This collection gathers depictions of Santa Claus from ads, paintings, photographs, stamps from 1837 to today. Also, includes analyses of his evolving image from the Smithsonian Magazine and the National Museum of American History blog. How does the description of Santa in the Christmas poem, "A Visit from St. Nicholas" compare with the images that follow? Includes a discussion question extension: How might you revamp Christmas stories to better reflect the time and country that you live in?
Keywords: Saint Nicholas, holidays, poetry
This lesson is inspired by Out of Eden Learn, the journey of Paul Salopek, and the idea that each person is an amalgamation of the people and events that came before them. These people and events include the nature of their birth, the lives of their parents, the experiences of their grandparents, the creation of the printing press, etc. The idea behind this lesson is, in its inception, to expose students to milestones in black history, and to use that rich history to challenge them to look into their past to see how they connect to larger events that came before them last week or even a century or millennia ago.
This lesson is especially crafted for Black History Month (though of course it can be used at other times) to have students from multiple ethnic backgrounds try to find a connection to the African American Experience in the United States. It removes students from an ethnic vacuum and asks them to see how the journey of others not like them has an impact on their, their family's and their country's history.
To begin your use of this collection please read the lesson plan at the beginning labeled Lesson Plan: Paths To Perspective. It is the full lesson for using this Learning Lab collection. You may use it in full or alter as you see fit for the needs of your class. It is by no means exhaustive, especially in terms of Project Zero ideas that can be used with the collection, but it is a good starting point for how to use this material in class.
What should a photograph look like?
Why might someone want to alter, change, or edit a photograph? What is the goal?
What are the ethical considerations regarding image manipulation?
Time- 1-2 class periods with optional extension activities
This collection includes images related to the topic of image manipulation and artistic photography, and includes a lesson plan for teachers as well as images and students activities related to media literacy across the curriculum. The collection of images and articles is designed to facilitate conversations around how and why images might be manipulated and for what purpose. Discussion questions and thinking routines allow for students to critically analyze the images as whole group and in small groups to consider why and how a photographer or artist might alter an image. Extension activities and resources are also included.
Warm Up/ Engagement:
What should a photograph look like?
Have students do a think-pair-share together addressing the question. Alternatively, this could be done as a silent chalk talk.
Debrief as a group.
Why might someone want to alter, change, or edit a photograph? What is the goal?
Have you ever altered or changed a photograph? How? Why? (Think Shapchat, Instagram, Photoshop, etc.)
Is it ever a problem to manipulate a photography? Why?
As critical viewers of media and images, students should always consider the audience and purpose of photographs. For example, an artistic photograph doesn’t have the same audience or purpose as a journalistic photograph.
Explain to students:
We’re going to look closely at the work of two photographers (Jerry Uelsmann and Robert Weingarten) to see how photographers might manipulate their images (digitally or otherwise), why they might do this, and the effect it has on the viewer.
Lead students through a discussion of one of Uelsmann’s images by looking closely at one image as a group using the Visible Thinking routine, “See Think Wonder.”
Discuss the photographer’s likely message, audience and purpose of the image. Then have students consider how Uelsmann might have created the image.
Then, read an article about Jerry Uelsmann in Smithsonian Magazine, “Before Photoshop.”
Debrief the article and have students journal on their reactions to Uelsmann’s quote, “The camera is a license to explore.”
Alternatively, students can read and discuss the article,"Photography Changes What We Think 'Reality' Looks Like."
Have students share responses with the group as a closing activity.
Warm-Up: Recap learning/connections from last class.
Explain that in today’s class we’ll consider the work of another artist and photographer, Robert Weingarten. Weingarten’s work is a “non-traditional” form of portraiture. Before looking at his images, have students brainstorm their ideas on what is a portrait. Students could engage in the 3-2-1 Bridge Routine on this topic.
Lead students through a discussion of one of Weingarten’s images by looking closely at one image as a group using the Visible Thinking routine, “Zoom-In.” After looking at the image as a whole, have students consider the image as as whole using the “Connect-Extend-Challenge” routine.
Weingarten’s portraits of Colin Powell and Celia Cruz are linked in the collection.
Discuss the photographer’s likely message, audience and purpose of the image. Then have students consider how Weingarten might have created the image.
After discussing the image, watch the video about Weingarten’s process.
If time allows, group students into small groups to visually compare/contrast the works of Uelsmann and Weingarten on chart paper.
How do these photographs change your understanding of photography and what can be done with images?
I used to think…
Now I think….
Possible Extension Activities:
Have students create a composite image (surreal landscapes or portraits) inspired by Robert Weingarten or Jerry Uelsmann with their own photographs and Photoshop.
