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Biodiversity in a warmer world

Smithsonian Libraries
There is ample evidence that 20thcentury warming has shifted ranges of temperate and arctic species, but on page 261 of this issue, Moritz et al. (1) provide an exceptionally thorough example: They take advantage of a well-documented study from a century ago (2) to demonstrate contractions and expansions of elevation range among small mammals in Yosemite National Park, California, USA. In contrast, there have been few attempts to even address the tropics’ sensitivity to global climate change (3). Also in this issue (page 258), Colwell et al. (4) use a novel conceptual approach to analyze climate shifts in tropical ecosystems.

How Cats Conquered the World

Smithsonian Magazine

When your cat leaves a mangled mouse on your pillow, he wants you to know that he’s a conqueror. In fact, he is part of a race of conquerors, the successful descendants of a winding journey in which cats made use of humans to conquer the world. Now researchers have used genetics to create the most extensive map ever made of cats’ path to worldwide domination, published this week in the journal Nature.

Modern domestic cats all descend from a single type of wild cat: Felis silvestris lybica. From archaeological studies, researchers believe that F. s. lybica’s reign begins in the Near East, in a region stretching from modern-day Turkey down to Lebanon. Around 10,000 years ago, farmers began storing grain, which attracted pesky mice. Cats, it turned out, could help out with that.

But F. s. lybica also ruled in Ancient Egypt, where they left their traces in cultural artifacts from cat mummies to statues and paintings. Researchers wanted to know: How did these two separate cat-doms lead to today's global feline success? 

That wasn’t a question that could be answered with modern cat genetics alone. Around the world, the gene pools of modern cats are surprisingly similar, thanks to millennia of tagging along with human travelers and interbreeding wherever they went. “The modern domestic cats in Australia are the same as in Europe and as in America,” says Eva-Maria Geigl, paleogeneticist at the Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS and University Paris Diderot, and an author on the study.

So for this latest study, the team turned to the genetics of ancient cats around the globe to untangle their collective rise to power. By sifting through 9,000 years of genetic data, the researchers found that there were two separate waves of human-cat coexistence, with cats befriending both farmers and Vikings in their quest to spread around the globe. It also seems that over the course of this relationship, domestication happened fairly late in the game—if at all.

To collect enough samples, the researchers reached out to other scientists around the world for feline bones or teeth, whose toughness and stability make them most likely to harbor useable DNA. They ultimately analyzed over 200 ancient cat skeletons that spanned roughly 9,000 years. They also collected samples from modern cats for comparison. For each of these samples they looked at mitochondrial DNA, genetic material found in every cell that is passed on from mother to child, making it a useful tracer of evolution.

Combining the genetic information with the archeological and human historical records, the researchers teased out the basic pathways for kitty success. After cats befriended Near East farmers, and the farmers recognized their use, they began to crop up along the path of the farming movement. One striking example is a 9,500 year-old cat that was buried in a human grave on the island of Cyprus, where cats are not native. Some 6,000 years ago, after Neolithic farming practices began spreading, it seems that these people-friendly felines foraged northward and westward with humans into Bulgaria and Romania.

Thousands of years after cats in the Near East caught on, a second wave of cats began cohabitating with humans in Egypt. As we know from archeological evidence, cats began living with Ancient Egyptians from at least the 4th century B.C. But DNA shows that during Roman times, these Egyptian felines also began expanding through the Mediterranean, mixing with the Near East cats, and then heading up through the Baltics. Around the fifth and 13th centuries, they ventured through Europe and into Southwest Asia.

It seems cats had hit upon a winning strategy: Stick with humans. When the Viking era began, the expansion of Egyptian felines exploded, likely due to the popularity of ship cats that traveled along the trade routes keeping pests in check. “Rodents on ships not only eat and spoil the food, they also destroy the ropes, so rodents could be a disaster for sailors,” says Thierry Grange, a molecular biologist the Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS and University Paris Diderot and an author on the study. “Cats prevent these types of disasters.”

The researchers even found evidence of these human-loving cats at the Viking port of Ralswiek on the Baltic Sea, says Geigl, and the Iranian port of Siraf, confirming that the faithful mousers commonly joined sailing crews. And the cats’ venture didn’t end there: For thousands of years, these furry globetrotters have followed humans wherever they went, conquering every continent except for Antarctica.

This genetic tour de force was made possible not only thanks to the cheapness and efficiency of modern DNA sequencing, but also new methods in obtaining ancient DNA. The new research “adds to an array of studies coming out now with increasing success of obtaining ancient DNA,” says Melinda Zeder, curator of Old World archaeology at Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History. “(It) is clarifying the picture of initial domestication of animals ... and their dispersal … It’s a real technical accomplishment."

Yet while the new study may clarify how and when cats traveled with humans, it also raises new questions. Namely: Were these cats actually domesticated? And if so, when?

These queries are more challenging than they may first appear. What constitutes domestication, like what constitutes a species, is still a matter of fierce scientific debate. Many researchers, Zeder included, define it in terms of a relationship: “For me, domestication is a two-way relationship in which the animal ... is actually benefiting from its relationship from humans,” she says. But that kind of relationship isn’t something that is easy to pinpoint using DNA alone.

Another marker of domestication that researchers often use is distinct changes in the animal's physical looks, like the floppy ears in dogs—a trait that humans likely didn't specifically select for, but seems to be associated with desirable qualities like a less aggressive personality, and can be identified in the genome. Yet modern house cats, besides being slightly smaller and stubbier, don’t look much different from their wildcat cousins, says Giegl. “It's basically still the same shape,” he says. “It has still the same behavior. It has still the same food habits.”

Genetics can’t tell the entire story of domestication, but it can offer clues. In this case, researchers traced a genetic marker for the splotchy tabby fur color. A similar increase in color variation crops up in other animals when selective breeding began, and could be linked with a range of desirable behavioral traits, explains Zeder. It’s also possible that ancient humans could be selecting for these marks, since it may have helped them spot their animals in a crowd. Either way, identifying when this coloring started in cats could help them pin down when selective breeding (rather than just cohabitation) began.

Researchers found the tabby marker in roughly 80 percent of the modern cats tested. However, it didn’t appear in the ancient kitties until around 1300 A.D. This means that efforts to breed cats to look or act a specific way likely didn’t happen until very late in the game. Some scientists even suggest that modern house cats still aren’t fully domesticated—something that will come as little surprise to cat owners.

While the genetic picture is growing clearer, much is still fuzzy when it comes to our cat conquerors, says Wim Van Neer, bioarchaeologist at the University of Leuven who came up with the idea for the study after finding several cats buried in a human cemetery in Egypt dating back 6,000 years ago, the oldest human-cat relations found in the region so far.

Van Neer still wants to know: Where did the first cats—those worshipped in ancient Egyptian—come from? To answer this, researchers need to find still-older Egyptian cats with intact ancient DNA, not an easy proposition in the hot and humid tombs. In the future, researchers could also use isotopes, variations of an element that weigh different amounts, to learn more about kitty diet, as well as study ancient cat jaws to learn more about how their delicate physique has changed through the ages.

What’s certain is that, while cats have changed little as they followed humans around the world, both have grown and benefited from the relationship. The rest, of course, is hiss-tory.

Study for "Ariel" Mural on Facade of Crosley Building, New York World's Fair

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Standing nude male figure of Ariel shown in silver holding a yellow automobile in his left hand. His right hand raised, with lightning bolts extending out. Radio towers on either side. Crimson ground.

The University of Missouri studies. Science series

Smithsonian Libraries
Each issue has also a distinctive title.

Also available online.

Available also via the World Wide Web; access available via SIL PURL.

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Smithsonian Affiliations

SI Center for Learning and Digital Access
Links to Smithsonian Affiliate museums across the nation. Find out if there is an Affiliate near you.

