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Found 340 Resources

Exhibition Poster: Fred Sandback, Dwan Gallery, New York

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Art exhibition poster with recto, printed in gray and black lines, showing a geometric, isometic drawing of four walls (outlined in gray lines) that avoid closure; black line diagonal spans the space from floor to ceiling levels. This poster diagrams the artist's installation.

Plan for Rue Grueze 38, Cross Section, Coupe AB

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
A diagram of a cross section of the building on Rue Grueze. The Cross section shows the 7 and a half story building as well as the staircase leading to each floor and the basement. Function of rooms and scale labelled throughout design.

The Middle Passage - African Holocaust, "Maafa" (terrible thing in Swahili)

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Modeled after diagram of a slave trade ship seen from above, showing the lower deck densely packed with a cargo of slaves; five cowrie shells hang from the lower edge.

Plate II of "Travail et emploi du coton" from Diderot's Encyclopedia, Vol. I

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Six diagrams or illustrations of manner of combing and winding cottom. Hands shown, left.

Plate XV from Theatrum instrumentorum et machinarum

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Showing a man by a river bank, working in his field. He faces left, pulling a funnel wheelbarrow which is dropping fertilizer over the ground. Above is a diagram of the barrow's structure. Description in Latin on verso of 1949-152-212.

Plate 7, Chart from Theatrum instrumentorum et machinarum

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Diagram of directions, equating east, left, north, above. A rule of 24 unites center, in a horizontal rectangle.

Study of a Wing

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Wing shown with diagram labels of wing structure.

Wooded island

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Verso: Diagram of cabin

Man Serving Wine from a Vessel, from Theatrum instrumentorum et machinarum

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
A large barrel, ornamented, with clawed feet, on a table, left. A man pours something from its spout into a dish. Diagram, above, of three compartments with separate pipes. Description in Latin on verso of 1949-152-216.

L'Automobile

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Book on the construction of the automobile, with explanation and diagrams.

The Human Eye—A Living Camera

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Design featuring a multicolored scientific depiction of an eyeball with a diagram demonstrating how the mechanisms of the eye imitate a camera in the upper portion of the composition. A blue eye, with a brown eyebrow, appears in the center of the composition. Two additional illustrated diagrams appear at bottom: one showing how inverted images on the retinas of eyes are brought together to form an upright object and another showing the muscles of the eye that allow the eyes to turn in any direction or converge. The design contains a solid yellow background and explanatory text alongside the illustrations. Printed in black ink, upper left: The human eye—a living camera.

Warka Water Tower

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

The Menstrual Cycle

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Printed quarter-fold brochure with a diagram of the overall menstrual cycle on the front cover in pink, red, yellow, white, and black against a black background. White numbers representing days of the month are arranged in a circle, and different types of moons appear in white in the four corners. Printed in white, along the bottom: THE MENSTRUAL CYLCE. Diagrams specific to each stage of the cycle, showing the ovary and the uterus, appear on the interior. Interior folds out to a large, white page with information about correcting menstrual disturbances with Progynon-B, Progynon-DH, and Proluton, printed in black and red text. Verso: Printed text in black and red about the products.

No. 527 Madison Avenue

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Text, photographic illustration, maps and diagrams comprise the forty-odd, unpaginated brochure, designed to attract prospective tenants. The cardboard, spiral-bound covers simulate a gray linen weave texture and green leather binding; No. 527 is imprinted in italicized type within a metallic gold oval, centered on the front cover. A translucent jacket overlays the cover. Major themes of the English language principal text, accompanied either by stylized designs in a range of colors within narrow rectangular bands across the top or square shapes mid-page, appear on the right-hand pages. Highlights from the text are translated into six languages on the left-hand pages. Following this sequence of pages is a five-section foldout featuring neighboring buildings, cultural attractions and restaurants, imprinted in tones of black and pale green on translucent paper. Sample floor plans, text describing technical details, a section of several blank pages, headed notes, and a final page headed Louis Dreyfus/ Property/ Group complete the design.

