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“Tell Me Little Gypsy”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Tell Me Little Gypsy” from Ziegfeld Follies 1920 revue. The song was written and composed by Irving Berlin, and the number was staged by Edward Royce in its performance. The sheet music was published by Irving Berlin Inc. of New York City in 1920. Ziegfeld’s Follies was an annual revue put on by Broadway producer Florenz Ziegfeld that featured multiple song and dance numbers by numerous stars of the time.

“Teasing”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music for the song “Teasing” was written by Cecil Mack, and composed by Albert Von Tilzer. It was published by the York Music Company that was managed by Albert Von Tilzer, in New York, New York in 1904. The cover features a pencil drawn image of a girl with a coquettish look on her face, reflecting the song’s lyrics about a girl upsetting her “feller” by making eyes at other guys, even though she was just teasing. The cover also features an inset portrait of Libby Arnold Blondell, a vaudeville actress at the time.

“Tammany”

National Museum of American History
The sheet music for the song “Tammany” was written by Vincent Bryan and composed by Gus Edwards. It was published by M. Witmark and Sons in New York, New York in 1905. Written as an Indian spoof, the song was composed for an event held by the National Democratic Club of New York and was very well received at the event. The cover notes that it was sung with great success by Jefferson DeAngelis, and features a portrait photograph of noted vaudeville performer DeAngelis on the lower left corner of the cover.

“Talk About Eyes!”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music for the song "Talk About Eyes!" was written by Bobby Heath and composed by Gus Benkhart. The music was published by Thomas J. Kennedy of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1910. The cover features an illustration of a girl's face with a very flirty look, and a flower design on the right.

“Taking a Chance on Love”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Taking a Chance on Love” from the musical “Cabin in the Sky.” John Latouche and Ted Fetter wrote the lyrics to the song and Vernon Duke composed the music. The sheet music was published by Leo Feist Inc. of New York City in 1940. The cover features an illustration of an ethereal cabin floating on a cloud. “Cabin in the Sky” was originally staged as a play in 1940, before being turned into a Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film in 1943.

“Take Your Time”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music for “Take Your Time” was written by Joe Young and composed by Oscar Levant. The sheet music was published by the Jerry Vogel Music Company Inc., of New York, New York in 1936. The cover has a solid red background with a black and white clock, where the numbers are replaced by images of transportation. The cover is overlaid with a photo of Ken Sparnon, and the logo of the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers in the bottom right.

“Take Me Out to the Ballgame”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Take Me Out to the Ballgame.” Jack Norworth wrote the lyrics and Albert Von Tilzer composed the music to the song. The sheet music was published by the York Music Company of New York City in 1908. The cover has an illustration of a baseball in the background, with an illustration of a cheering crowd below. There is an inset photograph of Maude Gray on the right side of the cover.

“Tackin' 'Em Down”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music for the song "Tackin' 'Em Down" was written by Bud De Sylva and composed by Albert Gumble. The music was published by Remick and Co. of New York, New York in 1908. The cover features an illustration of a man and woman dancing in a striped wallpapered room. The song “Tackin’ ‘em Down” taught a new dance of the same name, where “at first you hold your sweetie tight, and eagle rock with all your might, and then you stamp your heels in time with the melody, that’s called “tackin’ ‘em down.”

“Symphony”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Symphony” that was written by Andre Tabet and Roger Bernstein, with an American version by Jack Lawrence. Alex Alstone composed the music to the song. Chappell & Company, Inc. of New York City published this sheet music in 1955. The pale blue and white cover has an inset photograph of Johnny Desmond, a popular singer and recording artists during the 1940s and 1950s.

“Sweetheart Tell Me Again”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music for the song “Sweetheart Tell Me Again” was written by George Cooper and composed by C. F. Shattuck. The music was published by the Oliver Ditson Co. of New York, New York in 1902, and appeared as a supplement to the “New York Herald” on March 1, 1903. The cover features an illustration of a couple sitting on a bench under the trees and the stars. The image is inside a frame that has the outline similar to a piece of a jigsaw puzzle.

“Sweet Violets”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music for the song “Sweet Violets” was written and composed by J. K. Emmet and published by John Church and Co. of Cincinnati, Ohio in 1882. The cover totes this music as the “only correct and authorized edition.” The song “Sweet Violets” came from Emmet’s play, “Fritz among the Gypsies,” and was a humorous, “censored rhyme” song where the last word of a couplet that could be inferred to be crude because of the rhyming scheme, was left off and the next couplet sung.

“Sweet Memories”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music for the song "Sweet Memories" was composed by C. Don Alberto and published by the Shapiro Publishing Co. of New York, New York in 1909. The cover has a photograph of Jane Elton in middle of cover. The cover has an illustration drawn by William Starmer of two floral bouquets flanking the photograph in the center of the cover.