Excavation of Samarra (Iraq): Architectural Studies 9

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive. - Series title in Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive reads, "Records of Samarra Expeditions." - Since these are primary sources, handwritten captions in the sketchbook are specified in three stages: (1) an English designation following Thomas Leisten and Alastair Northedge's terminology; (2) the transcribed original caption in German which is provided under parenthesis; and (3) additonal information from Herzfeld's publication, "Der Wandschmuck der Bauten von Samarra und Seine Ornamentik. Verlag Dietrich Reimer, Ernst Vohsen, Berlin, 1923." and Thomas Leisten's publication, "Excavation of Samarra, v. I. Architecture : Final report of the first campaign 1910-1912. Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz am Rhein, 2003" which is provided under bracket. Notes related primarly to the two campaigns of excavation at Sāmarrā' (Iraq), carried out by Ernst Herzfeld on behalf of the Kaiser Friedrich Museum in Berlin between the years 1911 and 1913. Funded by Finding aid, based on Joseph M. Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive, 1974, is available in the Archives Department and on Internet http://www.asia.si.edu/archives/finding_aids/herzfeld.html#series7 - The eighteenth of a series of eighteen sketchbooks (Skizzenbücher), in which Ernst Herzfeld recorded his observations on topography, landscape, archaeological remains, architecture, artifacts and decorative motifs, related to the congregational mosques in Samarra, Mutawakkiliyya, and Balkuwārā; the Qubbat al-Ṣulaibiyya; the palaces of Balkuwārā, Ṣūr Īṣā, and the Qaṣr al-Āshiq; and finally the residential architecture and the baths at Quraina, Wadī al-Muḥḥ, Qāṭūn, Jubairiyya, and west of Ṣūr Īṣā. - Original handwritten caption on cover reads, "Samarra; kleine plane." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 1 and 2 reads, "Palace of al-Iṣbaain (al-Isbaain); Palace of Ṣūr al-Wasṭānī (Ṣūr al-Wasṭāni)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 3 and 4 reads, "Dār Bakhtīshū (Dār Bakhtīshū); Palace of Ṣūr al-Wasṭānī (Ṣūr al-Wasṭāni)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 5 and 6 reads, "Topographical measurements." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 7 and 8 reads, "Topographical measurements." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 9 and 10 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, cruciform plan of dome chamber inside the square reception-hall block]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 11 and 12 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, square reception-hall block, the five halls and the basin on its north side, all situated after the Bāb al-Āmma]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 13 and 14 reads, "[Congregational Mosque of Madinat al-Mutawakkiliyya (Abu Dulaf Mosque), north quadrant of the mosque and ziyāda and sketch of recessed niche of the courtyard facades]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 15 and 16 reads, "[Congregational Mosque of Madinat al-Mutawakkiliyya (Abu Dulaf Mosque), south quadrant of the mosque and ziyāda and plan of the miḥrāb]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 17 and 18 reads, "[Congregational Mosque of Madinat al-Mutawakkiliyya (Abu Dulaf Mosque), west and east quadrants of the mosque and ziyāda]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 19 and 20 reads, "[Congregational Mosque of Madinat al-Mutawakkiliyya (Abu Dulaf Mosque), levelling measurements]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 21 and 22 reads, "[Congregational Mosque of Madinat al-Mutawakkiliyya (Abu Dulaf Mosque), double-column base in the qibla aisle and sketch of the nothern quadrant of the mosque]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 23 and 24 reads, "al-Jubairiyyah (Djubairiyyah)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 25 reads, "[Section of architectural details]."

Studies for San Salvador, 1492

National Museum of American History
Gerome Ferris sketched these helmets in pencil for his 1930 historical painting of Christopher Columbus landing in the new world, San Salvador, 1492.

Studies for San Salvador, 1492

National Museum of American History
Unsigned sheet of pencil drawings listing names of men who accompanied Christopher Columbus on his first expedition to the New World and shows some armor they might have worn. About 1930 Gerome Ferris painted San Salvador, 1492 in which Columbus claims the island of present-day San Salvador for Spain.

Excavation of Samarra (Iraq): Architectural Studies 4

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive. - Series title in Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive reads, "Records of Samarra Expeditions." - Since these are primary sources, handwritten captions in the sketchbook are specified in three stages: (1) an English designation following Thomas Leisten and Alastair Northedge's terminology; (2) the transcribed original caption in German which is provided under parenthesis; and (3) additonal information from Herzfeld's publication, "Der Wandschmuck der Bauten von Samarra und Seine Ornamentik. Verlag Dietrich Reimer, Ernst Vohsen, Berlin, 1923." and Thomas Leisten's publication, "Excavation of Samarra, v. I. Architecture : Final report of the first campaign 1910-1912. Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz am Rhein, 2003" which is provided under bracket. Notes related primarly to the two campaigns of excavation at Sāmarrā' (Iraq), carried out by Ernst Herzfeld on behalf of the Kaiser Friedrich Museum in Berlin between the years 1911 and 1913. Funded by Finding aid, based on Joseph M. Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive, 1974, is available in the Archives Department and on Internet http://www.asia.si.edu/archives/finding_aids/herzfeld.html#series7 - The thirteenth of a series of eighteen sketchbooks (Skizzenbücher), in which Ernst Herzfeld recorded his observations on topography, landscape, archaeological remains, architecture, artifacts and decorative motifs, related to the congregational mosques in Samarra, Mutawakkiliyya, and Balkuwārā; the Qubbat al-Ṣulaibiyya; the palaces of Balkuwārā, Ṣūr Īṣā, and the Qaṣr al-Āshiq; and finally the residential architecture and the baths at Quraina, Wadī al-Muḥḥ, Qāṭūn, Jubairiyya, and west of Ṣūr Īṣā. - Original handwritten caption on cover reads, "Samarra ; plan aufnahmen 4." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 1 and 2reads, "Topographical measurements including Balkuwārā (Manqūr)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 3 and 4 reads, "Topographical measurements." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 5 and 6 reads, "Topographical measurements." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 7 and 8 reads, "Topographical measurements." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 9 and 10 reads, "Topographical measurements." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 11 and 12 reads, "Topographical measurements." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 13 and 14 reads, "Topographical measurements; [Balkuwārā palace, general plan of the complex with outer enclosure]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 15 and 16 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, gate I, sketch of southern wing]; [Balkuwārā palace, gate I, sketch of southern wing]; [Balkuwārā palace, ornament 24]; [Balkuwārā palace, gate III]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 17 and 18 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, southwest quadrant of the palace]; [Balkuwārā palace, southwest quadrant of the palace]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 19 and 20 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, Great (eastern) Īwān]; [Balkuwārā palace, Great (eastern) Īwān]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 21 and 22 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, Great Īwān, horizontal timber-frame construction]; [Balkuwārā palace, Great Īwān, vertical timber-frame construction]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 23 and 24 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, wall enclosure around courtyard I and including gate I]; [Balkuwārā palace, Great (eastern) Īwān]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 25 and 26 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, Great (eastern) Īwān]; [Balkuwārā palace, bath]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 27 and 28 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, Mosque I]; [Balkuwārā palace, bath, soffit of arch in the alcove vaults]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 29 and 30 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, bath]; [Balkuwārā palace, Great (eastern) Īwān]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 31 and 32 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, Great Īwān, blind niches]; [Balkuwārā palace, bath, ornament 1b]; [Balkuwārā palace, courtyard III]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 33 and 34 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, River Garden, pavilion A]; [Balkuwārā palace, vertical timber-frame construction]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 35 and 36 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace]; [Balkuwārā palace, Mosque I]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 37 and 38 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, gate III]; [Balkuwārā palace, niches in room 7 and 9]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 39 and 40 reads, "--; --; [Qubbat al-Ṣulaibiyya]; --; [Balkuwārā palace, ornament 1b]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 41 and 42 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, ornament 28 and 29]; [Balkuwārā palace, niches in room 7 and 9]; [Qubbat al-Ṣulaibiyya, inscription I]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 43 and 44 reads, "[Qubbat al-Ṣulaibiyya, octagonal building]; [Qubbat al-Ṣulaibiyya]; [Qubbat al-Ṣulaibiyya, octagonal building]; [Qubbat al-Ṣulaibiyya, inscription II]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 45 and 46 reads, "[House XI (formerly Haus VII)]."