Cathode-Ray Tube, Page 57 from Fortune

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Page 57 from Fortune magazine featuring a black and white photomontage diagram by Herbert Bayer. Shows the process of a TV program from studio to living room. Continuation of page 56 (2016-54-363). A cloud-covered sky covers the upper portion of the design. Verso: Printed black text and black and white photographic images along the top of people associated with television.

It is a Hooking-Up of Molecules, Page 93 from Fortune

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Page 93 from Fortune magazine featuring a diagram by Herbert Bayer at top in black, blue, orange, and red. Contains molecular models, containers, and a coal tar plant in the distance. See page 92 (2016-54-359) for corresponding design. Printed black text below, including the section header, "It is a Hooking Up of Molecules." Verso: Article, "Rubber: How Do We Stand?" in black printed text.

The Daring Escape From the Eastern State Penitentiary

Smithsonian Magazine

“How 12 convicts escaped by tunnel from Eastern Penitentiary,” Diagram of the Tunnel published in the Philadelphia Inquirer, April 3, 1945 (image: Philadelphia Inquirer via Easter State Penitentiary)

Eastern State Penitentiary opened its gates in 1829. It was devised by The Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons, an organization of powerful Philadelphia residents that counted Benjamin Franklin among its members and whose ambition was to “build a true penitentiary, a prison designed to create genuine regret and penitence in the criminal’s heart.” With its hub-and-spoke design of long blocks containing individual prison cells, ESP could be considered the first modern prison. There are many, many stories told about the prisoners that have been incarcerated here over its nearly 150 years of operation–some inspiring, some horrible, some about Al Capone–but none of them have captivated the public more than the 1945 “Willie Sutton” tunnel escape.

Photo of Willie Sutton’s in 1934; a photo taken mere minutes after his escape in 1945; Sutton’s post-escape mug shot; the wanted poster issued after Sutton’s escape from Holmesburg. At the time he was one of the FBI’s ten most wanted fugitives (image: Eastern State Penitentiary)

The most famous escape in the history of Eastern State Penitentiary was the work of 12 men – they were like the Dirty Dozen, but less well adjusted. The most infamous among them was Willie Sutton aka “Slick Willie” aka Willie “The Actor” aka “The Gentleman Bandit” aka “The Babe Ruth of bank robbers,” who was sentenced to Eastern State Penitentiary in 1934 for the brazen machine gun robbery of the Corn Exchange Bank in Philadelphia. Those nicknames alone tell you everything you need to know about Willie Sutton. He was, by all accounts (especially his own), exactly what you want a old-timey bank robber to be: charming, devious, a master of disguise, and of course, an accomplished escape artist, who in 11 years at ESP, made at least five escape attempts. Sutton’s outspoken nature and braggadocio landed him a few stories in Life magazine and even a book deal. In his 1953 autobiography Where the Money Was, Sutton takes full credit as the mastermind behind the tunnel operation.

Clarence Klinedinst in the center (image: Temple University Archives via Eastern State Penitentiary)

Though the personable Sutton may have been critical in managing the mercurial tempers of his fellow escapees, the truth is that the escape was planned and largely executed by Clarence “Kliney” Klinedinst, a plasterer, stone mason, burglar, and forger who looked a little like a young Frank Sinatra and had a reputation as a first-rate prison scavenger. “If you gave Kliney two weeks, he could get you Ava Gardner,” said Sutton. And If you give Kliney a year, he could get you out of prison.

The entry to the escape tunnel, excavated by a team of archaeologists and researches in 2005.

