Artifacts of the Suffrage Movement and Anti-Suffrage Movement
In this activity, students will examine photographs documenting the Bracero Program, the largest guest-worker program in US history. Started in 1942 as a temporary war measure to address labor demands in agriculture and railroads, the program allowed Mexican nationals to take temporary agricultural work in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, and 24 other states. By the time the program ended in 1964, over 4.6 million contracts were awarded.
Using two Project Zero Global Thinking Routines - "Unveiling Stories" and "The 3 Ys" - students will analyze the stories these photographs tell about the experiences of braceros in this program, and the impact of these stories in multiple contexts. Additional resources (primary sources, a digital exhibition, and an article) and information on how to use these routines in the classroom can by found by clicking Read More ».
Keywords: mexican, immigration, work, migration, migrant workers, agriculture, reform, politics, government, leonard nadel, photojournalism, activity, inquiry strategy, global competency, global competence, latino, chicano, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Arkansas, 1940s, 40s, 1950s, 50s, 1960s, 60s
Art provides a pathway for individuals to express their inner self while also capturing the outer—this great wide world so intricate it's difficult to define. Throughout history, humans have sought to comprehend both their environment and their own inherent cultural uniqueness. This search has become symbolized in their artistic accomplishments and aesthetic heritage. Whether through representations of specific individuals and the human figure or awe-inspiring works of architecture, these art pieces are a window into the creative core of our past.
In this collection, we will observe the ways in which the soul/spirit has been expressed in art, and how human creativity sheds light upon both individual and cultural identities and its varied interpretations throughout the ages. This collection is organized in three symbolic steps on a stone staircase entitled "The Stone Path of Eternity." To truly travel through each piece, I have included an image, a brief description of the work under information, and then, signified by the yellow (1) above, I've provided my own analysis and interpretation of the piece in its relationship to the collection theme.
Through lingering through the "Stone Path of Eternity," which is represented by the first two tiles, we will from one stone to the next in seeking the many ways in which the soul's expression can be defined.
In Stone Number One, "The Spirit's Encased Construct," we'll see how architecture and large-scale artistic projects merge to reflect both cultural identity and the individuality of their leaders through works from ancient Babylonia, Egypt, the Byzantine Empire and into the combinations made possible by the aesthetic innovations of modern times.
Shifting step to Stone Number Two, "Human Identity Immortalized in Matter," we delve into the ways in which the human figure is represented and what these images can share with us in terms of the varying levels, purposes, intentions behind the artist's created expressions and impact of depicting the Spirit on Earth. This idea is exemplified in creations ranging from the Paleolithic period to modern times, with examples from Egypt, Ancient Greece, the Italian Renaissance and the 20th century popular culture.
Finally, in Stone Number Three,"Individuals and Spirituality Entwine," we step into the door of the spirit directly, traveling through the many methods which cultures apply in trying to simultaneously convey and understand what realms are in union with and beyond this life. Some cultures who address this idea in their artistic tradition are seen in instances of Egyptian art and work from ancient and Hellenistic Greece, as well as both the Italian Renaissance, Northern European Renaissance, and contemporary Western art.
The intended audience for this collection is just as varied as my subject matter. Those who might be drawn to this collection are people attracted to the enigmas of life and death, who have questioned their place in society and the mysteries this world has to hold, and are curious to know more about how, historically, cultures have related to these probing questions—for, as you will see, they certainly have existed as long as humans have walked the earth. No matter if you're in high school, college, or beyond formal education, I hope you will find my musings on these artworks and their meanings compelling and thought-provoking.
Renowned artist and poet William Blake once wrote, "To see the world in a grain of sand, and to see heaven in a wild flower, hold infinity in the palm of your hands, and eternity in an hour." From the most abstract art to the remarkably realistic, there is always an image of ourselves, in the an esoteric sense, waiting to be found within. With its timeless method, Art seeks to create a definition for this all-encompassing and ever-evading essence and I hope to continue that quest with you as we explore this collection. #AHMC2019
This collection was created to complement a National Art Education Association (NAEA) webinar, "Constructing Curriculum with the Smithsonian" (December 11, 2019) featuring resources from the National Museum of African American History and Culture, the National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian Learning Lab.
The webinar features inquiry-based strategies in examining the American experience depicted through portraiture and unpacking the context of historical narratives communicated through art with students.
This collection was created in collaboration with Briana Zavadil White (National Portrait Gallery) and Candra Flanagan (National Museum of African American History and Culture).