Discovering the East of China: Chinese Music in Elementary School

SI Center for Learning and Digital Access
Unit that introduces regional Chinese music. Students "travel" through the eastern part of the country.

Smartphone Study Uncovers Why So Much of the World is Short on Sleep

Smithsonian Magazine

Scientists have discovered a surprisingly powerful aid in the never-ending quest for a better night's sleep—the smartphone.

Staring at the device won't help you sleep, but phones did enable researchers to gather a mountain of real-world sleep data from thousands of volunteers around the world. The study explores the daily tug-of-war between our bodies' natural rhythms and those of our social calendars.

Two years ago, mathematicians Daniel Forger and Olivia Walch of the University of Michigan designed a free phone app, called ENTRAIN, that helps travelers overcome jet lag by creating optimized personal lighting schedules. The app is driven by a mathematical model that works effectively only when users accurately input such information as their location, sleep hours and daily exposure to light. The scientists, seeing potential in such data, asked users to anonymously volunteer the information collected by the app. Some 10,000 people from 100 countries did just that.

“It's pretty amazing that for almost no cost we ended up with, I think, one of the richest and most interesting datasets on human sleep ever collected,” Forger says. “The unsung heroes in this are all the people who agreed to send us their data.”

What they shared revealed some notable patterns, Forger and Walch, along with UM colleague Amy Cochran, report today in Science Advances. Some nations, for example, are home to night owls while others have citizens who enjoy more beauty sleep. Residents of Singapore and Japan clocked in at the low end, averaging only 7 hours 24 minutes of sleep per night. The Netherlands, in contrast, topped out at 8 hours and 12 minutes of sleep on average each night.

Women most everywhere seem to schedule about half an hour more sleep per night than men. “That's huge,” Forger says. “Half an hour actually makes a huge difference in terms of your overall performance.” Middle-aged men get the least sleep, on average, and often sleep less than the recommended 7 to 8 hours.

As people get older, though, their sleeping schedules look much more alike. “When we looked at the sleep habits of different age groups in our population, we noticed that the distributions of bedtime and wake time were getting narrower as age increased,” Walch notes. This may be real-world support for the results of past studies, she adds, that found that older people had narrower windows of time in which to fall asleep and stay asleep.

Paul Kelley, who researches sleep and circadian neuroscience at the University of Oxford, said it was encouraging to see technology and mathematical models applied to sleep science. “Inventive new methods and new outcomes may offer additional ways to understand our biological timing systems,” he notes, while cautioning that such research remains a work in progress.

Many people don't get enough shuteye. A recent CDC study found that one in three U.S. adults doesn't get the recommended seven minimum hours on a regular basis. And people in other nations around the world are similarly exhausted. That creates problems far more serious than grumpy breakfast conversations and coffee cravings. Sleep deprivation can boost one's chances of obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, stress and other ailments. And fatigue makes people perform all kinds of mental and physical tasks poorly, which is why sleep scientists keep suggesting that school days should start later.

A primary cause of all this missed sleep is the daily tug-of-war between our bodies' natural inclinations to rest and a host of competing factors created by human society.

Natural sleep patterns are guided by circadian rhythms that are set and reset by the natural cycle of day and night, adjusted by input from our eyes. Forger and Walch had used existing data from other studies to create their mathematical model that simulates these natural circadian rhythms.

This model also enabled them to explore the patterns that appeared during analysis of the ENTRAIN sleep data. For example, they found that people who spend time outdoors in natural light tend to go to bed earlier, and get more sleep, than those who spend most of their day in artificial light. But those data don't reveal if the light itself is causing more sleep, Walch says. For example, these people may report sleeping more because they have physical jobs, which keep them outdoors and tire them out. The model provided a way to test the impacts of outdoor light alone, and its results suggest that natural light does make people sleep more regardless of what they do while outside.

The results also led Forger to suggest an interesting hypothesis about how the battle between social influence and circadian rhythms plays out each day: “We noticed that when people wake up was not a good predictor of whether people in a certain country would sleep more or less, but when they go to bed really was,” he says. “So the reason why people are getting less sleep in certain countries is that they are going to bed later, rather than waking up earlier than people in other countries.”

That finding suggests to Forger that bedtime may be pushed back by social influences, such as working late or going out with others, but that wake time remains strongly guided by biological factors.

“I'd assumed wake time would really be a function of societal effects like alarm clocks,” he says. “But our data support the hypothesis that our biological clocks are governing when we wake up. For instance, we found that people in countries that have a later sunrise sleep in more.” The timing of sunset, meanwhile, may affect the total amount of sleep a person gets.

That hypothesis, however, is at odds with the results of other studies. “All our data and that of other people speak against this, and 85 percent of alarm clock users also demonstrate the opposite,” says Till Roenneberg, a professor at the University of Munich’s Institute of Medical Psychology. Roenneberg's work, in fact, suggests that your alarm clock may be hazardous to your health.

“There are, in my view, no easy answers to scheduling our 24/7 existence, [but] it is painfully clear we are currently damaging the lives of most people at the moment, and more immediate actions are required,” Kelley says. “The fundamental point is that there is wide variation in our individual [biological] timings over 24 hours. [It's] not a one size fits all phenomena.”

