There is controversy over the Revolutionary War mainly discussing, was it revolutionary? Years before the war, there were many events that led up to its outbreak. The pictures that I included are artifacts and evidence that reveal the motive that colonists had for wanting to rebel against the British. Also, analyzing these events can help justify the purpose of the Revolutionary War.
My collection is a compilation of documents and photos of events happened in the United States History before the period of Civil War. Although not all of the items are made at the time before 1865, the content of these items represents the history figures and events of that time.
The items are organized in chronological order. As you move through my collection, you will see pictures of Native American people with their interesting culture in dancing, hunting. Then there is an event I consider important in the U.S history, which is tobacco cultivation. This event leads to so much controversial history consequences. Then you will see a some funny pictures of daily life activities of American people in the 18th century: a dressing room, a letter, books about plants and animals discovered in America. The books contain beautiful pictures and detailed descriptions of the environment in the U.S in general. You will also see some silverware in the consumer revolution in the 18th century.
I hope you enjoy my collection. I had a lot of fun doing the research. Some of the pictures remind me of the long and difficult process of development I hope you have the same experience and thank you for watching.
The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade was a major event in history where millions of Africans were captured by Europeans and brought over to the Americas and the Caribbean Islands. The Trans-Atlantic Slave trade was primarily focused around money and control. The Europeans saw slavery as a way to increase productivity in crop cultivation (a lucrative business at the time) while capitalizing on the forced labor of the Africans). The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade has led to years of inequality and oppression of African descendants in western society. This collection is intended to go in-depth about the dynamics of the Atlantic Slave Trade in a somewhat chronological way. These images will discuss a variety of topics such as the rudimentary causes of the Atlantic Slave Trade, the the method(s) used to bring the enslaved Africans to the New World, and the condition of the slaves once they were brought over to the New World.
In early colonial times for America, few jobs or positions were held with more importance than the American Farmer. These men became the backbone of American society, yet have little to show for it. Ever since the quest for gold turned out to be quite the dismal failure for early Virginian settlers, farming for crops like tobacco, corn, and wheat became the new standard for economic growth, stability, and security.
Farming is a mainstay in American culture from the first settlers to beyond the pioneers of the west and plantation owners the Civil War, as far as routes to reliable financial security go. Overtime, the mainstream adopts more methods and tools of farming, gradually making the profession more efficient and profitable overtime.
To this day, farming has a major impact on our lives, and even though the agriculture business may sometimes seem unimportant or forgotten in American society, it is important to preserve the history of this vital livelihood. This collection includes multiple artifacts to display the adoption of processes, traditions, and tools that made farming a powerhouse industry of America. They are placed in chronological order to signify not only when they were invented, but when each became more popular.
This collection is about children in the 18th century. Being a child today is completely different from being a child in the 1800s. The morality rate for infants in the 18th century is 50% meaning half of the children born did not get to see their childhood. Childhood in the 18th century was indifferent and dangerous. Children were born into two classes: upper class or lower class. Children either spent their childhood in the fields working or indoors playing with their wood toys. Children in the 18th century were sometimes referred to as miniature adults. They seem to grow up a bit faster than children today. The following pictures are some examples of how a child's clothing and toys would look. As well as how child education and labor were seen in the 18th century.
Matoaka is the birth name of the world renowned Native American, Pocahontas. Pocahontas was a Native American, who was apart of the Powhatan tribe. Her dad was chief of the tribe, and her uncle was also Opechancanough (another famous Powhatan). Pocahontas' name has been heard from all over the world.
At the age of 11, she saved an Englishman by the name of John Smith from getting beaten to death by her father. John Smith later on told the story of the "indian" who saved him 17 years later. As she grew up she was unbothered until Pocahontas was taken by settlers in Jamestown. She was to be used as something to trade off to receive captured Englishmen from the Powhatans. As a prisoner, John Rolfe comes across her. John Rolfe was a man who introduced tobacco to the early settlers as a form of income. John Rolfe fell in love with Pocahontas. He wrote a letter to Sir Thomas Dale asking him could he marry her. Pocahontas marries the white man. She then moves to England and begins to conform to their society. Matoaka had let go of her Powhatan beliefs, changed her name, and converted to Christianity. She now has three names: Matoaka, Pocahontas, and Rebecca. She lived until the year 1617.