Have students explore other historical images that have been manipulated (intentionally or unintentionally) that are included in the collection.
Have students look at the ethical issues in digitally manipulating photographs
Have students consider other ways in which the evolution of technology has influenced the images we create.
Using Agency By Design, a design thinking framework, have students complete the following activities:
Parts-Purposes- Complexities Routine-- Digital Camera
Take-Apart Activity w/ digital cameras/analog camera
Have students research different topics in the history of photography including camera obscura, daguerreotype process, Muybridge and moving images, and Kodak.
Additional reading on Uelsmann:
Plains Native people have always depicted star images on their clothing, tipis, and containers.
Formative Task: In a class discussion list three ways Western cultures think about stars. Use this collection to discover what stars mean to the Lakota and other Native people.
Summative Performance Task: Use the star quilt pattern to create a symbolic quilt that represents your school.
- How may art be a tool of resistance?
- How have historical movements used art to further their causes?
- How might current movements use art to further their causes?
In the Eye of the Beholder: Looking at Women’s Portrayal in Portraiture During the Suffrage Movement
This collection uses portraits from the National Portrait Gallery's exhibition, Votes for Women: A Portrait of Persistence. These resources are intended to facilitate classroom discussion about how women were portrayed through art during the suffragist movement. Participants are encouraged to think about who creates portraits, what motivations may exist in their creation, how the portraits were used within the movement, and their potential impact, intended or not, on the suffragists' cause.
Art provides a pathway for individuals to express their inner self while also capturing the outer—this great wide world so intricate it's difficult to define. Throughout history, humans have sought to comprehend both their environment and their own inherent cultural uniqueness. This search has become symbolized in their artistic accomplishments and aesthetic heritage. Whether through representations of specific individuals and the human figure or awe-inspiring works of architecture, these art pieces are a window into the creative core of our past.
In this collection, we will observe the ways in which the soul/spirit has been expressed in art, and how human creativity sheds light upon both individual and cultural identities and its varied interpretations throughout the ages. This collection is organized in three symbolic steps on a stone staircase entitled "The Stone Path of Eternity." To truly travel through each piece, I have included an image, a brief description of the work under information, and then, signified by the yellow (1) above, I've provided my own analysis and interpretation of the piece in its relationship to the collection theme.
Through lingering through the "Stone Path of Eternity," which is represented by the first two tiles, we will from one stone to the next in seeking the many ways in which the soul's expression can be defined.
In Stone Number One, "The Spirit's Encased Construct," we'll see how architecture and large-scale artistic projects merge to reflect both cultural identity and the individuality of their leaders through works from ancient Babylonia, Egypt, the Byzantine Empire and into the combinations made possible by the aesthetic innovations of modern times.
Shifting step to Stone Number Two, "Human Identity Immortalized in Matter," we delve into the ways in which the human figure is represented and what these images can share with us in terms of the varying levels, purposes, intentions behind the artist's created expressions and impact of depicting the Spirit on Earth. This idea is exemplified in creations ranging from the Paleolithic period to modern times, with examples from Egypt, Ancient Greece, the Italian Renaissance and the 20th century popular culture.
Finally, in Stone Number Three,"Individuals and Spirituality Entwine," we step into the door of the spirit directly, traveling through the many methods which cultures apply in trying to simultaneously convey and understand what realms are in union with and beyond this life. Some cultures who address this idea in their artistic tradition are seen in instances of Egyptian art and work from ancient and Hellenistic Greece, as well as both the Italian Renaissance, Northern European Renaissance, and contemporary Western art.
The intended audience for this collection is just as varied as my subject matter. Those who might be drawn to this collection are people attracted to the enigmas of life and death, who have questioned their place in society and the mysteries this world has to hold, and are curious to know more about how, historically, cultures have related to these probing questions—for, as you will see, they certainly have existed as long as humans have walked the earth. No matter if you're in high school, college, or beyond formal education, I hope you will find my musings on these artworks and their meanings compelling and thought-provoking.
Renowned artist and poet William Blake once wrote, "To see the world in a grain of sand, and to see heaven in a wild flower, hold infinity in the palm of your hands, and eternity in an hour." From the most abstract art to the remarkably realistic, there is always an image of ourselves, in the an esoteric sense, waiting to be found within. With its timeless method, Art seeks to create a definition for this all-encompassing and ever-evading essence and I hope to continue that quest with you as we explore this collection. #AHMC2019
Found Poems and Social Justice: Using Rosa Parks and other sources to create found poems about social justice
This collection includes portraits from the National Portrait Gallery, websites, links to Smithsonian Magazine articles, and other news articles all relating to issues of social justice. #NPGteach
This collection is a curated collection of images that can be used with a lesson plan on curation. Each of the images has some possible connection to a social justice theme and the question asked by the creator of the collection is, "How might we approach conversations about curation and social justice?" Each of these images adds a unique and interesting dimension to a conversation about curation, the people whose stories are selected for view, and how those stories are empowered and/or disempowered by the stories that they are surrounded by. How do we make decisions about these topics? What do we do when we are asked to include in a curated collection pieces that change the story we might want to tell? How do we deal with the multi-faceted stories and sometimes contradictory stories of the people we select for our collections?