Excavation of Samarra (Iraq): Architectural Studies 1

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Herzfeld's original sketchbook title. - Series title in Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive reads, "Records of Samarra Expeditions." - Since these are primary sources, handwritten captions in the sketchbook are specified in three stages: (1) an English designation following Thomas Leisten and Alastair Northedge's terminology; (2) the transcribed original caption in German which is provided under parenthesis; and (3) additonal information from Herzfeld's publication, "Der Wandschmuck der Bauten von Samarra und Seine Ornamentik. Verlag Dietrich Reimer, Ernst Vohsen, Berlin, 1923." and Thomas Leisten's publication, "Excavation of Samarra, v. I. Architecture : Final report of the first campaign 1910-1912. Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz am Rhein, 2003" which is provided under bracket. Notes related primarly to the two campaigns of excavation at Sāmarrā' (Iraq), carried out by Ernst Herzfeld on behalf of the Kaiser Friedrich Museum in Berlin between the years 1911 and 1913. Funded by Finding aid, based on Joseph M. Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive, 1974, is available in the Archives Department and on Internet http://www.asia.si.edu/archives/finding_aids/herzfeld.html#series7 - The tenth of a series of eighteen sketchbooks (Skizzenbücher), in which Ernst Herzfeld recorded his observations on topography, landscape, archaeological remains, architecture, artifacts and decorative motifs related to the congregational mosques in Samarra, Mutawakkiliyya, and Balkuwārā; the Qubbat al-Ṣulaibiyya; the palaces of Balkuwārā, Ṣūr Īṣā, and the Qaṣr al-Āshiq; and finally the residential architecture and the baths at Quraina, Wadī al-Muḥḥ, Qāṭūn, Jubairiyya, and west of Ṣūr Īṣā. - The identification of the residential sites: "Herzfeld numbered all sites while the excavation was still in progress. When it became obvious that two courtyards with adjacent rooms turned out to belong to the same complex, however, he assigned new numbers. Herzfeld gave numbers to 16 houses in various locations, splitting certain buildings into, for instance, House Va or XIb, naming in all 24 different sites. [...]. Unfortunately, Herzfeld changed the numbering of the houses a third time when he finished the final drawings for the publication, including only 14 houses. [...]. In those cases in which Herzfeld noted on his field sketch either the name of the area or the new numbering of the house we can at least identify the site. These records indicate al-Quraina (Qurainah) as the location of Houses I-VI, connect al-Qāṭūn with House XI, the area of Ṣūr Īṣā with Houses VIII and IX, and a House XVII with Jubairiyya." [Leisten, Thomas, 2003: "Excavation of Samarra, v. I. Architecture : final report of the first campaign 1910-1912. Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz am Rhein, 2003; p.121."] - Original handwritten caption on cover reads, "Samarra ; plan aufnahmen 1." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 1 and 2 reads, "al-Qādisiyya; --; Tall al-Ṣanam; --." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 3 and 4 reads, "Trench V - VI (Graβen V - VI); Trench II (Graβen II)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 5 and 6 reads, "--; [octogonal marble column]." - Translated handwritten notes for pg. 7 and 8 reads, "[House IV, T-shaped hall, room 1, 3, 6, 7, 8 (T-saal)]; Room 6 (Zimmer 6); House IV, room 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (formerly Haus III or Haus C)." - Translated handwritten notes for pg. 9 and 10 reads, "House IV, [T-shaped Hall]: room 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 (formerly Haus III or Haus C); House I, T-shaped hall, [room 1, 2, 3] (formerly Haus A, T-saal)." - Translated handwritten notes for pg. 11 and 12 reads, "House IV, room 2 (formerly Haus III or Haus C, zimmer 2); House V, room 1 (formerly Haus B, zimmer i); IN-79: [House I (formerly Haus II)]; House III, room 1 (formerly Haus II, zimmer 1); House IV, room 7, 8 (formerly Haus III, zimmer 7, zimmer 8); House IV, room 1 (formerly Haus III, zimmer 1)." - Translated handwritten notes for pg. 13 and 14 reads, "House II, T-shaped hall, [room 40, 41,42] (formerly Haus I, T-saal); House II, T-shaped hall, [room 40, 41,42] (formerly Haus I, T-saal)." - Translated handwritten notes for pg. 15 and 16 reads, "House II, T-shaped hall: room 41 (formerly Haus I, T-saal, 41); House II (formerly Haus I); House III, [room 1, 2, 3] (formerly Haus II); House III, T-shaped hall (formerly Haus II)." - Translated handwritten notes for pg. 17 and 18 reads, "House III, room 2 (Haus III, zimmer 2); [Tall al-Aliq]." - Translated handwritten notes for pg. 19 and 20 reads, "House II, [room 36, 37, 38, 39] (formerly Haus I); House II, [room 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35] (formerly Haus I)." - Translated handwritten notes for pg. 21 and 22 reads, "House II (formerly Haus I); House II (formerly Haus I); House II (formerly Haus I)." - Translated handwritten notes for pg. 23 and 24 reads, "House III, room 36 (shop) (formerly Haus II, laden 36); House III, room 40 (shop) (formerly Haus II, laden 40); House VII, room 6 (formerly Haus V, zimmer 6)." - Translated handwritten notes for pg. 25 and 26 reads, "House VII, room 1 (formerly Haus V, zimmer 1); House VII, room 1 (formerly Haus V, zimmer 1); House VII, room 1 (formerly Haus V, zimmer 1)." - Translated handwritten notes for pg. 27 and 28 reads, "House II, [room 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 36, great courtyard] (formerly Haus I); House II, [room 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15] (formerly Haus I); House I: [room 1, 2, 3] (Haus I); House I, T-shaped hall, room 2." - Translated handwritten notes for pg. 29 and 30 reads, "House VIII, room 3 (formerly Haus Va, zimmer 3); House VII, room 6 (formerly Haus V, zimmer 6); [House VII]." - Translated handwritten notes for pg. 31 and 32 reads, "House VII, room 6 (formerly zimmer 6); House VIII, [room 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, courtyard] (formerly Haus Va)." - Translated handwritten notes for pg. 33 and 34 reads, "House III [room 9, 10, 11 (courtyard), 12, 13, 16, 17 (courtyard), 18, 19, 21, 22, 26 (courtyard), 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42] (formerly Haus II); House III, [room 29, 32 (courtyard), 33, 34] (formerly Haus II)." - Translated handwritten notes for pg. 35 and 36 reads, "House III, [room a, b (room 5), 1 (hall), 2 (hall), 3 (courtyard), 4 (courtyard), 7, 8, 10, 11 (courtyard), 14, 15, 16, 17 (courtyard), 20, 21, 23 (T-shaped hall), 25, 26 (courtyard), 30, 31] (formerly Haus II); House III, [room 38] (formerly Haus II)." - Translated handwritten notes for pg. 37 and 38 reads, "House VII, [room 1, 2, 3, 4 (courtyard), 6, 7, 8, 13 (courtyard), 9 (bath), 10, 11, 12, 14, 17] (formerly Haus V)." - Translated handwritten notes for pg. 39 and 40 reads, "House VII, [room 13 (courtyard), 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 (courtyard), 30, 31, 32] (formerly Haus V); House V, [room 34, 35] (formerly Haus [?] V); House VIa and House VIIa, [room 18 (courtyard), 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 (courtyard), 30] (formerly Haus V)." - Translated handwritten notes for pg. 41 and 42 reads, "House VI, [room 34, 35, 36, 37, 38 (courtyard), 39, 40, 41, 43 (courtyard)] (formerly Haus V); House VI, [room 41, 42, 43 (courtyard), 44, 45, 46, 47] (formerly Haus V)." - Translated handwritten notes for pg. 43 and 44 reads, "House VII, [room 13 (courtyard), 4 (courtyard), 5] (formerly Haus V); House VIa, Weaver's House, [room 18 (courtyard), room 25, room 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, (33), 48 (courtyard), 49, 50, 51 (bath), 52] (formerly Haus V, Weber Haus)."

Excavation of Samarra (Iraq): Architectural Studies 2

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive. - Series title in Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive reads, "Records of Samarra Expeditions." - Since these are primary sources, handwritten captions in the sketchbook are specified in three stages: (1) an English designation following Thomas Leisten and Alastair Northedge's terminology; (2) the transcribed original caption in German which is provided under parenthesis; and (3) additonal information from Herzfeld's publication, "Der Wandschmuck der Bauten von Samarra und Seine Ornamentik. Verlag Dietrich Reimer, Ernst Vohsen, Berlin, 1923." and Thomas Leisten's publication, "Excavation of Samarra, v. I. Architecture : Final report of the first campaign 1910-1912. Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz am Rhein, 2003" which is provided under bracket. Notes related primarly to the two campaigns of excavation at Sāmarrā' (Iraq), carried out by Ernst Herzfeld on behalf of the Kaiser Friedrich Museum in Berlin between the years 1911 and 1913. Funded by Finding aid, based on Joseph M. Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive, 1974, is available in the Archives Department and on Internet http://www.asia.si.edu/archives/finding_aids/herzfeld.html#series7 - The eighteenth of a series of eighteen sketchbooks (Skizzenbücher), in which Ernst Herzfeld recorded his observations on topography, landscape, archaeological remains, architecture, artifacts and decorative motifs, related to the congregational mosques in Samarra, Mutawakkiliyya, and Balkuwārā; the Qubbat al-Ṣulaibiyya; the palaces of Balkuwārā, Ṣūr Īṣā, and the Qaṣr al-Āshiq; and finally the residential architecture and the baths at Quraina, Wadī al-Muḥḥ, Qāṭūn, Jubairiyya, and west of Ṣūr Īṣā. - Original handwritten caption on cover reads, "Samarra ; plan aufnahmen 9." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 1 and 2 reads, "--; Miḥrāb." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 3 and 4 reads, "[Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil, Dār al-Imāra, the southern annex building]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 5 and 6 reads, "[Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil, Dār al-Imāra, the southern annex building]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 7 and 8 reads, "[Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil, Dār al-Imāra, the southern annex building]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 9 and 10 reads, "[Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil, western wall]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 11 and 12 reads, "[Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil, northern wall; Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil, eastern wall]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 13 and 14 reads, "[Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil, southern wall (Qibla wall]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 15 and 16 reads, "[Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil, central gate; Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil, three central aisles in front of the miḥrāb]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 17 and 18 reads, "[Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil, southeast corner (S.O. Ecke)]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 19 and 20 reads, "[Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil, fondation pits for pillars in the southeastern prayer hall]; --." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 21 and 22 reads, "--; House V, [room 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12] (formerly Haus IV)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 23 and 24 reads, "House IX and X, [room 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17] (formerly Haus VI)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 25 and 26 reads, "House IX and X, [courtyard (kleine hof), room 23 (25), 25 (26), 22 (24), 21 (23), 20 (22), 19 (20)] (formerly Haus VI); House IX and X, [room 31 (28), 32 (29), 33 (30), 34 (31), 35 (32)] (formerly Haus VI); House IX and X, [ courtyard (kleine hof, 19), room 26 (18), 27 (17)] (formerly Haus VI)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 27 and 28 reads, "House XI (formerly Haus VIII); House XI (formerly Haus VIII or haus VII); House XI, [T-shaped Hall, room 1, room 2, room 3] (formerly Haus VII)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 29 and 30 reads, "House IX, room 7,[unglazed waterpipes] (formerly Haus VI, zimmer 7); House XI (formerly Haus in Qāṭūn II); House XI (formerly Haus in Qāṭūn II); House XI (formerly Haus in Qāṭūn II); House XI (formerly Haus in Qāṭūn II)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 31 and 32 reads, "House VII, room 1, room 6 (formerly Haus V, zimmer 1, zimmer 6); House XI, courtyard (formerly Haus VIII or haus VII, hof); House XI, T-shaped Hall (formerly Haus VIII or haus VII, T-saal)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 33 and 34 reads, "House XI, room 2 (formerly Qāṭūn Haus VII, zimmer 2); House III, room 16 (formerly Haus II, zimmer 16); House III, room 16 (formerly Haus II, zimmer 16)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 35 and 36 reads, "House III, room 16 (formerly Haus II, zimmer 16); House III, room 16 (formerly Haus II, zimmer 16)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 37 and 38 reads, "House III, room 19 (formerly Haus II, zimmer 19); House III, room 19 (formerly Haus II, zimmer 19); House III, room 19 (formerly Haus II, zimmer 19); [Ornament 136]; House IX and X (formerly Haus VI)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 39 and 40 reads, "House I, [room 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50] (formerly Haus Ia); House I, room 3 (formerly Haus Ia, zimmer 3); House II, room 8 (formerly Haus I, zimmer 8); House II, room 7 (formerly Haus I, zimmer 7); [House VI], room 45 (formerly Haus V, zimmer 45); [House VI], room 37 (formerly Haus V, zimmer 37)."