The consumer revolution was a major part of history that influenced societies views on good and the status that comes a long with wealth. We see an increase in ease of credit, travel, and more efficient production which allows people to now display their wealth and status in society
The pieces included in this collection will relate directly to the consumer revolution and show the transition into this period of mass consumption in america that increases the dependency on Britain for production, as well as the widespread elite debts that lead to increases in taxes. and the eventual effects that lead to the separation from Britain. This trend is something that leaves a lasting imprint on American culture and is something that can still be seen today.
This collection shares the tools and weapons of Native Americans until the early 1865. The material in this collection shows the ability of the Native Americans to create and thrive using primitive technology, as well as their ability to adapt to foreign technology.
This collection also makes apparent how despite the lack of education and industrial progress of the Native Americans, they were able create weapons and tools that were not only effective in fighting off their technologically superior invaders, but even surpass them in the quality of some of their creations. This even led to the Europeans beginning to see value in the works of the Native Americans, and even to begin copying the styles of the natives.
While the Native Americans were eventually forced to adopt the technology of their invaders, they still managed to maintain their sense of culture. New ideas taken from the Europeans were not simply copied, but rather incorporated into Native American culture without drastically changing who they were as a people. Despite their inability to successfully fight of the American Colonists, the Native Americans showed great resolve and adaptability to be able to hold off the new Americans for as long as they did, and were able to help change the outcomes of wars among European countries.
This a collection on musical instruments during the colonial times and before 1865. It features seven types of instruments, one instrument box, sheet music to a song, and an image of a piano factory. Through these instruments you can compare and see how different and similar there are to the ones we have today. I just wanted to shed some light on the many types of musical instruments there were and some more information about them.
This collection is about the ways of life in Native American societies before the year of 1865. They used different hand tools in order to hunt and protect their families and after contact with Europeans, they also used European trade goods like guns and cloth. Some Native Americans made and used pointed projectiles, and tomahawks. Pottery was created by hand for basic necessities such as retrieving water, making food, and consuming food. There were many chiefs and warriors that fought and lead their villages. The members of those villages also created dances that showcased their cultures while they were at peace or even going into war.
This collection does not pertain to a certain period; instead it spans throughout the 1800s. The portrayals chosen are not organized into a period due to the fact that the ideology of Native Americans primarily are negative, both past and present. This ideology was first planted into history through Christopher Columbus’ first meeting with “Indians”. In his journal, he describes them using animistic terms including, “ Their hair [is] coarse-almost like the tail of a horse…”.
Although they are human-beings and bleed red, in the eyes of everyone else they viewed them through warped lenses, they were monsters simply because they did not share their skin tone, their culture, their religion, or their mannerisms. They were characterized as “savages”, the notion of this word is that of uncultured, inhumane, and uncivilized. They were civilized, they did have their own culture, but it was not that of European Culture that sets it apart.
Thrown in this collection are positive portrayals, however, it is to be noted that out of ten there are only two. This was done on purpose to showcase how the majority are negative, and how hard it is to find a non-biased portrayal.
The Mexican-American War, which took place from 1846 to 1848, marked the United States first battle on foreign soil. Under the presidency of James K. Polk, the 11th president, America would expand more than one-third (History.com).
The main causes of the Mexican – American War was disputes of land. President James K. Polk belied in the idea of the Manifest Destiny, and ideal that America not only had the God given right to occupy and civilize North America, but was destined to. He had his sights set on what is known today as the American Southwest; California, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, and Western Colorado (Mt. Holyoke College).
After an offer from President Polk to buy the land along California and New Mexico was rejected, Polk proceeded to place troops along the Rio Grande and the Neuces River, therefore instigating the first battle of the Mexican American War (Gordon).
The first attack broke out on April 25th, 1846, on General Zachary Taylor and his soldiers, killing about a sixteen people (Stevenson).
After two years of battle, on February 2, 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo established the Rio Grande as the United States- American border. Mexico also recognized that the United States had possession of Texas, and sold California and the rest of the Northern Territory of the Rio Grande for $15 million (Stevenson).
During the Revolutionary War, many new weapons and battle strategies were created. The reasoning for the war was for freedom from the British. At the time the British was a powerful nation, so to have to go into war with them must have been terrifying. The colonies had to produce their own products at that time or get them from other countries, which was difficult due to the resources available and having the British attacking their ports. Many different weapons were used and new producers were formed to keep up with demands. The patriots had to use many tactics to defeat the British in battles.