It is important to ask these questions and have dialogues with students about how we come to our conclusions, make our decisions, and wrestle with these concepts. In a world of tweets and ever expanding stories/information it is important sometimes to talk about how we work with the realities of physical spaces where there isn't always enough wall real estate to highlight everyone all of the time. In those situations, how decisions are made, who is brought to the forefront (and who is not), and how our own beliefs/biases/views of the world play into those decisions all matter.
How might you curate this collection in many ways? Who is still missing and why does it matter that we ask the questions at all?
While this is intended to be a companion collection to a lesson on curation, the questions above may stand on their own. This collection is intended to be the beginning of a conversation, and not a stand alone collection; however, the lesson is also available in the collection as a downloadable PDF.
This learning lab is rooted in exploring the concept of social justice and activism through biography and curation. This learning lab explores the power of one's narrative being shown through multiple artifacts in order to paint a bigger and more accurate picture of their role in social justice and activism.
This collection includes images of different types of protests from the women's suffrage movement to contemporary issues. #ethnicstudies
Resources to accompany a unit on the YA novel The Wednesday Wars by Gary Schmidt.
In this collection, designed for a Spanish-speaking classroom, students will explore how art reflects culture when analyzing “Night of the Dead,” a lithograph by Alan Crane in the National Museum of American History. The collection includes a teacher's guide in English and suggested authentic resources both in Spanish and English to be adapted by teachers of multiple disciplines.
Students will investigate how the Day of the Dead is celebrated by Latin Americans and compare it to their own celebrations. Next, students will create an interactive presentation using Flipgrid and write a monologue to reflect their learning from the point of view of one of the persons in the artwork.
This collection is one of three that explore “People, Place, and Time: How Art Reflects Culture.” Products, practices and perspectives displayed in Latinx art, show how our place and history (past) influence who we are (present) and who we want to be (future) in geographical, social, economic, and/or historical contexts. In the three collections, Latin American works of art illustrate how culture shapes the way we see the world, others, and ourselves, and they also raise awareness about Latinx diversity.
The three collections were created by Marcela Velikovsky (Bullis School) and Vicky Masson (Christ Episcopal School) as part of the 2018 Smithsonian Virtual Teacher Curricula Creation Opportunity with the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access (SCLDA), and thanks to the Smithsonian Latino Center's Latino Initiative Pool funds. The three collections highlight Latino history, art, and culture, and use Harvard Project Zero Thinking Routines and Global Thinking Routines strategies.
The Smithsonian Learning Lab collections provide an opportunity to invigorate the World Language (Foreign Language) curriculum as it allows to effectively integrate online museum resources (authentic resources) towards a 21st century curriculum. They facilitate student-centered activities within a variety of themes such as, family and communities, personal and public identities, social values and customs, holidays and celebrations, immigration, ethnic groups, Hispanic Heritage, image and stereotypes, inequality and discrimination, global issues, religious practices, etc. They also provide the opportunity to analyze art, read portraiture, and investigate art media.
These collections also consider ACTFL standards (Communication, Connections, Comparisons, Communities and Culture), Asia Society Global Competence skills, the Sustainable Development Goals (Global Goals), Teaching Tolerance Social Justice standards, the Framework for Developing Global and Cultural Competencies to Advance Equity, Excellence and Economic competitiveness, and Participate Global Competencies.
#National Portrait Gallery #Spanish #Global awareness #Empathy #Global connections #Global-mindedness #Curiosity #Cross-cultural skills #Day of the Dead #Worldview #LatinoHAC
This topical collection explores Antonio Martorell's portrait of prolific Latina author Nicholasa Mohr, and is displayed with a range of resources that offer a view, through art, portraiture, and literature, into the lives of Puerto Rican migrants to the continental United States in the early to mid-twentieth century. The images and resources can be used as discussion or writing prompts in a variety of courses, including history, culture, literature, and language.