Excavation of Samarra (Iraq): Architectural Studies 3

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive. - Series title in Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive reads, "Records of Samarra Expeditions." - Since these are primary sources, handwritten captions in the sketchbook are specified in three stages: (1) an English designation following Thomas Leisten and Alastair Northedge's terminology; (2) the transcribed original caption in German which is provided under parenthesis; and (3) additonal information from Herzfeld's publication, "Der Wandschmuck der Bauten von Samarra und Seine Ornamentik. Verlag Dietrich Reimer, Ernst Vohsen, Berlin, 1923." and Thomas Leisten's publication, "Excavation of Samarra, v. I. Architecture : Final report of the first campaign 1910-1912. Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz am Rhein, 2003" which is provided under bracket. Notes related primarly to the two campaigns of excavation at Sāmarrā' (Iraq), carried out by Ernst Herzfeld on behalf of the Kaiser Friedrich Museum in Berlin between the years 1911 and 1913. Funded by Finding aid, based on Joseph M. Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive, 1974, is available in the Archives Department and on Internet http://www.asia.si.edu/archives/finding_aids/herzfeld.html#series7 - The twelfth of a series of eighteen sketchbooks (Skizzenbücher), in which Ernst Herzfeld recorded his observations on topography, landscape, archaeological remains, architecture, artifacts and decorative motifs, related to the congregational mosques in Samarra, Mutawakkiliyya, and Balkuwārā; the Qubbat al-Ṣulaibiyya; the palaces of Balkuwārā, Ṣūr Īṣā, and the Qaṣr al-Āshiq; and finally the residential architecture and the baths at Quraina, Wadī al-Muḥḥ, Qāṭūn, Jubairiyya, and west of Ṣūr Īṣā. - Original handwritten caption on cover reads, "Samarra ; plan aufnahmen 3." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 1 and 2 reads, "[House XIV, room 1]; House XIII, room 12 (Haus XIII, zimmer 12); House XIV, room 1 (formerly Haus VIII, zimmer 1); [Balkuwārā palace, Great Īwān, timber-frame construction]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 3 and 4 reads, "House XIII, room 11 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 11); House XII, room 3 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 3); House XII, room 3 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 3)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 5 and 6 reads, "House XII, room 3 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 3); House XII, room 3 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 3); House XIII, room 11 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 11); House XIII, room 15 (Haus XIII, zimmer 15)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 7 and 8 reads, "House XII, bath, room 10 (formerly Haus IX, bad, zimmer 10); House XII, room 21 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 21, 19); House XII, room 21 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 21, 19); House XII, bath, room 10, 11 (formerly Haus IX, bad, 10 u. 11)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 9 and 10 reads, "House XII, [room 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9] (formerly Haus IX); House XII, [room 14 (14, 17), 15 (13, 15), 16 (15, 16), 17 (19, 21), 18 (20, 22), 19 (17, 18), 28 (23, 29)] (formerly Haus IX)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 11 and 12 reads, "House XII, T-shaped Hall, room 13 (15) (formerly Haus IX, T-saal, zimmer 13, 15); House XII: room 15 (15, 13) (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 15, 13); House XII, room 7 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 7); House XII, T-shaped Hall, room 4 (formerly Haus IX, T-saal, zimmer 4):; House XIV, [room 1, 2, 3] (formerly Haus VIII); [House XIV, engaged column from door of room 2]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 13 and 14 reads, "House XII, courtyard 17, room 24 (formerly Haus IX, hof 17, zimmer 24 or 21); [House XII, courtyard 17, room 24 (formerly Haus IX, hof 17, zimmer 24 or 21)]; House XIII, room 16 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 16, 37)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 15 and 16 reads, "House XII, room 24 or 21 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 24 or 21); House XII, room 23 or 29 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 23 or 29)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 17 and 18 reads, "House XII, courtyard 21 or 19, and 18 or 17 (formerly Haus IX, 21 or 19, and 18 or 17); House XIII, room [20] (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 31 or 9); House XIII, room [20] (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 7, fruher 29); House XII, room 28 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 28 or 39)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 19 and 20 reads, "House XII, room [27] (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 28, fruher 39); House XII, room [26] (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 27, fruher 40); House XII, room [25] (formerly Haus IX, hof 26, fruher 41)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 21 and 22 reads, "House XII, [room [17] (19, 21); room [18] (20, 22), room [28] (23, 29), room [29] (30, 38), room [27] (28, 39), room [26] (27, 40), room [25] (26, 41), courtyard [19] (17)] (formerly Haus IX); House XII, [courtyard 19 (17, 18), room 20 (21, 24), room 21 (22, 25), room 22 (23, 26), room 23 (24), room 24 (25, 42)] (formerly Haus IX); House XIII, [reception hall 19 (20), room 20 (19), room 21 (21), room 17)] (formerly Haus IX)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 23 and 24 reads, "; House XIII (formerly Haus IX): courtyard 11 (11), room 12 (12), [room 13], [room 17]; House XIII (formerly Haus IX): T-shaped Hall 6 (6), room 1 (1), room 2 (2), room 3 (4), room 4 (3), room 5 (5), room 7 (7), room 8 (8), room 9 (9);." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 25 and 26 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, northeastern quadrant of the inner enclosure]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 27 and 28 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, northeastern of the middle strip inside the inner enclosure]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 29 and 30 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, square reception-hall block, cruciform plan of a dome chamber]; [Balkuwārā palace, walled courtyard between gate III and the eastern Īwān]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 31 and 32 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, square reception-hall block, bath]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 33 and 34 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, southeast quadrant of the palace]; [Balkuwārā palace, southeast quadrant of the palace]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 35 and 36 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, southeast quadrant of the palace]; [Balkuwārā palace, southeast quadrant of the palace]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 37 and 38 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, southeast quadrant of the palace]; [Balkuwārā palace, courtyard I and gate I]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 39 and 40 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, courtyard I and II, and gate II]; [Balkuwārā palace, courtyard II and III, and gate III]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 41 and 42 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, Great Īwān, timber-frame construction]; [Balkuwārā palace, Great Īwān]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 43 and 44 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, honeycomb coffers of vaulted ceiling of room 7]; [Balkuwārā palace, Great Īwān]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 45 and 46 reads, "[Balkuwārā palace, bath, section of squinch in the central domed room]; [Balkuwārā palace, Great Īwān]."

