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How many tree species are there in the Amazon and how many of them will go extinct?

Smithsonian Libraries
New roads, agricultural projects, logging, and mining are claiming an ever greater area of once-pristine Amazonian forest. The Millennium Ecosystems Assessment (MA) forecasts the extinction of a large fraction of Amazonian tree species based on projected loss of forest cover over the next several decades. How accurate are these estimates of extinction rates? We use neutral theory to estimate the number, relative abundance, and range size of tree species in the Amazon metacommunity, and estimate likely tree-species extinctions under published optimistic and nonoptimistic Amazon scenarios. We estimate that the Brazilian portion of the Amazon Basin has (or had) 11,210 tree species that reach sizes > 10 cm DBH (stem diameter at breast height). Of these, 3,248 species have population sizes > 1 million individuals, and, ignoring possible climate-change effects, almost all of these common species persist under both optimistic and nonoptimistic scenarios. At the rare end of the abundance spectrum, however, neutral theory predicts the existence of approximate to 5,308 species with < 10,000 individuals each that are expected to suffer nearly a 50% extinction rate under the nonoptimistic deforestation scenario and an approximate to 37% loss rate even under the optimistic scenario. Most of these species have small range sizes and are highly vulnerable to local habitat loss. In ensembles of 100 stochastic simulations, we found mean total extinction rates of 20% and 33% of tree species in the Brazilian Amazon under the optimistic and nonoptimistic scenarios, respectively.

American Family Group Beside Boat of Paciura Palm Trunk Similar to That Used by Brazilians of Upper Amazon 1949

National Anthropological Archives
See Photo for Details

Black and white photoprint

Epic Warrior Women: Amazons (Full Episode)

Smithsonian Channel
The ancient Greeks mythologized the Amazons, but these legendary female warriors were inspired by the very real nomadic Scythian women of Central Asia. With the help of recent archaeological findings, uncover the lives of these Amazons. From the Series: Epic Warrior Women: Amazons http://bit.ly/2oxuA7c Watch more of Smithsonian Channel's full episodes on http://tv.youtube.com

Exploration of the valley of the Amazon, made under direction of the Navy Department, by Wm. Lewis Herndon and Lardner Gibbon ..

Smithsonian Libraries
Four plates wanting in v. 2.

Vol. 1, by Herndon; v. 2, by Gibbon. Imprint of v. 2: Washington, A.O.P. Nicholson, public printer.

Also issued (Washington, 1854) as House ex. Doc., 33d Cong., 1st sess.

Also available online.

Elecresource

Exploration of the valley of the Amazon, made under the direction of the Navy Department, by Wm. Lewis Herndon and Lardner Gibbon ..

Smithsonian Libraries
Vol. 1, by Herndon; v. 2, by Gibbon. Imprint of v. 2: Washington, A.O.P. Nicholson, public printer.

Also issued (Washington, 1853-54) as Senate ex. Doc., 32d Cong., 2d sess.

Also available online.

Elecresource

Spear

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.

Spear

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.

Bark Paper (1 Lot)

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.

Rattle

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
FROM CARD: "THE DRIED PODS AND SHELLS OF SOME PLANT ARE HUNG TO A NARROW STRIP OF CLOTH."

Cocoanut Rattle

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.

Hammock

National Museum of the American Indian

Necklace

National Museum of the American Indian
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