The portrait itself, one of a series of 45-minute portraits that Martorell made of his artist friends, captures Mohr's spirit, much in the way that Mohr's writing brings to life the people, sounds, and activities of New York's Puerto Rican migrants in the twentieth century. The collection also includes a bilingual video with National Portrait Gallery curator Taína Caragol, as well as the first page and a review of "Nilda," one of Mohr's most well-known novels, about a Puerto Rican girl coming of age in New York during World War II. This book was selected as an "Outstanding Book of the Year" by the New York Times, and a "Best Book of 1973" by the American Library Association.
The collection includes images and a bilingual podcast by Martorell speaking about a different work in the Smithsonian American Art Museum collection, "La Playa Negra" ("Tar Beach"), which is the term used by Puerto Rican migrants for the rooftops of tenement buildings. As the label describes, in this painting, "a fashionable woman wears a fur-collared coat and sits in front of a New York City skyline. Her hardworking double on the left sits behind a sewing machine. In his "Playa Negra" ("Tar Beach") series, Martorell juxtaposed migrants' prosperous self-image with a glimpse of their tiring labor."
The collection also includes a series of photographs from the collection of the Smithsonian American Art Museum, by Hiram Maristany, a resident and photographer of the El Barrio neighborhood. Maristany grew up with eight siblings on East 111th Street. In addition, the collection includes links from PBS Learning Media on Puerto Rican history and migration.
#LatinoHAC #BecauseOfHerStory #EthnicStudies
This collection supports Unit 2: Culture and Resistance, Expressions of culture and values, of the Austin ISD Ethnic Studies Part B course. "How do expressions of culture reflect assimilation and resistance to assimilation? How do distinct expressions of culture reflect specific values for various ethnic groups?"
This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Latino Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center.
This lesson is used after students have finished reading William Shakespeare's "The Tempest."
1. I print each of the paintings in this collection (most uploaded from The Folger Shakespeare Library's Digital Collection), and then post them across the board, around the room to create a "Gallery Walk" environment.
2. I remind students, before they begin, that the keyword in this play is "art." Just as it is Prospero's "art" to control Ariel and Caliban through magic and bring his abusers to the island, so it is the dramatist's art to create an enchanted island on a simple wooden stage. I share with them that artists have been, in turn, then inspired by what has appeared on the stage during productions of "The Tempest," for centuries. The various works of art posted around them span from the 1700's through the 20th Century.
3. Students are asked to walk through the gallery, and select one painting, one artistic interpretation of "The Tempest" that speaks to them, appeals to them, for any reason. Conversely, they should pick one they believe, for them personally, misses the mark as far as how they would interpret or envision this character, this scene, this play in general. They are to mark their names - - only their names - - on the board under the paintings.
4. When finished, we have then have a discussion about their choices - it's quite free wheeling - - no wrong answers here - - wonderful sharing of ideas. Many of the ideas and conversations I subtly steer to reflect some of the questions they will address in the wrap up writing assignment that follows.
5. When our conversations have finished, and after we've heard from everyone about their various interpretations, I give them the wrap up writing assignment. There are five individual response questions, with students being asked to write responses ranging anywhere from 175-200 words for each question. Three out of the five questions require them to return to this SAAM Learning Lab collection in order to write their responses, one other question is a classic literary analysis (thematic) question, while the last one is a historical context question.
(I've attached the prompts as a resource.)
Note: This assignment went over far better than I expected and I look forward to recreating it/adapting it for other units.
1. Divide students into small groups (2 or 3 works for me)
2. Assign each student a painting - - send them the link, and they access it through their own computer so that they are able to zoom in if they would like a closer look at a particular feature.
3. Ask students to complete the following thinking routine:
a. See - - an objective list of what they "see"
b. Mood - - ideas as to what mood or emotions these particular qualities or items evoke.
c. Theme - - broad ideas as to a potential theme/larger idea expressed by the work.
3. After completing this thinking routine within their small groups, the students take turns projecting their painting on the smart board and sharing their discussion highlights with their classmates. We start to make a random list (like a "Wordle" forming) on the board of these "theme" ideas."
4. By the time we finish with the last painting/photograph/work of art - - we have a "Wordle" on the board that somewhat represents or hints at many of the thematic ideas expressed in "The Tempest."
5. I then complete a standard PowerPoint introduction to the play, but noting the similarities between many of their ideas expressed through their interpretations of the works of art, and Shakespeare's larger ideas as presented in "The Tempest."
Resources to accompany a unit on the YA verse novel Inside Out and Back Again by Thhanha Lai. #SAAMteach
What does it take to prepare our youth for a world on the move with quality?