Excavation of Samarra (Iraq): Architectural Studies 6

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive. - Series title in Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive reads, "Records of Samarra Expeditions." - Since these are primary sources, handwritten captions in the sketchbook are specified in three stages: (1) an English designation following Thomas Leisten and Alastair Northedge's terminology; (2) the transcribed original caption in German which is provided under parenthesis; and (3) additonal information from Herzfeld's publication, "Der Wandschmuck der Bauten von Samarra und Seine Ornamentik. Verlag Dietrich Reimer, Ernst Vohsen, Berlin, 1923." and Alastair Northedge's publication, "An Interpretation of the Palace of the Caliph at Samarra (Dar Al-Khilafa or Jawsaq Al-Khaqani). In Ars Orientalis, Vol. 23. Gülru Necipoglu, ed. Ann Arbour: Department of History, University of Michigan, 1993." which is provided under bracket. Notes related primarly to the two campaigns of excavation at Sāmarrā' (Iraq), carried out by Ernst Herzfeld on behalf of the Kaiser Friedrich Museum in Berlin between the years 1911 and 1913. Funded by Finding aid, based on Joseph M. Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive, 1974, is available in the Archives Department and on Internet http://www.asia.si.edu/archives/finding_aids/herzfeld.html#series7 - The fifteenth of a series of eighteen sketchbooks (Skizzenbücher), in which Ernst Herzfeld recorded his observations on topography, landscape, archaeological remains, architecture, artifacts and decorative motifs, related to the second campaign of excavations at the Palace of the Caliph at Samarra (Dār al-Khilāfa, Jawsaq al-Khāqāni, Bayt al-Khalīfah) including the western garden, the Bāb al-Āmma and the square reception-hall block, the great courtyard (Great Esplanade), the south side of the complex, the Large Serdab, the Rotundabau, the east end and the Small Serdab, the stable and pavilions, the barracks, Al-Hamman, and finally the north palace. - Original handwritten caption on cover reads, "Samarra ; plan aufnahmen 6." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 1 reads, "--." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 2 and 3 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Great Courtyard, wall of mud brick with arched niches and stucco moldings]; --." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 4 reads, "--." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 5 and 6 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Small Serdab, square sunken basin]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, Small Serdab, surface entrance]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 7 and 8 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Small Serdab, surface entrance]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, Small Serdab, surface entrance]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 9 and 10 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Rotundabau, circular hall]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, Rotundabau, transverse halls flanked by two rooms with niches]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 11 and 12 reads, "--; [Dār al-Khilāfa, Rotundabau, room with niche flanking the transverse halls]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 13 and 14 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Rotundabau, dependencies]; --." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 15 and 16 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Small Serdab, lower level]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, Small Serdab, lower level]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 17 and 18 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Small Serdab, lower level]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, Small Serdab, lower level]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 19 and 20 reads, "--; --." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 21 and 22 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, North Pavilion]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, North Pavilion]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 23 and 24 reads, "--; [Topographical measurements of unidentified location]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 25 and 26 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Western Garden, south of the square ornamental pool]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, Western Garden, south of the monumental steps]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 27 and 28 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, south of the square ornamental pool]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 29 and 30 reads, "." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 31 and 32 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, elevated belvedere, known as al-Hammam, located northwest of the square-reception hall]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 33 and 34 reads, "--; --." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 35 and 36 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, courtyard building with central circular basin]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, rooms east of courtyard with central circular basin]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 37 and 38 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, courtyard north of square reception-hall block]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, buildings in courtyard north of square reception-hall block]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 39 and 40 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, courtyard south of the barracks of the palace guards]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, buildings in courtyard located between the Large Serdab and the North Palace]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 41 and 42 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, northwest corner of the palace complex, barracks of the palace guards]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, northwest corner of the palace complex, barracks of the palace guards]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 43 and 44 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, North Palace, reception-hall block on raised terrace]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, small buildings on the north end of the western garden]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 45 and 46 reads, "--; --."

Excavation of Samarra (Iraq): Architectural Studies 7

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive. - Series title in Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive reads, "Records of Samarra Expeditions." - Since these are primary sources, handwritten captions in the sketchbook are specified in three stages: (1) an English designation following Thomas Leisten and Alastair Northedge's terminology; (2) the transcribed original caption in German which is provided under parenthesis; and (3) additonal information from Herzfeld's publication, "Der Wandschmuck der Bauten von Samarra und Seine Ornamentik. Verlag Dietrich Reimer, Ernst Vohsen, Berlin, 1923." and Alastair Northedge's publication, "An Interpretation of the Palace of the Caliph at Samarra (Dar Al-Khilafa or Jawsaq Al-Khaqani). In Ars Orientalis, Vol. 23. Gülru Necipoglu, ed. Ann Arbour: Department of History, University of Michigan, 1993." which is provided under bracket. Notes related primarly to the two campaigns of excavation at Sāmarrā' (Iraq), carried out by Ernst Herzfeld on behalf of the Kaiser Friedrich Museum in Berlin between the years 1911 and 1913. Funded by Finding aid, based on Joseph M. Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive, 1974, is available in the Archives Department and on Internet http://www.asia.si.edu/archives/finding_aids/herzfeld.html#series7 - The sixteenth of a series of eighteen sketchbooks (Skizzenbücher), in which Ernst Herzfeld recorded his observations on topography, landscape, archaeological remains, architecture, artifacts and decorative motifs, related to the second campaign of excavations at the Palace of the Caliph at Samarra (Dār al-Khilāfa, Jawsaq al-Khāqāni, Bayt al-Khalīfah) including the western garden, the Bāb al-Āmma and the square reception-hall block, the great courtyard (Great Esplanade), the south side of the complex, the Large Serdab, the Rotundabau, the east end and the Small Serdab, the stable and pavilions, the barracks, Al-Hamman, and finally the north palace. - Original handwritten caption on cover reads, "Samarra ; plan aufnahmen 7." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 1 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, south side of the palace complex]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 2 and 3 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, south side of the palace complex]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, south side of the palace complex]; --; --." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 4 and 5 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, directly south of the square reception-hall block]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, directly south of the square reception-hall block]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 6 and 7 reads, "--; --." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 8 and 9 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, sketch of the five halls situated after the Bāb al-Āmma]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 10 and 11 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, courtyard with basin and cruciform plan of a dome chamber]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, room identified as a harīm and square room with circular basin which was named Kāsat-i Firawn]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 12 and 13 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, North Palace, square reception-hall block]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 14 and 15 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Large Serdab]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 16 and 17 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Rotundabau, courtyard with rooms around]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 18 and 19 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, North Palace, residential buildings]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 20 and 21 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, North Palace, residential buildings]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, North Palace, two further buildings on the northeast end of the complex]" - Original handwritten notes for pg. 22 and 23 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, North Palace, residential buildings]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, Stables and North Pavilion, exterior wall with round buttresses]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 24 and 25 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Small Serdab and courtyards with stables]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 26 and 27 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, stores and service buildings]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 28 and 29 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, south side of the complex, passageway into the palace complex]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 30 and 31 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, south side of the palace complex, passageway into the palace complex]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 32 and 33 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Large Serdab, Mesopotamian building type]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 34 and 35 reads, "--; --." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 36 and 37 reads, "[Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil, basin of the Kāsat-i Firawn and fondation trenches of its pavilion]; [Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil, buildings included in the ziyāda]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 38 and 39 reads, "[Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil, northwest quadrant of the mosque and ziyāda]; [Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil, northeast quadrant of the mosque and ziyāda]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 40 and 41 reads, "[Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil, southeast quadrant of the mosque and ziyāda]; [Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil, southwest quadrant of the mosque and ziyāda]."