“Sweet Mandy”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Sweet Mandy” that was written and composed by Al Bernard. The sheet music was published by the Triangle Music Publishing Company in 1922, and sold for 50 cents. The song was a duet by Al Bernard and Ernest Hare, and the song was recorded on Brunswick record number 2347. Bernard was well known as a blackface minstrel singer, but later in his career became a prolific recording artist for many labels, and Bernard and Hare often recorded duets together.

“Sweet Italian Love”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music for the song “Sweet Italian Love” was written by Irving Berlin and composed by Ted Snyder. The music was published by the Ted Snyder Company. The song came from the Shubert Production of “Up and Down Broadway.” The cover is blue with blue lettering, and features an early photo of Irving Berlin.

“Sweet Cider Time When You Were Mine”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Sweet Cider Time When You Were Mine” that was written by Joe McCarthy and composed by Percy Wenrich. The sheet music was published by Leo Feist Inc. of New York, New York in 1916. The cover features an illustration of a young lady picking apples, while a man seated beneath her gazes up at her. The illustration is signed with a Rosebud, an artist or artists who did illustrations for Feist and Berlin. There is an inset photograph of Marie Russell, a performer who would have been featuring the song in her act at the time.

“Sweet Cider Time When You Were Mine”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Sweet Cider Time When You Were Mine” that was written by Joe McCarthy and composed by Percy Wenrich. The sheet music was published by Leo Feist Inc. of New York, New York in 1916. The cover features an illustration of a young lady picking apples, while a man seated beneath her gazes up at her. The illustration is signed with a Rosebud, an artist or artists who did illustrations for Feist and Berlin. There is an inset photograph of Neil McKinley, a performer who would have been featuring the song in his act at the time.

“Swedish Wedding March”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Swedish Wedding March” that was written and composed by the August Soderman. The sheet music appeared as a musical supplement to the weekly newspaper “The Chicago Inter Ocean” on Wednesday, March 29th, 1882. The black and white cover features an illustration of an intricate geometric pattern with an image of a butterfly in the lower left corner.

“Surry with the Fringe on Top”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music for the song "The Surrey with the Fringe on Top" was composed by Richard Rodgers and written by Oscar Hammerstein. This sheet music was published by the Mario Music Corp. of New York, New York in 1963. The cover is pink with an illustration of a farm on a prairie inside a white cloud. The cover notes that the song is from “Oklahoma!” a musical based on the play Green Grow the Lilacs by Lynn Riggs.

“Sunshine and Roses”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Sunshine and Roses” that was written by Gus Kahn and composed by Egbert Van Alstyne. The sheet music was published by Jerome H. Remick & Co. of New York, New York in 1913. The plain white cover features an illustration of three roses clumped together, and the illustration is signed by Starmer. William and Frederick Starmer were brothers who were believed to have both been involved in illustrating sheet music covers during the early 20th century.

“Strong Medicine” Speaks

Smithsonian Magazine

On a late spring afternoon, as the sun nears its highest point, fifty men and women form a large circle in the middle of a field, deep in the woodlands and marshes that border a great river. Each one stands quietly, focused on a small, smoky bonfire that smells of sage and tobacco. The chief speaks. He reminds everyone that the ceremony is sacred. Among those present is the chief's 85-year-old mother, "Strong Medicine," who is the matriarch of the tribe.

They are all members of the Nanticoke Lenni-Lenape Indian Tribe of New Jersey. More than 3,000 strong, they are the largest and most vibrant tribe of Lenni-Lenape Indians living within the "Land of the Ancestors." That they are still here, unlike the thousands who were forced onto reservations, is a little-known tale of survival and ingenuity.

Their history in the area dates back more than 10,000 years, when Lenni-Lenape territory stretched from Manhattan Island to the Delaware Bay. Their lands—arguably among the most magnificent in the world—included southeastern New York state (including Manhattan), all of New Jersey, portions of eastern Pennsylvania (including what is now Philadelphia) and parts of Maryland and Delaware. Their first confirmed encounter with white people occurred on a spring day in 1524, when the explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano, an Italian sailing a French vessel, sailed into the waters between what is now called Brooklyn and Staten Island, New York. In his journal, Verrazzano wrote that the Lenape paddled out to greet him, making "great shouts of admiration."

Like the other "Nations of First Contact," as East Coast tribes are sometimes called, Lenni-Lenape leaders were thrust into a world they did not understand. It was the Lenni-Lenape who famously "sold" Manhattan Island for the equivalent of twenty-four dollars to the Dutchman Peter Minuit in 1626. Less well known is that they were the first Indian tribe in America to sign a treaty with the United States government. Their chiefs met with every major American figure from William Penn to George Washington.

Many Lenni-Lenape Indians—also sometimes called Delaware Indians—died of diseases to which they had no immunity, or were killed outright by white colonists. Thousands were forcibly removed from their ancestral lands and sent, over a period of decades, to reservations in the West and in Canada. Strong Medicine's tribe, located in rural Cumberland County in New Jersey, found a way to avoid that fate.