This collection allows students and teachers to gain an understanding of the Design Thinking process utilizing Cooper Hewitt learning lab resources as well other materials.
I created this collection to have my students understand better the role children played in the past. Considering how quickly I have to teach history to my 4th graders I wanted to rely on photographs to help orient the students into time and place. I focused on the late 1800s into the mid-1900s. The students in my class wanted to know more about children's lives during the time period we were learning about. The purpose of the collection is to push the students to think beyond what they immediately see and consider the bigger ideas captured in these photographs.
Students engaged in thinking routines during this activity:
See, Think, Wonder
- What do you see?
- What do you think?
- What do you wonder?
- What is the story?
- What is the human story?
- What is the world story?
- What is the new story?
- What is the hidden story?
The visual arts can be an entry point to literacy in the classroom. Use these objects in the collection of the National Museum of African Art to aid students to explore authentic African art works that inspired the Academy Award winning costume design of Ruth Carter in the blockbuster movie Black Panther. Students can develop visual vocabulary through close looking to describe mood, tone, atmosphere, and inference and explore cross-curricular and cross cultural connections. It allows them to really be creative and critical thinkers!
Keywords: Arts Integration; Africa; African Art; Global Arts;
Put the ARTS in STEM - From Egypt to South Africa, take a brief tour of the African Cosmos and have your students discover the intersection of Art and Astronomy in the southern hemisphere. Explore constellations only seen on the African continent. See why the Goliath beetle became a symbol of rebirth for the Egyptian scarab. Learn about celestial navigation by people and animals.
Create Your Own Constellation!
The objects in this collection, from the crescent-shaped manilla to the colorful banknotes, formed part of West Africa’s vibrant and varied monetary system in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Each object has its own story about when and how it was used. A person shopping in a market in Accra, Ghana in the 1980s, for example, might have received the 1 cedi coin below as change from a small transaction. In the Akan language, the word “cedi” means cowrie shell, a currency which a person shopping in the same market a century earlier might have used. Like the 1 cedi coin, cowrie shells were used to make small purchases. Symbolically, the image of a cowrie shell appears on the coin. Not far from Accra, in the old Asante city of Kumasi, the figurative gold weights pictured here would have been used around the same time to measure gold dust for transactions ranging from significant market purchases to judicial fines.
How did West Africa move from a monetary system based on objects like manillas, gold dust, and cowrie shells to one based on notes and coins? It was once popular to attribute this change to the colonization of West Africa by European governments in the nineteenth century. According to this story, colonial governments wanted to impose their own “modern” currencies on West African economies to make it easier for merchants and colonial authorities to do business between the colony and Europe. From recent historical research on West African currencies and their uses, we now know the story is not that simple. Colonial governments did introduce new currency systems with European forms of money, but they were not immediately or universally adopted by Africans in the way that colonial governments intended.
After the end of the colonial period, some countries like Ghana and Nigeria, issued their own currencies as an expression of national sovereignty. Other new countries, such as Senegal and the Ivory Coast, focused instead on building or maintaining monetary unions with shared currencies in order to reinforce links between their economies. Some of these post-colonial coins and banknotes depict pre-colonial currencies, like the cowrie on the Ghanaian cedi coin or the Kissi penny on the Liberian dollar.
The history of West African money from the nineteenth century onwards reflects the history of economic, political, and social change in the region over that same period. This collection uses objects from the Smithsonian’s National Numismatic Collection to tell that history, linking to broader questions about the nature and uses of money, the ways in which economic change can influence how money is used, and the relationship between money and political sovereignty.
Below is a list of suggested readings on West African money and exchange. To see all of the West African currency objects in the National Numismatic Collection, click here. Please feel free to reach out to Dr. Leigh Gardner or Dr. Ellen Feingold with questions or feedback.
Gardner, Leigh A. “From Cowries to Mobile Phones: African Monetary Systems Since 1800.” In The History of African Development: An Online Textbook for a New Generation of African Students and Teachers, edited by Ewout Frankema, Ellen Hillbom, Ushehwedu Kufakurinani, and Felix Meier zu Selhausen. African Economic History Network (2018): https://www.aehnetwork.org/textbook/from-cowries-to-mobile-phones-african-monetary-systems-since-1800/
Guyer, J. and Karin Pallaver. "Money and Currency in African History.” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History (2018): https://oxfordre.com/africanhistory/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190277734.001.0001/acrefore-9780190277734-e-144
Arhin, Kwame. “Monetization in the Asante State.” In Money Matters: Instability, Values and Social Payments in the Modern History of West African Communities, edited by Jane I. Guyer, 97-110. London: James Currey, 1995.
