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Primary school building, Blessed Murumba, A.C.M., Abakaliki Town, Nigeria. [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title source: Dr. Simon Ottenberg, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Simon Ottenberg Papers are located at the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.

Donated by Simon Ottenberg, 2000.

This photograph was taken by Dr. Simon Ottenberg while conducting field research at Afikpo village-group, southeastern Nigeria, from September 1959 to December 1960.

Original caption reads, "Blessed Murumba, A.C.M., Abakaliki Town, one of the new religious groups developing there. Primary school building, the main building." [Ottenberg field research notes, September 1959-December 1960, Part II].

School copy book used by Hannah Amelia Lyons

National Museum of African American History and Culture
A school copy book printed by Philip Price in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and used by Hannah Amelia Lyons. The book has paper covers bound on the proper left side. A length of knotted pink string extends from the top edge of the binding, serving as a bookmark. Several engravings are printed on the front and back covers. On the front cover is a portrait of John Adams entitled "Late President of the United States," above an allegorical scene and space for the owner to sign the book, followed by the printer's name. The back cover has an image of an eagle flying over open waters between two ships and clasping a banner reading "SHIPPED" in its beak. Below the eagle is a floral sprig on the left and a grouping of masonic symbols on the right, with a thin scrollwork border below them. Below the border is a shield with an eagle inside it holding a banner reading "E Pluribus Unum". Below the shield are two separate allegorical scenes. The interior pages contain various school exercises including mathematics and poetry.

Ancient Architectural Science is Coming to a Renowned Indian Engineering School

Smithsonian Magazine

One of India's most renowned engineering institutions is incorporating the study of 8,000-year-old architectural knowledge into its course offerings.

In August, Vastu shashtra, an ancient system of architecture and design, will be taught to undergraduate architecture students at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)-Kharagpur, reports Jhimli Mukherjee Pandeyl for The Times of India.

"Times are changing and across the globe there is renewed interest in ancient Indian knowledge," Joy Sen, head of the Ranbir and Chitra Gupta School of Infrastructure Design and Management at IIT-Kharagpur, tells Pandeyl. "So, it is natural that we will tweak our syllabus to include Vastu in architecture and infrastructure classes."

Vastu shashtra has its roots in the Rigveda, the oldest of the sacred books of Hinduism. The system describes how placement of houses, doors, the arrangement of rooms and gardens and even the siting of towns can be optimized when considering the influence of the sun, magnetic fields, gravitational forces and other phenomena. Vastu shastra is believed to have been developed between 6,000 and 3,000 BC, Parveen Chopra writes for Yoga Journal.

The system's influences are visible for many ancient temples and cities. The northern city of Jaipur, the first planned city of India, and its many forts, palaces and temples, was designed by architect Vidyadhar Bhattacharya with the principles of vastu shastra. The streets align east to west and north to south and the City Palace at the center of the city has a sequence of gardens, courtyards and gates are placed just so.

Current focuses on green technology, sustainable architecture and affordable environmentally friendly materials are all well within the purview of this system of ancient knowledge, Sen tells Manu Balachandran, reporting for Quartz. "Vastu as a science for uses the interrelation between ecology, passive energy and living beings."

While the phrase "vastu shastra" translates literally as "science of architecture," some may not be pleased that the a preeminent engineering institution is instructing students in a system of thought that can be considered a pseudoscience. The benefits of aligning the home with natural phenomena has many connections to spiritual practices.

Yet there has been a resurgence in interest in this ancient system. Some Indian-American homebuyers are quite keen to purchase property facing in the right direction, reports Vanessa Parks for The Boston Globe.

"In some sense, it was always part of our life — simple things like you go to someone’s home and they’ll tell you to sleep with your head on this side of the bed because it’s considered to be the right side for vastu," Ashish Cowlagi, who remodeled his home in Shrewsbury with vastu shastra principles, tells Parks.

Some of the principles also align with sound practices. Letting natural light into the workplace can help office workers sleep better, a study suggests. Other vastu shastra practices include techniques to test the soil integrity and drainage at a new house site, writes Muktirajsinhji Chauhan at Archaeology Online.

Now, the legitimacy lent by the rigor of the same engineering school that produced Google CEO Sundar Pichai, just might boost the popularity of vastu shastra even further.

Sunday School Room [painting] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Title transcribed from negative.

Black-and-white study print (8x10).

Orig. negative: 8x10, Safety, BW.

