplay in the house's construction; his many conversations with artist friends and colleagues and the subsequent use of them in his book Broken Screen; and the recent work Twilight using abandoned telephone booths as inspiration. Mr. Aitken also recalls Jorge Prado, Mike Kelley, Stephen Prina, Keith Edmier, Matthew Barney, Paul Bloodgood, Rirkrit Tiravanija, Spike Jonze, Philippe Vergne, Harald Szeemann, Francesco Bonami, Okwui Enwezor, as well as Tilda Swinton, John Doe, Donald Sutherland, Werner Herzog, Bruce Conner, Lisa Spellman, Ed Ruscha, Werner Herzog, Eva Presenhuber, Victoria Miro, Robert Altman, and Lars von Trier, among others.

Oral history interview with Sheila Hicks, 2004 February 3-March 11

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 75 pages An interview of Sheila Hicks conducted 2004 February 3-March 11, by Monique Levi-Strauss, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, in Paris, France.
Hicks speaks of her family and growing up in various cities; taking classes at the Detroit Institute of Arts; studying art at Syracuse University; spending a summer painting in Taxco, Mexico; transferring to Yale University to study painting; receiving a Fulbright grant to study in Chile; traveling through South America; painting and becoming part of the Chilean artist circle; returning to Yale for a Masters of Fine Arts; moving to Mexico to pursue photography; marrying Henrik Tati Schlubach; being awarded a grant to study in France; discovering a love for Paris and making textiles; meeting other artists in Mexico; taking her early textile pieces to the Museum of Modern Art; getting a contract with Knoll Associates; moving to Paris; meeting and marrying fellow artist Enrique Zañartu; making connections with European artists; creating large scale textiles for architects and designing for spaces; exhibiting at the Lausanne Biennale of Tapestry; opening a studio and hiring employees; the challenges of commissions; creating three-dimensional pieces; visiting other artists' studios; choosing materials and techniques; managing the magazine, "American Fabrics;" her tenure as art director for the King Saud University in Saudi Arabia; the process of making a project in her studio; working in carpet workshops in Morocco; using hospital linen in her sculpture; working on commissions in Japan; teaching; and having her work recognized as art. Hicks also recalls Josef and Anni Albers, Rico Lebrun, Luis Barragan, Claire Zeisler, Lenore Tawney, Mildred Constantine, Mathias Goeritz, and others.

Oral history interview with Don Baum, 1986 January 31-May 13

Archives of American Art
Sound recording: 2 sound cassettes analog Transcript: 108 pages An interview of Don Baum conducted 1986 January 31 and May 13, by Sue Ann Kendall, for the Archives of American Art, in Chicago, Illinois.
Baum speaks about his childhood in Michigan; interests during his college years at Michigan State; classes at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago; friendship with artists such as Miyoko Ito and Ethel Spears; the Institute of Design and Laszlo Moholy-Nagy; faculty and classes at the University of Chicago; jam sessions at Gertrude Abercrombie's home; teaching at Roosevelt University; the influence of travel; June Leaf; Leon Golub; psychoanalysis and its influence on his work; collage; The Hyde Park Art Center; objects with a magical aura; writing and writers; dolls; the relationship of self to art; outsider art; transformation; Joseph Cornell; the Hairy Who artists; collectors; the Museum of Contemporary Art; the Illinois Arts Council; Chicago art and artists; and travel in Indonesia.

Oral history interview with Marvin Lipofsky, 2003 July 30-August 5

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 103 pages. An interview of Marvin Lipofsky conducted 2003 July 30-August 5, by Paul Karlstrom, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, in Berkeley, California.
Lipofsky speaks of growing up in the retail clothing trade; relating immediately in his early career to artists Peter Voulkos and John Mason; studying industrial design at the University of Illinois and sculpture at the University of Madison, Wisconsin, where Harvey Littleton introduced him to glass blowing; traveling to Europe to learn about glass; his desire to share education experiences with others; setting up education programs at Berkeley and the California College of Arts and Crafts; establishing the Great California Glass Symposium and creating a sense of community of glass art; artists versus artisans and craftsmen; studio glass as an American phenomenon; functional versus non-functional glass art; spirituality in his work; glassblowing associated with the breath of life; the Bay Area art scene; symbolic forms and organic quality of works; influences from working in factories and other countries; his experience working at the Venini Factory in Murano, Italy; his involvement in the California College of Arts and Crafts, Glass Arts Society, and National Council on Education for the Ceramic Arts; abstraction as his main subject of works; inspirations of colorful clothing and color in nature; and the "American Glass Now" exhibition at the Toledo Museum of Art, the first major glass exhibit in the United States. Lipfosky also recalls Dante Marioni, Paul Marioni, Beatrice Wood, Christopher Wilmarth, Ken Holston, Dale Chihuly, and others.
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