Herbert, Eugenia W. Red Gold of Africa: Copper in Precolonial History and Culture. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.
Hogendorn, Jan S., and Marion Johnson. The Shell Money of the Slave Trade. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Colonial currency systems and African responses:
Feingold, Ellen R. "International Currency Counterfeiting Schemes in Interwar West Africa." Journal of West African History 3, no. 1 (2017): 77-101.
Gardner, Leigh A. “The Curious Incident of the Franc in the Gambia.” Financial History Review 22, no. 3 (2015): 291-314.
Gardner, Leigh A. "The Rise and Decline of Sterling in Liberia.” Economic History Review 64, no. 4 (2014): 1089-1112.
Guyer, Jane I. “Introduction: The Currency Interface and its Dynamics.” In Money Matters: Instability, Values and Social Payments in the Modern History of West African Communities, edited by Jane I. Guyer, 1-34. (London: James Currey, 1995).
Helleiner, Eric. “The Monetary Dimensions of Colonialism: Why Did Imperial Powers Create Currency Blocs?” Geopolitics 7, no. 1 (2002): 5-30.
Hogendorn, Jan S., and Henry A. Gemery. “Continuity in West African Monetary History? An Outline of Monetary Development.” African Economic History 17 (1988): 127-146.
Hopkins, A.G. “The Currency Revolution in South-West Nigeria in the Late Nineteenth Century.” Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria 3, no. 3 (1966): 471-483.
Saul, Mahir. “Money in Colonial Transition: Cowries and Francs in West Africa.” American Anthropologist 106, no. 1 (2004): 71-84.
Money and national independence:
Schenk, Catherine R. “Monetary Institutions in Newly Independent Countries: The Experience of Malaya, Ghana, and Nigeria in the 1950s.” Financial History Review 4, no. 2 (1997): 181-198.
Stasavage, David. The Political Economy of a Common Currency: the CFA Franc Zone Since 1945. Aldershot: Ashgate (2003).
Uche, Chibuike U. “Bank of England vs. the IBRD: Did the Nigerian Colony Deserve a Central Bank?” Explorations in Economic History 34 (1997): 220-241.
This collection includes objects and resources related to Japanese incarceration during World War II. Following the bombing of Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 through which tens of thousands of Americans of Japanese ancestry were moved into relocation centers. Additional resources can be found by visiting the National Museum of American History's online exhibitions at AmericanHistory.si.edu and History Explorer at HistoryExplorer.si.edu.
This collection brings together EDSITEment and Smithsonian resources to support the initial research into a project for National History Day 2020, "Breaking Barriers in History."
These resources—including, objects, photographs, portraits, lesson plans, and articles—explore how technologies developed in the interest of advancing industrialization during the United States’ Second Industrial Revolution made it possible to overcome economic and social barriers, while, in some cases, unintentionally creating new ones. Innovators who developed technologies and tools to make every day living easier and more enjoyable, along with transportation technologies that broke barriers in terms of travel and movement, are also included in this collection. Users are also asked to consider the legacies of these inventions and their significance to innovation and industrialization through to today. The second resource of this collection contains questions to help with the analysis of a chosen topic alongside photograph, document, artwork, portrait, and object resources.
By no means is this collection comprehensive; instead, it provides a launching point for further research.
This collection was created in collaboration with the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access.
Share your National History Day collections and let us know what you think! Write to us on Twitter: @EDSITEment and @SmithsonianLab, #NHD2020. If you publish a collection on your National History Day topic, be sure to enter #NHD2020 in the description!
Tags: factory, industry, invention, innovator, Thomas Edison, Nikola Tesla, Alexander Graham Bell, Samuel F. B. Morse, telegraph, Christopher Latham Sholes, typewriter, telephone, communication, technology, workers, labor, International Ladies Garment Workers Union, David Dubinsky, Asa Philip Randolph, John Llewellyn Lewis, Frances Perkins, Samuel Gompers, strike, boycott, union, Transcontinental, railroad, nineteenth century, 19th, twentieth, 20th, #NHD
In this collection, I am exploring the connections between storytelling and art. I will also look at the connection of storytelling to neuroscience and the effects of storytelling on the human brain. I will be referencing the work of Will Storr (The Science of Storytelling), neuroscientists, psychologists and resources from institutions such as the Smithsonian, The National Gallery of Art, The British Museum, National Geographic, and the J. Paul Getty Museum. I will look at how artists use content, meaning, and context to create narrative within their particular medium.
