Found 797 Learning Lab Collections
In recent years, antisemitism is thought to be a relatively new phenomenon. However, its roots are found much deeper in history: back to Roman times. The collection is based chronologically to follow Antisemitism from its source leading through the 21st century A.D. My expectation is that these collections will serve as a means to deepen the understanding of Antisemitism found within the Christian culture.
In the first century B.C.E. Cicero (Lawyer, writer and orator) wrote his Pro L. Flacco in defense of his client L. Valerius Flaccus. In defending his client (the governor of Asia), who was accused of embezzlement as well as corruption, Cicero accuses the Jews as the foundations for the conspiracies against his client. Cicero claims that Jews are the "variance" and go directly against the pietas (family, gods and state) Roman culture embraced. Cicero further back up his claim by stating that Roman gods don't even care for them or else the Jews city of Jerusalem would not have been conquered by the Romans and made tribute. In his work Pro L. Flacco he coined the phrase "barbara superstitio." The insult was meant to directly oppose the meaning of pietas; to oppose Rome itself. It wasn't until a century later, when Rome laid siege to Judea, that his anti-Jewish beliefs would take root.
Nearly a hundred years after Cicero first wrote his poisonous anti-Jewish work did Judea rebel against Rome. Emperor Vespasian's son Titus, constructed an army that brutally attacked the city of Jerusalem. There are several explicit records that denote Titus' relentless starvation of Jews, burning of synagogues (while Jews remained inside), outright slaughter of Jews (approximately 600,000 to 1.1 million Jews), and the remainder were sold into slavery. The sacking of Judea was extremely important to the Romans, because it signified their dominance. In celebration of this monumental event, the Arch of Titus was created to depict the sacking of Judea. In the relief, the menorah that Titus took from the Second Temple is displayed as the focus of the sculpture.
During the time of the rebellion, Tacitus constructed his Historiae (70 C.E.) where he demonized Jews for their sacrilegious views of Roman gods. Tacitus created the four pillars that formed the anti-Semitic beliefs. He stated that Jews were affluent, perverted, "out-breeding," and sacrilegious. The way in which Tacitus illuminated the Jews caused the creation of a "mythology". This anti-Jewish mythology deemed Jews as tempting people from their families, religions, and patriotism (all pietas of Roman culture) as a way of destroying all who were not Jewish.
In addition to the Arch of Titus, commemorative coins were also issued as part of the celebration. The coins depict a Roman soldier hovering over a Jewish woman. The anti-Jewish propaganda (the Arch and the coins, among others) allowed this perpetual violence to become palatable among Romans.
In light of the growing anti-Semitic violence, Titus Flavius Josephus, a Jewish scholar during the 1st century A.D., wrote his work Contra Apionem , where he attempted to combat the anti-Jewish propaganda being spewed by the Romans. Much of Josephus argument was founded on past rebellions by Jews (like that in Egypt) and combating agitated Greek philosophers (regarding the spread of Judaism).
In the following century after the conquest of Rome, Jews revolted to take back Judea. Just as the Romans created commemorative coins, so did the Jews. The rebellion was led by Simon Bar Kokhba. However, the Jews took Roman coins and filled them down before being over-struck with their own rebellious images.
Our journey of Antisemitism during the Medieval period starts with the First Crusade in 1095 through 1099. During the First Crusade Christians attacked the Jew's sacred city, Jerusalem, taking the city as theirs. The First Crusade began to recall (if it ever went away) the Roman pillars against Jews. Until the year 1100 Jews were indistinguishable from Christians in artwork. In the early 1100's Jews were given pointed hats to differentiate them in paintings.
The hatred of Jews began to rise in England with the mutilated dead body of William of Norwich in 1144. The crazy rumors surrounding his mutilation formed the myth known as Blood Libel. The myth of the blood libel was seen as the slaughter of young Christian children, where Jews used their blood for religious rites. Not long after, starting in 1150, Jews were demonized in art as well.