Law School of Lovanium University, Kinshasa, Congo (Democratic Republic), [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

The university was established in 1954, and its name was derived from the old name, Lovanium, for Leuven in Belgium. In August 1971, the university was merged with the Protestant Autonomous University of Congo (Université Libre du Congo) and The University of Congo at Lubumbashi (founded in 1956) into the National University of Zaire (Université Nationale du Zaïre, UNAZA). This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for National Geographic and traveled to Africa from January 19, 1972 to mid April 1972.

Law School of Lovanium University, Kinshasa, Congo (Democratic Republic), [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

The university was established in 1954, and its name was derived from the old name, Lovanium, for Leuven in Belgium. In August 1971, the university was merged with the Protestant Autonomous University of Congo (Université Libre du Congo) and The University of Congo at Lubumbashi (founded in 1956) into the National University of Zaire (Université Nationale du Zaïre, UNAZA). This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for National Geographic and traveled to Africa from January 19, 1972 to mid April 1972.

Law School of Lovanium University, Kinshasa, Congo (Democratic Republic), [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

The university was established in 1954, and its name was derived from the old name, Lovanium, for Leuven in Belgium. In August 1971, the university was merged with the Protestant Autonomous University of Congo (Université Libre du Congo) and The University of Congo at Lubumbashi (founded in 1956) into the National University of Zaire (Université Nationale du Zaïre, UNAZA). This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for National Geographic and traveled to Africa from January 19, 1972 to mid April 1972.

Law School of Lovanium University, Kinshasa, Congo (Democratic Republic), [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

The university was established in 1954, and its name was derived from the old name, Lovanium, for Leuven in Belgium. In August 1971, the university was merged with the Protestant Autonomous University of Congo (Université Libre du Congo) and The University of Congo at Lubumbashi (founded in 1956) into the National University of Zaire (Université Nationale du Zaïre, UNAZA). This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for National Geographic and traveled to Africa from January 19, 1972 to mid April 1972.

Law School of Lovanium University, Kinshasa, Congo (Democratic Republic), [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

The university was established in 1954, and its name was derived from the old name, Lovanium, for Leuven in Belgium. In August 1971, the university was merged with the Protestant Autonomous University of Congo (Université Libre du Congo) and The University of Congo at Lubumbashi (founded in 1956) into the National University of Zaire (Université Nationale du Zaïre, UNAZA). This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for National Geographic and traveled to Africa from January 19, 1972 to mid April 1972.

Law School of Lovanium University, Kinshasa, Congo (Democratic Republic), [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

The university was established in 1954, and its name was derived from the old name, Lovanium, for Leuven in Belgium. In August 1971, the university was merged with the Protestant Autonomous University of Congo (Université Libre du Congo) and The University of Congo at Lubumbashi (founded in 1956) into the National University of Zaire (Université Nationale du Zaïre, UNAZA). This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for National Geographic and traveled to Africa from January 19, 1972 to mid April 1972.

Law School of Lovanium University, Kinshasa, Congo (Democratic Republic), [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

The university was established in 1954, and its name was derived from the old name, Lovanium, for Leuven in Belgium. In August 1971, the university was merged with the Protestant Autonomous University of Congo (Université Libre du Congo) and The University of Congo at Lubumbashi (founded in 1956) into the National University of Zaire (Université Nationale du Zaïre, UNAZA). This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for National Geographic and traveled to Africa from January 19, 1972 to mid April 1972.

Law School of Lovanium University, Kinshasa, Congo (Democratic Republic), [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

The university was established in 1954, and its name was derived from the old name, Lovanium, for Leuven in Belgium. In August 1971, the university was merged with the Protestant Autonomous University of Congo (Université Libre du Congo) and The University of Congo at Lubumbashi (founded in 1956) into the National University of Zaire (Université Nationale du Zaïre, UNAZA). This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for National Geographic and traveled to Africa from January 19, 1972 to mid April 1972.

Law School of Lovanium University, Kinshasa, Congo (Democratic Republic), [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

The university was established in 1954, and its name was derived from the old name, Lovanium, for Leuven in Belgium. In August 1971, the university was merged with the Protestant Autonomous University of Congo (Université Libre du Congo) and The University of Congo at Lubumbashi (founded in 1956) into the National University of Zaire (Université Nationale du Zaïre, UNAZA). This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for National Geographic and traveled to Africa from January 19, 1972 to mid April 1972.

Law School of Lovanium University, Kinshasa, Congo (Democratic Republic), [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

The university was established in 1954, and its name was derived from the old name, Lovanium, for Leuven in Belgium. In August 1971, the university was merged with the Protestant Autonomous University of Congo (Université Libre du Congo) and The University of Congo at Lubumbashi (founded in 1956) into the National University of Zaire (Université Nationale du Zaïre, UNAZA). This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for National Geographic and traveled to Africa from January 19, 1972 to mid April 1972.