"When my husband and I were coming up, and for a long time before that, our tribe was in hiding," Strong Medicine explains. "We were a hidden people. If the government knew you were Indian, they would take your property and send you to a reservation. There is a story in our tribe that this happened as recently as 1924, two years before I was born. So we were in the habit of staying to ourselves and not saying who we really were."

Census workers, in fact, were intentionally misled. "We would say we were 'Colored,' which is a term they used in the old days for people who are not white," Strong Medicine recalls. "Well, the government workers were white and they didn't know what the heck we were. They thought we meant we were 'Black' when we said 'Colored,' and we just went on letting them think that."

Adding to the confusion is that some members of the tribe do indeed have a small amount of white or African ancestry. This is not uncommon among Indians on the East Coast.

Strong Medicine—whose full name is Marion Strong Medicine Gould—is true to her name, which was given to her in a religious ceremony more than thirty years ago by her son, Chief Mark Quiet Hawk Gould. He gave her the name because of her extensive knowledge of plants and herbs—and also because of her personality. Strong Medicine is unusually outspoken for a Native American Elder, many of whom refrain from speaking to the outside world. And she is known within the tribe for telling the unvarnished truth to anyone who is brave enough to seek her advice. "Half the tribe is afraid of Mom," jokes the Chief, who will turn 66 this month.

Born in 1922 in Bridgeton, New Jersey, near the Delaware Bay, Strong Medicine recalls being raised in a loving environment where families lived in clans, or clusters, near each other. (They still do.) "We did better than most people during the Great Depression," she recalls. "We already knew how to eat weeds and things like that—we just ate more of it.

"Some Indians are ashamed to admit they eat weeds," she adds. "But I'm not. Why should I be? It's part of our culture."

Married at 18 to her high school sweetheart, Wilbur "Wise Fox" Gould, the couple already had two small sons by the time he joined the Army during World War II. Trained as a forward scout, he was captured and listed as missing in action during the Battle of the Bulge.

The tribe continued to live in secret until the 1970s, when Mark Gould, along with a core group of others in his age group, decided that the time had come for the tribe to stop hiding its identity. The tribe's modern-day revival, in fact, coincided with a national movement, the Indian Civil Rights Movement, and the cultural rebirth known as Native Pride.

Part of the plan was to re-organize the ancient tribe as a modern-day entity. Most of the elders, however, would not sign incorporation papers, or put their names on the ballot for a spot on the newly-structured Tribal Council. Strong Medicine, however, did both.

"It really made a huge difference to have Mom behind us," the Chief recalls. "All of the other elders were afraid of change." The tribe's incorporation took place in 1978, the same year that Congress passed a law protecting the right of Indians to freely practice their religions.

When one considers the fate of most tribes in America, the fact that 3000 Nanticoke Lenni-Lenape Indians can practice their religion on their ancestral homeland, seems nothing short of miraculous. During Strong Medicine's life, her tribe has come full-circle, from hiding their identity to embracing it. "I never thought I would live to see the day my grandchildren and great-grandchildren celebrate our heritage," Strong Medicine says with a smile.

Copyright © 2008 by Amy Hill Hearth. Printed by permission. Adapted from the forthcoming book "Strong Medicine" Speaks by Amy Hill Hearth to be published by Atria Books, an imprint of Simon & Schuster, Inc. (Available March 18, 2008 at your local bookstore and at www.simonsays.com. ISBN: 0-7432-9779-2, $23.00).

“Streets of Cairo”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Streets of Cairo or, The Poor Little Country Girl” that was written and composed by James Thorton. The Jerry Vogel Music Company Inc. of New York, New York published this sheet music in 1939. The light red cover has an illustration of four notes with scenes from four different songs in the “Memory Lane Melodies” series. Barbelle signed the illustration in the lower right.

“Stand By Your Colors”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Stand By Your Colors” that was written and composed by Ella Thomas and arranged by Houston Johns. The sheet music was published by Ella Thomas of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1915. The cover has an illustration of a soldier holding a rifle facing a sailor holding a sword, with the flag of the United States between them.

“St. Nicholas Schottisch”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “St. Nicholas Schottisch.” The song was written and composed by T. Franklin Bassford around 1952. The cover features a lithograph of a crowded city street outside a large department store. Bassford was accepted to the Paris Conservatory of Music but died when his ship was lost at sea in 1856.

“Sonny Boy”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Sonny Boy” that was written and composed by Al Jolson, Ray Anderson, Bud DeSylva, and Lew Brown. The sheet music was published by DeSylva, Brown, and Henderson Inc in 1927. The song came from the film The Singing Fool, one of the first popular “talkies,” featuring Warner Brother’s revolutionary Vitaphone technology that synced sound with the film. The film featured Al Jolson as Al Stone and Davey Lee as his son, “Sonny Boy.” A photograph of them together is on the left of the pink cover that features a central white sun that is emitting rays.
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