The fear of Jews ran rampant throughout Europe. Christians even began to publicly display their hatred on the churches themselves. In 1240, the construction of Notre Dame included statues of Synogoga and Ecclesia, latin for Synagogue and Church. The two women represented more than just the names, they also represented the Christians view on the Jewish religion. Synogoga is depicted as wearing a helmet that covers her eyes (for her inability to "see" the truth), slouching, holding a broken spear (represent the death of Christ; blaming Jews for Christ's death), and the Torah (which she is barely hanging on to). In contrast, Ecclesia is standing straight with a crown (assuming the Christians are now the ones with the royal blood line), a cross staff, as well as a grail or chalice. The grail or chalice is perhaps in representation of the Holy Grail, the vessel believed to catch the blood of Christ during his Crucifixion.
In 1267 two church councils order Jews to wear the pointed hats (as they did in paintings). Around the same time Jews were beginning to be depicted with abnormally large noses as well as with beards. This change of style is easily noted in the illuminated manuscript produced in 1275, called "Jesus before Caiaphas," Jesus (although a Jew) is not pictured with the Jewish nose as the four other men in the illumination are. Also note the two men in the front with the pointed hats.
Churches continued the theme of degradation of Jews in their facades. However, in 1305 they reached an all time low, the Judensau was born. The Judensau is the depiction of Jews suckling a pig. According to Jewish law, pigs are considered to be unclean (not for consumption) and furthers the insult, comparing Jews to swine and claiming they are dirty and unclean peoples.
As the style of art transitioned into the High Renaissance style, the depictions of Jews became further demonized. A late Renaissance painting by Albrecht Durer called "Christ Among the Doctors" notes this demonetization. The Jews are easily noticeable by their horrid appearance.
The persecution of Jews continued across the continent. In Bildchronik of Diebold Schiling illuminated manuscript page, Jews are wearing the pointy hats as well as yellow identifying badges on their clothing while being burned alive at the stakes. One of the many reasons that this hatred was so easily accessible was the invention of the printing press. In a printing from 1596 we can see the reproduction of Martin Luther's 1543 Judensau article, which he pinned on his church door in Wittenberg, Germany.
Throughout this period Jews were forced to leave their homes due to expulsions from lands like that of the Spanish Inquisition led by King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella. In 1807 Napoleon Bonaparte emancipated the Jews in his Great Sanhedrin. In protecting the Jews, Napoleon received much backlash, including the Russian Orthodox Church claiming Napoleon to be the “Antichrist” as well as an outright “Enemy of God.”
In 1843 Karl Marx published his work “On the Jewish Question.” The book has received mixed criticisms on whether it is truly an antisemitic piece of literature, especially considering he was of Jewish linage. It appears however, that many critics believe that Marx’s perceptions of Jews economic role largely fulfill the antisemitic pillars.
Richard Wagner in his 1850 publication “Das Judenthum in der Musik,” which translates to “Jewishness in Music” in German, attacks both Jews and Jewish composers (particularly Giacomo Meyerbeer and Felix Mendelssohn). He wrote his work under a pseudonym in order to prevent personal Jewish inquiry.
In an issue of “Sound Money” published in 1896, a antisemitic political cartoon shows Uncle Sam being crucified akin to Jesus. There are two men on the outside stabbing Uncle Same, they are supposed to be members of Wall St. The cartoonist gives them the large Jewish noses as well as labeling them as pirates. Indicating that Jews have control of the US’s money and are stealing it. In addition, they are stabbing Uncle Sam with “Single Gold Standard” and wetting Uncle Sam’s lips with poisonous “Debt” on the sponge of “Interest on Bonds.” The two men on the inside flanking Uncle Same represent James G. Blaine as the “Republicanism” and Grover Cleveland as “Democracy” in which they are seen pick pocketing Uncle Sam.
Throughout Europe pogroms were taking place. Pogroms were violent acts against Jews that often ended in massacre or persecution. One such Pogrom was that in Kiev, Ukraine in 1919. During the pogrom many Jews were raped, murdered or affected by looting. The picture is of four Jewish victims at an Alexander Hospital. In total 1,326 pogroms took place in Ukraine; some 30,000-70,000 Jews were murdered.