Research suggest that language developed as a way to convey "social information", gossip. Furthermore, it is documented that curiosity kicks the dopamine reward signal in the human brain. Will Storr in his 2019 book, gorgeously researched and perfectly titled The Science of Storytelling tells us that psychologist Jonathon Haidt says the brain is a 'story processor' not a 'logic processor'. All of this tells us that humans are hardwired to tell and receive stories.
How do artists tell stories? Both Storr and Kidd tell us that psychologist Dr. George Lowenstein asserts there are four ways to induce curiosity in the human brain: questions or puzzles; a sequence of events without revelation of the "end"; "violation of expectations that triggers a search for an explanation"; or knowing that someone else knows something and you want to know it too. One could almost use these as headings to categorize art and and artistic movements. Artist capture a moment in time that prods human curiosity, in some cases for thousands of years, to create the rest of the story of that suspended juncture.
The audience for this collection might be students of psychology or English. It could be of interest to creators of story including novelists, playwrights, actors, screenwriters, musicians, and visual artists. And anyone interested in what Storr termed as "the science of the human condition".
Will Storr writes, "One benefit of understanding the science of storytelling is that it illuminates the 'whys' behind the 'rules' we're commonly given...Knowing why the rules are the rules means we know how to break them..."
Dunbar, Robin et al. Evolutionary Psychology. One World Publications, 2005.
Kidd, Celeste, and Benjamin Y Hayden. “The Psychology and Neuroscience of Curiosity.” Neuron vol. 88,3 (2015): 449-60. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2015.09.010
Storr, Will. The Science of Storytelling. London: William Collins, 2019.
Learning Target: I will trace the development of the most significant events of the American Revolution, including the following: declaring independence, fighting the Battles of Lexington, Concord, Saratoga, and Yorktown.
I will investigate the struggles that were endured during the winter at Valley Forge and the signing of the Treaty of Paris of 1783.
This collection is meant to introduce the viewer to world architecture of the past & present day using Rebold & DiYanni's text, Arts and Culture, An Introduction to the Humanities (2012).
One of my hobbies is traveling, and when I do travel, one aspect that I pay attention to is the architecture of the place I'm in. As I was studying architecture for this class, I realized that buildings even in my home state of Ohio had beautiful Roman influences, although they were built two millennia later.
This project will focus on world architecture, its history and innovations, as well as comparisons to the influences we see on buildings going up all around our world today. It should be noted that the artistic comparisons in this collection are of my own observation alone and any influence the modern architects may have had may have been intentional or simply coincidental.
I hope you enjoy this collection.
Resource: Arts and Culture, An Introduction to the Humanities by Janetta Rebold Benton & Robert DiYanni.
Look closely at the resources. Read the information included on the resource. What looks like an example of Peace to you?
The Romans culture included a ton of art. Granted, most of their ideas came from the Greek culture that preceded them. A lot of their art is a play on a Greek original. They dabbled in architecture; building temples, tombs, etc. They built sculptures with materials such as copper and iron. They even had a few writers and poets. This particular collection focuses on the architecture, sculptures and paintings related to their culture. I chose this topic and these segments because I am extremely interested in seeing how art was when it was first coming to fruition, generations ago. It is fascinating to mentally compare it to the art forms we see today. #AHMCFall2019
This collection is intended to further educate viewers on the architecture and art in the Classical period using multiple resources as well as the Robert & DiYanni text, Arts and Culture, An Introduction to the Humanities (2012).
Throughout this collection readers will get a glimpse of the start of Classical architecture and how it came to be, how art lined the walls of these buildings and how art through architecture was developed. With that, readers will be able to engage and visualize today's architectural structures and how that culture influences today compared to those between the Medieval times to Modernism. They will also have the ability to recognize the true and inner beauty that lies in this architecture, amidst the chaos that regularly occurred there on a day to day basis. The truth will always remain beautiful even when it doesn't seem that way.
This collection is available for those wanting to see the beginnings of the classical art and it's influences from the medieval times up until modernism and will provide a better visual understanding that before the beauty of what architecture is today, there was once beauty at the start of it all and that remains throughout the years, just presented in different forms.
Objective: Students will be able to identify the objectives of the Progressive Movement through primary source analysis in order to evaluate their impact on American society.
- What were the main objectives of the Progressive Movement?
- Is 'progressive' an appropriate term to define this era?