Law School of Lovanium University, Kinshasa, Congo (Democratic Republic), [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

The university was established in 1954, and its name was derived from the old name, Lovanium, for Leuven in Belgium. In August 1971, the university was merged with the Protestant Autonomous University of Congo (Université Libre du Congo) and The University of Congo at Lubumbashi (founded in 1956) into the National University of Zaire (Université Nationale du Zaïre, UNAZA). This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for National Geographic and traveled to Africa from January 19, 1972 to mid April 1972.

Law School of Lovanium University, Kinshasa, Congo (Democratic Republic), [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

The university was established in 1954, and its name was derived from the old name, Lovanium, for Leuven in Belgium. In August 1971, the university was merged with the Protestant Autonomous University of Congo (Université Libre du Congo) and The University of Congo at Lubumbashi (founded in 1956) into the National University of Zaire (Université Nationale du Zaïre, UNAZA). This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for National Geographic and traveled to Africa from January 19, 1972 to mid April 1972.

Law School of Lovanium University, Kinshasa, Congo (Democratic Republic), [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

The university was established in 1954, and its name was derived from the old name, Lovanium, for Leuven in Belgium. In August 1971, the university was merged with the Protestant Autonomous University of Congo (Université Libre du Congo) and The University of Congo at Lubumbashi (founded in 1956) into the National University of Zaire (Université Nationale du Zaïre, UNAZA). This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for National Geographic and traveled to Africa from January 19, 1972 to mid April 1972.

Law School of Lovanium University, Kinshasa, Congo (Democratic Republic), [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

The university was established in 1954, and its name was derived from the old name, Lovanium, for Leuven in Belgium. In August 1971, the university was merged with the Protestant Autonomous University of Congo (Université Libre du Congo) and The University of Congo at Lubumbashi (founded in 1956) into the National University of Zaire (Université Nationale du Zaïre, UNAZA). This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for National Geographic and traveled to Africa from January 19, 1972 to mid April 1972.

Law School of Lovanium University, Kinshasa, Congo (Democratic Republic), [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

The university was established in 1954, and its name was derived from the old name, Lovanium, for Leuven in Belgium. In August 1971, the university was merged with the Protestant Autonomous University of Congo (Université Libre du Congo) and The University of Congo at Lubumbashi (founded in 1956) into the National University of Zaire (Université Nationale du Zaïre, UNAZA). This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for National Geographic and traveled to Africa from January 19, 1972 to mid April 1972.

The School Boy from Shakespeare's "Seven Ages" of Man

National Portrait Gallery
Seven Ages of Man

The Meade Brothers exhibited numerous examples of their work at the "Great Exhibition" held in New York City’s Crystal Palace (1853–54), including a series of daguerreotypes by Charles Meade illustrating Shakespeare’s "seven ages," as described in Act II of As You Like It. Lauded by the Photographic Art Journal for reflecting "much talent" and "a high degree of cultivated taste," the Meade Brothers’ Seven Ages of Man—Infant, Schoolboy, Lover, Soldier, Justice, Pantaloon, and Second Childishness—later circulated in the form of card-mounted photographs known as cartes de visite.

Country School House in Winter [painting] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Title transcribed from negative.

Black-and-white study print (8x10).

Orig. negative: 8x10, Safety, BW.

Itim Primary School, between Amuro Village and Mgbom Village, Afikpo Village-Group, Nigeria. [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title source: Dr. Simon Ottenberg, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Simon Ottenberg Papers are located at the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.

Donated by Simon Ottenberg, 2000.

This photograph was taken by Dr. Simon Ottenberg while conducting field research at Afikpo village-group, southeastern Nigeria, from September 1959 to December 1960.

Original caption reads, "Itim Primary School, serving Amuro and Mgbom Villages. Temporary open sided schoolroom structures, which have been temporary for quite some time, being repaired by communal labor of age grades from the two villages." [Ottenberg field research notes, September 1959-December 1960, Part I].

Itim Primary School, between Amuro Village and Mgbom Village, Afikpo Village-Group, Nigeria. [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title source: Dr. Simon Ottenberg, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Simon Ottenberg Papers are located at the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.

Donated by Simon Ottenberg, 2000.

This photograph was taken by Dr. Simon Ottenberg while conducting field research at Afikpo village-group, southeastern Nigeria, from September 1959 to December 1960.

Original caption reads, "Itim Primary School, serving Amuro and Mgbom Villages. Permanent buildings, still open sided." [Ottenberg field research notes, September 1959-December 1960, Part I].
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