Meanwhile accusations of the medieval belief of blood libels were still prominent throughout even the early 20th century.
In the 1920s Henry Ford published his article “The Ford International Weekly” were most weeks (91 issues) had some antisemitic statement. Eventually these antisemitic statements grew into its own publication of “The International Jew: The World’s Foremost Problem” published in 1920, comprised of 4 volumes.
As you can see, the world was riddled with antisemitism by the time of the 1920s, including the United States. Although Hitler is thought of as the reason behind the Holocaust, he clearly wasn’t lacking in supporters. It was merely a matter of how far these people were (who shared his antisemitic beliefs) willing to go. In 1925 Hitler wrote his “Mein Kampf” meaning “My Struggles” in German. In this work he outlined his antisemitic beliefs as well as his intentions.
Ten years after Hitler’s publication of “Mein Kampf,” Nazi Germany passed the antisemitic laws known as the “Nuremburg Laws” in 1935. The laws largely dealt with protecting both German blood as well as honour. People were classified by their blood status, depending on your Jewish percentage of blood was the way in which you were approved to obtain Reich citizenship or not. If you were considered to be racially defiled (certain percentage of Jewish blood) you were first sent to prison and later sent to concentration camps.
Directly proceeding Kristallnacht or the Night of Broken Glass on November 9-10, 1938, started the six-year long genocide known as the Holocaust, 1938-1945. I have included several pictures that evoke strong emotions of Jews inside the concentration camps. I have tried however to abstain from using the more graphic and dead riddled photos. I felt that one picture was not merely enough to demonstrate the torture and the injustice Jews received during this time. I wish I could say that after 6 million Jews died that History could finally end its antisemitic beliefs and achieve peace. However, that is not the case.
Hatred still ruins in the veins of many people during the later half of the 20th and 21st centuries. Just over 10 years after the Holocaust officially ended, in 1958 an Atlanta, Georgia temple, Hebrew Benevolent Congregation Temple, was bombed. Luckily no one was injured, however the building received extensive damage.
Rumors surrounding the Holocaust’s legitimacy surfaced. In 1969 professor of History David Hoggan published “The Myth of the Six Million.” In his book, he denied that the Holocaust ever happened!
In Miami, Florida in 1988 yet another synagogue (Bet Shira Congregation) was attacked, this time however it was defiled with misdrawn swastikas. The defamation was completed by a group of local teenagers.
One year ago, in March 2018 in Paris, France, an elderly lady Mireille Knoll was murdered “…because she was Jewish.” She was not only stabbed but also burned. It is believed that as a child (9 years old) she was able to escape capture and deportation to Auschwitz.
Later last year in October, a temple, Tree of Life, in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania was attacked by an antisemitic gunman killing 11 people and injuring 7 more, 4 of which were police officers.
By no means have I been able to provide a thorough account of all the hatred Jews receive and continue to receive daily. This project serves as a cultural understanding and in hopes that one day, the world will be able to eradicate its hatred.
#AHMC2019 #antisemitism #medieval #EcclesiaSynogoga #Judensau #JesusBeforeCaiaphas #ChristAmongDoctors #BildchronikofDieboldSchiling #PrintingpressJudensau #AntisemitismRomans #Cicero #ArchofTitus #BustofJosephus #RomanCommerorativeCoins #Tacitus #Barkokhbacoins #Holocaust #MeinKampf #HenryFord #KeivPogrom #Napoleon #Nuremburglaws
The Antelope Valley Indian Museum has been a public museum since 1932, but it has also been a homestead, a theater, a dude ranch, a Hollywood set, and an attraction. It is situated on 147 acres of desert parkland on the south side of Piute Butte in the Mojave Desert against a dramatic backdrop of Joshua trees and towering rock formations. The building’s unique architecture and creative engineering earned it a spot on the National Register of Historic Places, and the Native American Heritage Commission designated Piute Butte as a sacred landscape.