Excavation of Samarra (Iraq): Architectural Studies 8

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive. - Series title in Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive reads, "Records of Samarra Expeditions." - Since these are primary sources, handwritten captions in the sketchbook are specified in three stages: (1) an English designation following Thomas Leisten and Alastair Northedge's terminology; (2) the transcribed original caption in German which is provided under parenthesis; and (3) additonal information from Herzfeld's publication, "Der Wandschmuck der Bauten von Samarra und Seine Ornamentik. Verlag Dietrich Reimer, Ernst Vohsen, Berlin, 1923." and Alastair Northedge's publication, "An Interpretation of the Palace of the Caliph at Samarra (Dar Al-Khilafa or Jawsaq Al-Khaqani). In Ars Orientalis, Vol. 23. Gülru Necipoglu, ed. Ann Arbour: Department of History, University of Michigan, 1993." which is provided under bracket. Notes related primarly to the two campaigns of excavation at Sāmarrā' (Iraq), carried out by Ernst Herzfeld on behalf of the Kaiser Friedrich Museum in Berlin between the years 1911 and 1913. Finding aid, based on Joseph M. Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive, 1974, is available in the Archives Department and on Internet http://www.asia.si.edu/archives/finding_aids/herzfeld.html#series7 - The seventeenth of a series of eighteen sketchbooks (Skizzenbücher), in which Ernst Herzfeld recorded his observations on topography, landscape, archaeological remains, architecture, artifacts and decorative motifs, related to the second campaign of excavations at the Palace of the Caliph at Samarra (Dār al-Khilāfa, Jawsaq al-Khāqāni, Bayt al-Khalīfah) including the western garden, the Bāb al-Āmma and the square reception-hall block, the great courtyard (Great Esplanade), the south side of the complex, the Large Serdab, the Rotundabau, the east end and the Small Serdab, the stable and pavilions, the barracks, Al-Hamman, and finally the north palace. - Original handwritten caption on cover reads, "Samarra ; plan aufnahmen 8." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 1 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, part of the five halls situated after the Bāb al-Āmma]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 2 and 3 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, part of the five halls situated after the Bāb al-Āmma]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 4 and 5 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, part of the five halls situated after the Bāb al-Āmma]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 6 and 7 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, part of the five halls situated after the Bāb al-Āmma]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, cruciform plan of dome chamber inside the square reception-hall block]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 8 and 9 reads, "--; --; --." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 10 and 11 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, rooms on the north side of courtyard with basin]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 12 and 13 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, rooms on the north side of courtyard with basin]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 14 and 15 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, rooms next to courtyard with basin]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, rooms between courtyard with basin and cruciform plan of dome chamber]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 16 and 17 reads, "--." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 18 and 19 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, rooms on the north side of courtyard with basin]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, bath on the south side of courtyard with basin]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 20 and 21 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, rooms on the east side of courtyard with basin and bath]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 22 and 23 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, square room with circular basin which was named Kāsat-i Firawn]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, room identified as a harīm]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 24 and 25 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, rooms on the southwest side of the square room with circular basin which was named Kāsat-i Firawn]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 26 and 27 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, rooms on the east side of the room identified as a harīm]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 28 and 29 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, rooms on the east side of the room identified as a harīm]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 30 and 31 reads, "--." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 32 and 33 reads, "--; --." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 34 and 35 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, rooms on the east side of the room identified as a harīm]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, plan of the transversal hall between dome chamber and great courtyard]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 36 and 37 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, plan of the transversal hall between dome chamber and great courtyard as well as a warren of small rooms east of the harīm]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 38 and 39 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, cruciform plan of dome chamber inside the square reception-hall block]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, cruciform plan of dome chamber inside the square reception-hall block]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 40 and 41 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, fountain at the central point of the dome chamber with cruciform plan]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 42 and 43 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, Square Reception-Hall Block, plan of room identified as a harīm]; [Dār al-Khilāfa, cruciform plan of a dome chamber inside the square reception-hall block]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 44 and 45 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, cruciform plan of dome chamber inside the square reception-hall block]; --." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 46 and 47 reads, "[Dār al-Khilāfa, cruciform plan of dome chamber inside the square reception-hall block]; --."

A Brief History of Twin Studies

Smithsonian Magazine

On Tuesday, NASA astronaut Scott Kelly and Russian cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko touched down in Kazakhstan after spending a whopping 340 days aboard the International Space Station (ISS).

As part of NASA’s "Year in Space" project, Kelly and his Earth-bound identical twin brother, retired astronaut Mark Kelly, provided samples of blood, saliva and urine and underwent a barrage of physical and psychological tests designed to study the effects of long-duration spaceflight on the human body.

Studies of identical and fraternal twins have long been used to untangle the influences of genes and the environment on particular traits. Identical twins share all of their genes, while fraternal twins only share 50 percent. If a trait is more common among identical twins than fraternal twins, it suggests genetic factors are partly responsible.

"Twins studies are the only real way of doing natural experiments in humans," says Tim Spector, a professor of genetic epidemiology at Kings College, London. "By studying twins, you can learn a great deal about what makes us tick, what makes us different, and particularly the roles of nature versus nature that you just can't get any other way.”

Spector is director of the TwinsUK Registry, which includes data from 12,000 twins and is used to study the genetic and environmental causes of age-related complex traits and diseases. He estimates that twins research is currently being conducted in more than 100 countries, and that most of those projects draw upon information contained in large databases such as the TwinsUK Registry.

While it may be a while before we see results from the astronaut twins, researchers are hopeful that the opportunity will yield some unique insights into human health. Here are some examples of what we've learned from past twins studies—both famous and infamous:

The Birth of Eugenics

Victorian scientist Francis Galton, a half-cousin of Charles Darwin, was one of the first people to recognize the value of twins for studying the heritability of traits. In an 1875 paper titled "The History of Twins," Galton used twins to estimate the relative effects of nature versus nature (a term that Galton himself coined). But his firm belief that human intelligence is largely a matter of nature led him to a darker path: He became a vocal proponent of eugenics (another term that he coined) and the idea that "a highly gifted race of men" could be produced through selective breeding.

Genes and I.Q.

In 2003, Eric Turkheimer, a psychology professor at the University of Virginia, took a fresh look at the research on the heritability of I.Q., which relied heavily on twin studies. Turkheimer noticed that most of the studies that found I.Q. is largely due to genetics involved twins from middle-class backgrounds, and he wondered what the pattern was among poorer people. When he looked at twins from poor families, he found that the I.Q.s of identical twins varied just as much as the I.Q.s of fraternal twins. In other words, the impact of growing up poor can overwhelm a child's natural intellectual gifts.

Genetic Basis for Everyday Diseases

Working with data and biological samples in the TwinsUK Registry, Spector and his colleagues have shown in more than 600 published papers that many common diseases such as osteoarthritis, cataracts and even back pain have a clear genetic basis to them. "When I started in this field, it was thought that only 'sexy' diseases [such as cancer] were genetic," Spector says. "Our findings changed that perception."

Heritable Eating Disorders

One of the newer twin registries to come online, the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR) was founded in 2001 to study genetic and environmental influences on a wide range of psychiatric and medical disorders. One of the most surprising findings to come out of the group's research is that many eating disorders such as anorexia have a genetic component to them.

"People thought for the longest time that it was due entirely to culture, the media and social factors,” says MSUTR co-director Kelly Klump. "Because of twins studies, we now know that genes account for the same amount of variability in eating disorders as they do in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We would have never known that without twins studies."

The Genetics of Obesity

A classic twin study conducted by geneticist Claude Bouchard in 1990 looked at the importance of genes for body-fat storage. Bouchard, now at Louisiana State University, housed a dozen lean young male twins in a dormitory and overfed them by 1,000 calories a day for three months. Although every participant was heavier by the end of the experiment, the amount of weight and fat gained varied considerably, from 9 pounds to 29 pounds. Weight gain within pairs of twins was much more similar than weight gain between different twin pairs, and the twins in each pair tended to gain weight in the same places, whether it be in the abdomen, buttocks or thighs.