The following items are examples to what was used in combat and how it started. Some of the items also reflect how journalists portrayed the battles and combat during the time. The first half of the collection is organized as actual items first with the most useful items placed first. The second half of the collection are the events during the Revolutionary War in order of date it occurred.
This collection includes toys and games from the colonial period and after. Like most items created during this time frame, these toys and games were usually handmade out of easily accessible items like wood, cotton, and paper. This collection includes a variety of toys such as two dolls, checkers and dominoes, a rattle ball, a board game, jackstraw, a carousel, playing cards, and a shuttlecock used during the game of Badminton. Each one of these items symbolized how products from this time period were individualistic and could be made right at home.
Americas background is quite complex in terms of its history, and has many aspects. When we discuss early Americas and its colonization and so forth, the life of child is often briefed - if at all. The purpose of this collection is to give a general view of children in early Americas, depicting various items relating to the life of a child in this period(before 1865). As you move through this collection, it begins with leather shoes worn by both male and female children at the time. Carrying on to see a tablet with alphabet inscriptions, on is able to see the writings of a teacher as education was important in progressing. We close this collection with the teething ring of a young child.
One thing that will always change with time is trends. To be more precise, fashion trends. In the past, people wear clothing vastly different from today's fashion choices, but like today, fashion was something meticulously sought out by the general public. Throughout history, there were many interesting clothing choices. In the beginning, the colonists were struggling financially, but near the 1900s, the change in time allow different fads to emerge and cultures to converge.
Within this collection, you will see the many types of clothing worn by different people during this time period. At the start, the trend was that of simple garbs since most of the colonists came from poor backgrounds. Later, the trend became something more of revolutionary and prosperity as the end of Revolution passes and mass production of clothing became easier. Clothing then incorporates styles from French and British like French lacing and British style of dress design. After the end of the Revolutionary War, the styles of different countries actually mix together as trade become more open and goods are shipped from one port to another.
Medicine has be changing lives for centuries.In the early 1700's to the late 1800's they were not as advance as we are now. They has lots of problems when it came to medicine and surgical procedures.For example they were not as sanitary as we are now.In fact in the 1800's they used herbs such as calomel which they thought we make their patients feel better but actually caused them to get worst. Around the 1700 they came up with vaccination that will protect them from small pox.In the beginning of the 1800's they invented blood transfusion. Around 1846 they made anesthetic for patients so they will be unconscious during the operation and make it easier for the surgeons to do their operation on the patient with out them being in pain.
As we go further into the the 1800's you see them become more advance in the technology of medicine and see them make more medical tools to help surgeons and doctors.In 1828, their was an Act that prevented unskilled doctors from being able to practice surgery or other health-related practices. This act left many communities without a doctor, making it hard for people to receive fast medical care. During the 1800's Surgery killed as many as it cured, mostly due to a disease or an infection.Also another thing during this time was that male doctors were not allowed to look at a naked women due to modesty which is where we got our midwives from. Their jobs were to help the women during birth or help them with abortions. Midwives were used as medicine because they did a lot more than just deliver babies, they gave support to the soon to be mothers and acted or distracted them from their pain. In the 1800's they haired black women slaves because they were immune to many diseases
The Romantic Era can be characterized as a time for "release." The writers at the time embraced nature and considered nature to hold the truth. The Romantic era was also a backlash against "the enlightenment values of reason in the aftermath of the French Revolution of 1789." (metmuseum.org) This time period reflected the blooming of America as a nation, there was strong anti-British sentiment and much excitement about democracy. The Romantic era highlighted the creative capabilities of America and is responsible for giving us literary giants such as Edgar Allan Poe, Walt Whitman and Nathaniel Hawthorne.
Over the course of many years, the style of many people changed have changed. For example, people in the past prefer outfits that gives out a modest aura and by modest I mean minimal exposure of the skin. The reason for the little amount of exposure is because most clothes back in the days are similar to one another and standing out was not something they wanted. Meanwhile, modern day outfits are more revealing and/or comfortable. But in this collection, I will only talk about fashion before the Reconstruction era.
Fashion has always been a way for many people to express themselves to others. Whether it is to boast about their economic status or maybe just to show how good they look in a certain outfit. In this collection of paintings and artifacts, we will be observing the fashion sense of many people dating from the year 1700 all the way till 1860.