The museum exhibits over 3,000 objects, including many rare and outstanding objects from the Antelope Valley, California coast, Great Basin, and the Southwest. An important four way trade route developed in the Antelope Valley at least 4,000 years ago. The trade routes went west and south to the California coast, north to the Central Valley, northeast to the Great Basin (the desert east of the Sierra Nevada Mountains), and east to the pueblos in what is now Arizona, New Mexico, and Mexico. The trade route expanded and enriched the material and social resources available to Antelope Valley residents, allowing large villages to develop near the valley’s springs.
History of H. Arden Edwards
Howard Arden Edwards, a self-taught artist, was fascinated with the scenery around the buttes in the Antelope Valley. He homesteaded 160 acres on rocky Piute Butte and in 1928. With his wife and teenage son, he began construction of what was to be a combination home and showcase for his extensive collection of American Indian culture. A unique structure evolved: a Tudor Revival style building, decorated inside and out with American Indian designs and motifs, incorporating large granite boulders as an integral part of the building both inside and out. You actually climb upon these rocks as you go from picturesque Kachina Hall upstairs to California Hall. This unusual upper level housed Mr. Edwards' original "Antelope Valley Indian Research Museum."
History of Grace Oliver
Grace Wilcox Oliver, a onetime student of anthropology, discovered Edwards' property while hiking in the desert. She felt it would be a perfect setting for a personal hideaway. She contacted the owner with an offer to buy the property. Successful in these negotiations, she modified some features of the main building, added her own collections, and expanded the physical facilities on the property. By this time she had decided to open the entire structure as The Antelope Valley Indian Museum. Grace operated the museum intermittently through the 1940s, 1950s, 1960s and 1970s.
Becoming a State Park
Local support for the acquisition of the property by the State of California led Oliver to sell the land and donate the collection to State Parks in 1979. The museum has been designated as a Regional Indian Museum, emphasizing American Indian cultures of the Great Basin.
This project is meant to capture the highest and the lowest points of the 20s and 30s. It's meant to show how the time really was and how life worked back then. It's meant to illustrate a vibrant image of the two decades.
Inside this Ancient religious architectures VS. Modern religious architecture collection, I will be showing various religious architectures/buildings from the ancient times vs the modern religious building that we have right now. The purpose of creating this collection is because I want to distinguish the difference between the religious architecture around the world and compare it to what the architectures look like back in the old time, since both are religious building, it both are dedicated to a specific goddess, but their outside look looks totally different. The history of architecture is concerned with religious buildings other than any other type. People use the buildings such as temples, churches, mosques, etc. as a place to worship and sometimes shelter. Those religious architectures are also known as the Sacred architectures, many cultures and countries devoted their resources to their sacred buildings to show their respect for their goddess and to worship them. We don’t just see them in ancient history. Today, there is still building being built in the modern world purely for religious reasons, such as churches and temples. In this collection, I will be showing a mix of modern religious buildings and ancient buildings, I will be comparing the two different centuries architectures through pictures.
By the end of the lesson, students (ages 14-18), will be able to determine a central idea about identity by analyzing multiple texts. Students will apply their understanding of artwork (George Catlin's "Wi-jún-jon, Pigeon's Egg Head (The Light) Going To and Returning From Washington") to one or more poems that share conflicting themes of identity. Students are assessed on their ability to create claims, support claims with evidence, synthesize information from multiple sources, and develop a central idea about identity.
This activity will be completed at the end of The Crucible before watching the documentary Central Park Five about a modern day witch hunt. By completing the puzzle activity with an image from the Salem Witch Trials, the McCarthy Hearings, and the Central Park Five Court Case, students will find the common characters and motivations for which to focus in on the film. Their culminating task will be to jump into the portrait and write a letter home to their parents, sibling, or best friend. They will then be tasked with doing the same task each of the three days of the documentary.
Transcendentalism is a philosophy that is rooted in the belief that man is inherently good but has been corrupted by society. Self reliance, self improvement, and peaceful protest were some methods practiced to reverse this effect.
Linked in this collection are examples of the movement's influence in society, writings, and art.