Untangling the "Gay Gene"

Numerous twin studies have attempted to elucidate the importance of genes in sexual orientation. In 2008, researchers led by Niklas Langström, a psychiatrist at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, drew upon the treasure trove of twin data contained in the Swedish Twin Registry, the largest in the world, to investigate genetic and environmental influences that determine whether or not a person is gay. The scientists found that genetics accounted for only 35 percent of the differences between identical and fraternal gay men and even less—roughly 18 percent—in gay women.

The study, one of the most comprehensive to date, indicates that a complex interplay of genetics and environmental factors work together to shape people’s sexual orientations. But like other twins studies on this controversial subject, Langström’s study was criticized for possible recruitment bias, since only 12 percent of the males in the Swedish registry were included in the study.

Twins Reared Apart

In 1979, Thomas Bouchard conducted what is perhaps the most fascinating twin study yet. Then director of the Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research, Bouchard looked at identical and fraternal twins separated in infancy and reared apart. He found that identical twins who had different upbringings often had remarkably similar personalities, interests and attitudes. In one of the most famous examples, Bouchard came across twins who had been separated from birth and reunited at the age of 39.

"The twins," Bouchard later wrote, "were found to have married women named Linda, divorced, and married the second time to women named Betty. One named his son James Allan, the other named his son James Alan, and both named their pet dogs Toy."

But MSUTR's Klump is quick to point out that Bouchard's findings are not proof of genetic determinism. "What they show is that we we enter the world not as random beings or blank slates,” Klump says. “As we walk through life, we have a lot of free choice, but some portion of that free choice is probably based on things that we're really good at and things that we like to do. Bouchard's study tells us that there is a dynamic interplay between what we like, what we want and the environments that we choose."

Excavation of Samarra (Iraq): Architectural Studies 5

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive. - Series title in Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive reads, "Records of Samarra Expeditions." - Since these are primary sources, handwritten captions in the sketchbook are specified in three stages: (1) an English designation following Thomas Leisten and Alastair Northedge's terminology; (2) the transcribed original caption in German which is provided under parenthesis; and (3) additonal information from Herzfeld's publication, "Der Wandschmuck der Bauten von Samarra und Seine Ornamentik. Verlag Dietrich Reimer, Ernst Vohsen, Berlin, 1923." and Thomas Leisten's publication, "Excavation of Samarra, v. I. Architecture : Final report of the first campaign 1910-1912. Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz am Rhein, 2003" which is provided under bracket. Notes related primarly to the two campaigns of excavation at Sāmarrā' (Iraq), carried out by Ernst Herzfeld on behalf of the Kaiser Friedrich Museum in Berlin between the years 1911 and 1913. Funded by Finding aid, based on Joseph M. Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive, 1974, is available in the Archives Department and on Internet http://www.asia.si.edu/archives/finding_aids/herzfeld.html#series7 - The fourteenth of a series of eighteen sketchbooks (Skizzenbücher), in which Ernst Herzfeld recorded his observations on topography, landscape, archaeological remains, architecture, artifacts and decorative motifs, related to the congregational mosques in Samarra, Mutawakkiliyya, and Balkuwārā; the Qubbat al-Ṣulaibiyya; the palaces of Balkuwārā, Ṣūr Īṣā, and the Qaṣr al-Āshiq; and finally the residential architecture and the baths at Quraina, Wadī al-Muḥḥ, Qāṭūn, Jubairiyya, and west of Ṣūr Īṣā. - Original handwritten caption on cover reads, "Samarra ; plan aufnahmen 5." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 1 and 2reads, "Topographical measurements from the northern gate of the city of Samarra to the cantonment of the Khaqan Urtuj." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 3 and 4 reads, "Topographical measurements including Zanqūr and Ashnās." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 5 and 6 reads, "Topographical measurements including Qantarat al-Rasās." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 7 and 8 reads, "Copy of inscriptions of the facades and the inside walls of the so-called Mausoleum Imām al-Dūr; --; --." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 9 and 10 reads, "[Shrine of Imam al-Hadi]; Topographical measurements of unidentified location." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 10a and 10b reads, "[Possibly section of the inside walls of the so-called Mausoleum Imām al-Dūr]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 11 and 12 reads, "Topographical measurements of area north of the modern city; [Dār al-Khilāfa] (Bayt al-Khalīfah), ornaments collected by Gertrude Bell." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 13 and 14 reads, "Topographical measurements of unidentified location; [Tall al-Alīq]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 15 and 16 reads, "[House XVI]; [House XVI]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 17 and 18 reads, "[Qubbat al-Ṣulaibiyya, the three burials]; Qaṣr al-Āshiq, [T-shaped Hall, Throne Hall]; Qaṣr al-Āshiq, [T-shaped Hall, Throne Hall]; Qaṣr al-Āshiq, [T-shaped Hall, Throne Hall]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 19 and 20 reads, "Itinerary to Tell al-Aswad (Ausflug nach Tell al Aswad)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 21 and 22 reads, "[House XVI] (Bartus Temple); House VII, room 6 (formerly Haus V, zimmer 6); House II, great courtyard (formerly Haus I, gr. hof). " - Original handwritten notes for pg. 23 and 24 reads, "House III, room 2 (formerly Haus II, zimmer 2); House XII, room 9 (formerly Haus V, zimmer 9); House XII, room 21 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 21 [or] 24); House XII, room 13 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 13 [or] 15); House III, T-shaped Hall, room 23 (formerly Haus II, T-saal, 23)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 25 and 26 reads, "House III, room 23 (Haus III, zimmer 23); House III, room 23 (formerly Haus II, zimmer 23); House XII, room 13 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 13 [or] 15); House XII, courtyard [21] (formerly Haus IX, hof 17 [or] 18)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 27 and 28 reads, "House XI, T-shaped Hall (formerly Haus VII oder VIII, T-saal); House XII, room 8 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 8); House XI (formerly Haus VII); House XIII, room 5 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 5 [or] 28)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 29 and 30 reads, "[House XIV]; House XI, room 1 (formerly Haus VIIb, zimmer i); House XIII, room 7 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 7 [or] 29); House XIII, room 7 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 7 [or] 29)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 31 and 32 reads, "House XIII, room 6 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 6 [or] 27); House XII, room 27 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 27 [or] 40); House XII, room 4 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 4); House near Parthian cemetery; House XII, room 15 (formerly Haus IX, zimmer 15 [or] 16)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 33 and 34 reads, "House II, great courtyard (formerly Haus I, gr. hof); House III, room 28 (formerly Haus II, zimmer 28); House VII, room 6 (formerly Haus V, zimmer 6); House XVII, Jubairiyya (Haus XVII, Djubairiyyah)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 35 and 36 reads, "House XV, T-shaped Hall (formerly Haus X, T-saal); [House XVa]; House XVI (formerly Haus XI, Bartus Temple); [House XII, T-shaped Hall, room 4]." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 37 and 38 reads, "House XVII, Jubairiyya (Haus XVII, Djubairiyyah); House XVII, Jubairiyya (Haus XVII, Djubairiyyah)." - Original handwritten notes for pg. 39 reads, "[House II, ornament 138]."

World War II [painting] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Negative marked: 171 World War #2.

Bernard Karfiol, New York: American Artists Group, 1945.

Black-and-white study print (8x10).

Orig. negative: 8x10, Safety, BW.

Iraq and China: Ceramics, Trade, and Innovation

SI Center for Learning and Digital Access
Online exhibit about the influence of Chinese ceramics on Iraqi ceramics and the spread of techniques and aesthetics to the world through trade with Iraq. Includes downloadable brochure from exhibition.

Encyclopedia Smithsonian

SI Center for Learning and Digital Access
Links to Smithsonian fact sheets, images, websites and bibliographies organized alphabetically by topic. Includes topics in American and world history, the sciences, arts, and culture.

Nile Notes of a Howadji: American Travelers in Egypt

SI Center for Learning and Digital Access
Online exhibition that brings together selected travel accounts by Americans who visited Egypt in the nineteenth century. Many of the volumes, or their authors, have special associations with the Smithsonian. Additionally, a sampling of guidebooks and handbooks to Egyptian antiquities are presented. Includes traveler accounts, timeline of explorations, and guidebook samples.
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