Working in two-man teams of 30 minute shifts, the tunnel crew, using spoons and flattened cans as shovels and picks, slowly dug a 31-inch opening through the wall of cell 68, then dug twelve feet straight down into the ground, and another 100 feet out beyond the walls of the prison. They removed dirt by concealing it in their pockets and scattering it in the yard a la The Great Escape. Also like The Great Escape, the ESP tunnel was shored up with scaffolding, illuminated, and even ventilated. At about the halfway point, it linked up with the prison’s brick sewer system and the crew created an operable connection between the two pipelines to deposit their waste while ensuring that noxious fumes were kept out of the tunnel. It was an impressive work of subversive, subterranean engineering, the likes of which can only emerge from desperation. As a testament to either clever design or the ineptitude of the guards, the tunnel escaped inspection several times thanks to a false panel Kliney treated to match the plaster walls of the cell and concealed by a metal waste basket.

After months of painfully slow labor, the tunnel was ready. On the morning (yes, the morning) of April 3, 1945, the dirtier dozen made their escape, sneaking off to cell 68 on their way to breakfast.

Two of the escapees, including Sutton (at left), are returned to Eastern after mere minutes of freedom. (image: Eastern State Penitentiary)

Like most designers, Kliney and co. found that the work far outweighed the reward. After all that designing, carving, digging, and building, Kliney made it a whole three hours before getting caught. But that was better than Sutton, who was free for only about three minutes. By the end of the day, half the escapees were returned to prison while the rest were caught within a couple months. Sutton recalls the escape attempt in Where the Money Was:

“One by one the men lowered themselves to the tunnel, and on hands and knees crept the hundred and twenty feet to its end. The remaining two feet of earth were scraped away and men rumbled from the hole to scurry in all directions. I leaped from the hole, began to run, and came face to face with two policemen. They stood for a moment, paralyzed with amazement. I was soaking wet and my face was covered with mud.

“Put up your hands or I’ll shoot.” One of them recovered more quickly than the other.

“Go ahead, shoot,” I snarled at them, and at that moment I honestly hoped he would. Then I wheeled and began to run. He emptied his gun at me, but I wasn’t hit….None of the bullets hit me, but they did make me swerve, and in swerving I tripped, fell, and they had me.”

The first few escapees to be captured, Sutton among them, were put in the Klondikes – illegal, completely dark, solitary confinement cells secretly built by guards in the mechanical space below one of the cell blocks. These spaces are miserable, tiny holes that aren’t big enough to stand up or wide enough to lie down. Sutton was eventually transferred to the “escape proof” Holmesburg Prison, from which he promptly escaped and managed to avoid the law for six years. Police eventually caught up with him in Brooklyn after a witness saw him on the subway and recognized his mug from the wanted poster.

The map of the 1945 tunnel made by guard Cecil Ingling. In his larger-than-life account of the escape, Sutton claimed the tunnel went 30-feet down. “I knew that the prison wall itself extended 25 feet beneath the surface of the ground and that it was fourteen feet thick at the base.” Clearly, that wasn’t the case. (image: Eastern State Penitentiary)

As for the tunnel, after it was analyzed and mapped, guards filled it with ash and covered it with cement. Though it may have been erased from the prison, its legend likely inspired inmates until Eastern State Penitentiary was closed in 1971. And despite the failure of the escapees, the tunnel has continued to intrigue the public.

Archaeologists use ground-penetrating radar and an auger to detect the remains of the 1945 tunnel on the occasion of its 60th anniversary. (images: Digging in the City of Brotherly Love)

The location of the tunnel was lost until 2005, when the Eastern State Penitentiary, now a non-profit dedicated to preserving the landmarked prison, completed an archaeological survey to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the escape. To find the tunnel, the prison escape preservationists created a search grid over the prison grounds near the entrance, the location of which was known from old photos. Using ground penetrating radar, the team was able to create vertical sections though the site in increments corresponding to the suspected width of the tunnel. After a couple failed attempts, the archaeologists detected a section of the tunnel that hadn’t collapsed and hadn’t been filled-in by the guards. The following year, a robotic rover was sent through the tunnels, documenting its scaffolding and lighting systems. While no major discoveries were made, curiosity was sated and the public’s imagination was newly ignited  by  stories of the prison and its inmates.