Every year near Thanksgiving, images of our Pilgrims father begin to proliferate showing them as very austere and wearing only black clothing. This learning lab introduces images of Pilgrims that are compared with written primary sources. It was customary in the 17th century to inventory all the belongings of the deceased before they were distributed to the heirs. These inventories and the wills themselves provide detailed information about the attire of everyday Pilgrims of this period.
This is a topical collection concerning Civil Rights activism led by the American Indian Movement (AIM) and the Black Panther Party. It includes photographs, videos, and documentation from both movements. The imagery in this collection addresses the shared legacy of American Indian and Black resistance efforts in the 20th century. It also shows the continued impact of these efforts and their modern reflections, like ongoing Indigenous led efforts against the Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL) and Black Lives Matter.
This collection includes remarkable figures in both AIM and the BPP, like Russell Means (Oglala Lakota) and Angela Davis. The daily lives of those whom AIM and BPP stood up for is also addressed.
This collected was created and organized by Kenlontae' Turner, a visual artist and gallery coordinator, during his time as an intern at NMAI. Some additional context and editing was provided by Maria Ferraguto to support his work during her time time as an intern at NMAI.
Introduction to American Author Research Paper. #sj2019lp
This lesson makes an important connection to novel The Westing Game which uses clues from the lyrics of "America the Beautiful."
As students read, they will discover that certain clues from the novel make up the lyrics from "America the Beautiful." Students can analyze the lyrics by looking at locations that served as source of inspiration for the original poem by Katherine Lee Bates. They can fill out the attached worksheet as they "travel" through Bates's journey across the country which served as her inspiration.
Student can then do a Think / Puzzle / Explore with "Electronic Superhighway" by Nam Jun Paik. They can discuss what served as inspiration for this artist's depiction of the United States. They can make connections between Paik and Bates. What did their creations say about the country? What is similar or different about their work or interpretations?
The artwork can then serve as a catalyst for student creative writing. Students will write their own short stories as if the artwork is a time/travel warp to the depictions of whatever state(s) they choose to visit.
Overall, students will examine the vast beauty of the United States through a variety of information.
To be used to delve into setting for S.E. Hinton's "The Outsiders."
Allensworth, CA. founded in 1908, represents the only all black township in California; founded, built, governed and populated by African Americans. Located in the great central valley (southern San Joaquin), it was founded to be a agricultural community and center of learning. Where, African Americans only 50 years out of slavery could become economically free. Due to lack of a dependable water supply, the untimely death of the Colonel and other factors the town's future was bleak. By 1918 the town began its demise struggling to survive. The historic portions of the town became a state historic park in the 1970's. It is formally listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is a California Historic Landmark. Here is a link to the park site, where you will find contact information for park ranger Steve Ptomey who developed this collection and manages the Allensworth State Historic Park.
Allensworth, CA. founded in 1908, represents the only all black township in California; founded, built, governed and populated by African Americans. Located in the great central valley (southern San Joaquin), it was founded to be a agricultural community and center of learning. Where, African Americans only 50 years out of slavery could become economically free. Due to lack of a dependable water supply, the untimely death of the Colonel and other factors the town's future was bleak. By 1918 the town began its demise struggling to survive. The historic portions of the town became a state historic park in the 1970's. It is formally listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is a California Historic Landmark.
I created this collection for families to do together while schools are closed. I will be making a collection a day while we are out of school. Today we will be exploring Jazz. The idea is for families to look at the items in the collection and consider what they see in the objects and paintings, what they think, and what they wonder. Families can also watch a free Brainpop video about jazz, read articles about Jazz, and listen to the read aloud Rent Party Jazz. At the end of the collection I have provided a few ideas for families about what to do next.
If you want to learn more about more about See Think Wonder you can click here to see a video of a teacher using the routine in her classroom.