Before the Civil War, slavery was very common in the South. They were not treated as human beings, but as property and that led to exploitation and oppression of the slaves. Unfortunately, slaves were an integral part of the growth of America which is why they were so common. The use of slaves in the South were a lot more ordinary than in the North, mostly due to the need of work that had to be done on plantations.
During this time period, slaves were more oppressed than ever. They had no control over their own lives or their children's lives because there were strict rules in place to ensure that the slaves would fear their owners, and to ensure that fear, the owners would use a means of violence to keep them in place . This collection shows the difficulties they had to go through along with the hard work they had to do in order to survive. It also shows the different types of work that they did and the rules that they were forced to follow. All of these pictures, letters, items and drawings represent their forced subjection to the American South and they show the discomfort of a slaves life.
This collection contains ceramics that typical people would have in their household to either use or place for decoration during the late 17th century and early 18th century. This time period was known as the Consumer Revolution. During the Consumer Revolution, many people obtained more money, which caused many people to have left over money after spending it on their basic necessities. Therefore, the only way to differentiate social status was by the types and amount of goods you had. This made people to start purchasing things such as fancy china sets, nice looking furniture, beautiful portraits, and expensive clothing. However, the main focus of this collection is looking at fancy china sets that people had during the Consumer Revolution because China glasses was mass produced and common during this time. Producer of the ceramics would make anything from pots, cups, bowls, and plates.
This collection explores George Washington's personal achievements as well as his personal life. The role of presidency has evolved significantly since his time during the Revolutionary War. He and his wife, Martha Washington, had a relationship unlike any other. She held a crucial role as First Lady and was George's partner through thick and thin, even starting a women's movement to aid soldiers during the war. This collection depicts the struggles of a couple who had to create the foundation of a nation after it was nearly destroyed. Originally a land surveyor in Virginia, George Washington would soon become the leader of the Continental Army and Britain's greatest foe. The impact he and his family made on the U.S. still lingers to this day.
Since the beginning of civilization, there has always been a demand for surgeons, doctors, and physicians who could cure the ailments of common men. However, in earlier times, knowledge of the human anatomy was limited and as was knowledge of the necessity of sanitation for surgery. Although during the Colonial Era of America there was progress in the medical studying, mortality rates in surgery were still high regardless. It can be seen though that by looking at the following objects, there has been evident progress in medical practice from Colonial to industrial America. From comparing surgery as something equal garden work all the way to advancing studies of Medical techniques to compliment cleanliness and efficiency, progress in medical study during such time is America is irrefutable.
As said, in the nascence of Colonial America, evidence shows there was very limited knowledge of medicine and surgery. Since people had little knowledge in regards to medicine, quackery would be common in medicinal practice. In the last 1600's "Recipe" books for surgery would held in the same regard as cooking. There would be ointments that would claim to cure or tend any sickness such as cancer. Even as time progressed, ignorant quackery would take control of the medical world. A very famous of quackery during the 1800's would be Metallic tractors. Metallic tractors were said to be a modern substitute to bloodletting by stopping inflation. Studies did present that Metallic tractors had no realistic use apart from placebo. 1840's would be the beginning of American industrialism and when it would be commonplace to promote cleanliness in surgery. Although sanitation was encouraged, manuals on surgery would have no mention of bacteria, viruses and infections due to a lack of knowledge of such subjects.
In conclusion, although there was progress in medical study, quackery was still quite common in Colonial American society. However, the progress that occurred in Early America was necessary for the doctors from darker times to learn from the mistakes and past and make a safer future.
The Revolutionary War or the American Revolution was one of the biggest turning points in world history as it marked the beginning of a world superpower. It showed the world that revolts were possible and the seemingly under powered colonists can stand up for themselves. It was a conflict that resulted from colonists realizing the conditions of their livelihood which was brought to light by the Enlightenment. A chain of laws and events would eventually lead to the colonists wanting to secede from England thus triggering the American Revolution.
The collection begins with the pamphlet Common Sense which sparked the reality of the colonists' livelihood. It'll feature prominent figures of the era such as Nathan Hale and the founding fathers in the painting of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. We will look at objects the Continental Army's men carried with them like weapons and their personal belongings in chests. Nearing the end, there will be examples of tea ceramics decorated with references to the war to celebrate it and even music. There are also postcards from the World War II era that refer to the American Revolution to show how symbolic it is to the country.