There’s something undeniably romantic about prison escapes – perhaps due to the prevalence of films where the escapee is the hero and/or the pure ingenuity involved in a prison escape. The best escape films –A Man Escaped, La Grande Illusion, Escape from Alcatraz, The Great Escape, to name just a few–show us every step of the elaborate plan as the rag tag team of diggers, scavengers, and ersatz engineers steal, forge, design, and dig their way to freedom. Without fail, the David vs. Goliath narrative has us rooting for the underdog every step of the way, even when the David is a bank robber.

Flags, Page from Fortune

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Printed page from Fortune magazine featuring a diagram by Herbert Bayer at top showing flags from different countries, including Italy (much larger than the others, at lower left), Rumania, Hungary, Poland, Czechoslavakia, Lithuania, Netherlands, and Greece. The size of each flag is proportional to the number of immigrants from those countries to America. Shadows appear to the right of the flags, indicating the number of American born children of immigrants. Printed black text appears below. Verso: Black and white photographic illustration of people seated at Lidice, Illinois dedication ceremony.

Biology of C.S.C., Page 134 from Fortune

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Colorful diagram illustrating the biology of C.S.C. on a black background. Features a variety of abstract, geometric forms in different colors, including green, yellow, grey, blue, red, and purple. Various labels are printed on top of the forms in black capital letters, including butyl acetate, ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, acetone, nitroparaffins, corn oil, and carbon dioxide. Verso: Page 133. An article printed in black text.

Oil Industry Inset for Fortune

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Black and grey printed rectangular-shaped inset for Fortune magazine. Contains information about the oil industry printed in black text on the right, with a list of major oil producers and development companies, with corresponding numbers assigned, and a list of patent-process groups and patent-holding companies, with corresponding letters, at bottom. A diagram with a parabola is on the left side, incorporating the corresponding letters along the top and numbers along the bottom. Includes a grey bordering line along the sides.

Biology of C.S.C., Page 134 from Fortune

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Colorful diagram illustrating the biology of C.S.C. on a black background. Features a variety of abstract, geometric forms in different colors, including green, yellow, grey, blue, red, and purple. Various labels are printed on top of the forms in black capital letters, including butyl acetate, ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, acetone, nitroparaffins, corn oil, and carbon dioxide. Verso: Page 133. An article printed in black text.

Brochure for Visitors Center, Downtown Walking Tour, Columbus, Indiana

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
A folded four-page sheet that opens backwards. Rand's "C" (shaped like a circle) logo in red and green runs haphazardly down the left side of the brochure cover. On right side, a series of text blocks in black with statement of instructions for walking, driving, bus tour; location, hours, and phone number of the Visitors Center. On back, a list of eighteen numbered architectural sites, with black and white thumbnail photographs, architects names, and dates for each building. Inside, a two-page street map in beige and white with diagrams (in plan) in white and black of relevant buildings, identified by number. The suggested tour is indicated in red.

Bela Bartok/George Crumb

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Promotional poster for concert of music concert at Hancock Auditorium at Music Theatre. Imprinted in white, top center: "BARTOK" with "Béla" in black superimposed. Flowing text throughout image stating the musicians and names of composition and other information about concert. Image of U.S. space shuttle in black at center left with various sections numbered from 1 to 40. Image of astronaut falling towards earth depicted as black semi-circle at center bottom. Various parts of astronaut are numbered from 18 to 26. Two arrows pointing to specific parts of semi-circle to illustrate the location of concert halls. Imprinted next to each, "MARCH 21 8:00 pm HANCOCK AUDITORIUM USC/ MARCH 29, 8:00pm MUSIC THEATRE HSU. Diagram in black of ear and inner ear with various parts numbered 56-65.

Move 'n Up One (More)

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Poster/ invitation printed in black for pot-luck dinner and house-warming party. [Printed] hand-lettered text in variety of sizes, styles.

Recto: Across center, text giving title, names. Across right edge, text giving date, new location, and additional information. Lower left quadrant, two simple perspective diagrams of houses, at different angles.

Verso: Center, abstract composition with round elements. Across left edge, text giving address, date, time, and additional information.
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