SCLDA's All Access Digital Arts Program (2012-2016) provided skill-building opportunities in digital arts and communications, creative expression, and social inclusion to a spectrum of teen learners in the Washington, DC metro area. Participating youth visited Smithsonian science, history, and art museums, created digital and physical artworks based upon a tailored curriculum, engaged in social interactions online and in-person, gained digital literacy skills, and developed friendships with other teens. Through once-per-month club outreach activities and summer intensive camps and workshops, students were exposed to communication, collaborative learning, research, and problem solving. The program served up to 20 youth per session, ages 14 through 22 with cognitive and intellectual disabilities. The youth experienced skill building, leadership opportunities, and social integration through Smithsonian resources, socialization opportunities, and computer skills. Youth participated in 1.) One- and two-week multi-media digital arts workshops whose outcome was student-produced artworks, songs, and movies that were shared with family and friends at openings and online via a social network; and 2.) Club activities--to build upon skills developed during the summer, and maintain social connections.
All Access Club activities were offered to alumni of the summer workshops, and were held once monthly on Saturdays during the year to build upon skills developed during the workshop, and maintain social connections. During the club, teens practiced social skills through guided activities and Smithsonian museum visits, and produced original digital and hands-on art projects at the Hirshhorn ARTLAB+. Educators led the group in a series of planned educational activities related to the day’s theme—such as “the universe” or “oceans”. Volunteers assisted club members to use social media, tablets, cameras and laptops to facilitate the digital experience. The activities and resources promoted digital literacy skills, and can motivate families to visit museums to learn, and for teens to build self-esteem. An evaluation session on the final day allowed teens to express their thoughts to the club organizers.
Special thanks to colleague Joshua P. Taylor, Researcher, Virginia Commonwealth University
Keywords: access, disability, accessibility, neurodiversity, special education, SPED, out of school learning, informal learning, cognitive, social skills, engagement, passion, creativity, empowerment, self-determination
All Access Digital Arts Camp (plans and activities for teens with cognitive and intellectual disabilities)
SCLDA's All Access Digital Arts Program (2012-2016) provided skill-building opportunities in digital arts and communications, creative expression, and social inclusion to a spectrum of teen learners in the Washington, DC metro area. Participating youth visited Smithsonian science, history, and art museums, created digital and physical artworks based upon a tailored curriculum, engaged in social interactions online and in-person, gained digital literacy skills, and developed friendships with other teens.
Through once-per-month club outreach activities and summer intensive camps and workshops, students were exposed to communication, collaborative learning, research, and problem solving. The program served up to 20 youth per session, ages 14 through 22 with cognitive and intellectual disabilities. The youth experienced skill-building, leadership opportunities, and social integration through Smithsonian resources, socialization opportunities, and computer skills. Youth participated in 1.) One- and two-week multi-media digital arts workshops whose outcome was student-produced artworks, songs, and movies that were shared with family and friends at openings and online via a social network; and 2.) club activities--to build upon skills developed during the summer, and maintain social connections.
At the Access Summer Camp workshops, teens learn to tell their own stories through digital arts and media. They focused on a specific story to tell based upon their interests. Content for their artistic self-expressions took the form of printed digital portraits and “sonic self-portrait” digital music compositions, as well as documentary iMovies. Teens toured Smithsonian museums, visited exhibitions and interviewed curators and educators, as well as conducted internet research. Teens ate lunch together and socialized during game breaks. Volunteers worked with teens to provide individual supports and facilitate the experience. Smithsonian educators and neurotypical teen youth mentors guided Access teens to edit their content using photo, sound, and movie editing software. The movies, portraits, and songs premiered at the Hirshhorn Museum’s ARTLAB+ for family and friends, with teens themselves providing introductory remarks for their artworks. Each teen received a certificate of completion, a digital copy of their artwork, and a framed self-portrait. An evaluation session on the final day of the workshops allowed teens to express their thoughts to the workshop organizers.
The following collection acts as a supplemental resource for the Power of the People: Intersectionality of the American Indian Movement and the Black Panther Party 12th grade lesson plan.
By using Chimamanda Adichie's "The Dangers of a Single Story" as a lens, students will begin to analyze how urban artists draw awareness to single stories and challenge them through their artwork.
Topics and Hashtags
Urban Art, Stereotypes, Art, Social Action, Social Justice, Cities, City, Down These Mean Streets, Maristany #SAAMteach