This collection is the first in a series of four created to support the Re-Imagining Migration DC Seminar Series, held between December 2019 to March 2020. The seminar series is led by Verónica Boix Mansilla, Senior Principal Investigator for Harvard Graduate School of Education's Project Zero, and Research Director for Re-Imagining Migration, with in-gallery experiences provided by educators from the Smithsonian American Art Museum, the National Museum of American History, the National Portrait Gallery, the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, and the National Gallery of Art.
This set of collections is designed to be dynamic. We will continue to add material, including participant-created content, throughout the seminar series so that the collections themselves can be used as a type of textbook, reflecting the content, development, and outputs of the full seminar series. Please check back to the hashtag #ReImaginingMigration to see a growing body of materials to support educators as they strive to serve and teach about human migration in relevant and deep ways.
This collection brings together EDSITEment and Smithsonian resources to support the initial research into a project for National History Day 2020, "Breaking Barriers in History."
These resources—including photographs, objects, portraits, lesson plans, and articles—explore how individuals overcame barriers during and following their service in the U.S. military. Resources address how issues of race and gender operated as barriers to equal treatment for all those who serve in the U.S. military, as well as circumstances endured by veterans following the end of major wars. The experiences of members of the armed forces during the American Revolution, U.S. Civil War, WWI, and WWII are highlighted; however, other wars and perspectives should be considered when exploring these resources. The second resource of this collection contains questions to help with the analysis of a chosen topic alongside photograph, document, artwork, portrait, and object resources.
By no means is this collection comprehensive; instead, it provides a launching point for further research.
This collection was created in collaboration with the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access.
Share your National History Day collections and let us know what you think! Write to us on Twitter: @EDSITEment and @SmithsonianLab, #NHD2020. If you publish a collection on your National History Day topic, be sure to enter #NHD2020 in the description!
Tags: military, soldiers, women, African American, Tuskegee, Airmen, Airwomen, war, World War One, World War I, World War Two, World War II, Red Jacket, Tayadaneega, Joseph Brant, Native Americans, American Indians, Horace Pippin, Theodore Milton Sullivan, J.W. Lucus, Buffalo Soldier, Charles Young, Carter Woodson, Willa Beatrice Brown, Bessie Coleman, Airforce, pilots, Jacqueline Cochran, Janet Harmon Bragg, Cornelia Fort, Nancy Love, WASPs, twentieth century, 20th #NHD
This collection brings together the New York Times Podcast 1619 (Episode 1, "The Fight for a True Democracy") and Smithsonian resources to support my 7th graders as we begin our unit on the American Civil Rights Movement. Later in the unit, the students will read March, a graphic novel based on the experience of Congressman John Lewis during the Civil Rights Movement. In order for the students to understand why the Civil Rights Movement was necessary, they must first understand the history that led to it. This collection does not, by any means, provide a complete or comprehensive history. The podcast provides an historical overview and will serve as a jumping off point for further research. The visual artwork, poetry, articles, and films included at the end serve to provide additional perspectives and opportunities for exploration. The students will develop their own research questions inspired by the thinking they've done throughout this collection and may use the additional resources provided to begin their independent research. A PowerPoint lesson on developing research questions is included.
The collection is organized into six lessons. The first five follow the same structure: students will explore a piece of visual art using Ten Times Two and Unveiling Stories, using the handout to record their ideas. Students will then listen to a portion of the podcast and use Think, Puzzle, Explore to document their thinking and record questions for further research. After listening to the podcast, they will return to their Unveiling Stories handout and add any new thinking. The sixth lesson brings the students from history to the present and asks them to consider the 2014 artwork New Age of Slavery by Patrick Campbell using Ten Times Two and Unveiling Stories. They will also listen to an NPR report on Black Lives Matter. Following the same format as previous lessons, they will document their thinking and questions about what they've heard using the Think, Puzzle, Explore handout and then return to their Unveiling Stories handout to add new ideas.
Please note that the podcast link (including daily listening timestamps), the Unveiling Stories handout, and the Think, Puzzle, Explore handout are all linked at the start of this collection, but will be used each day (see daily lesson plans).
Classroom Activity Using Images of Immigration and Identity from the National Portrait Gallery, the New York Times, and the Smithsonian American Art Museum
Students can use the "What makes you say that?" and the "3 Ys" thinking routines to explore two modern portraits about identity and immigration from the National Portrait Gallery. The first thinking strategy asks students to look at a work of art for several minutes before answering two questions: "What's going on?" and "What do you see that makes you say that?" (See https://learninglab.si.edu/res... for more information.)
To further and deepen the discussion, I've included a link to a September 2016 New York Times Op-Doc entitled "4.1 Miles," about a coast guard captain on a small Greek island who is suddenly charged with saving thousands of refugees from drowning at sea. (If it doesn't show up easily, you can view the original video on Times Video at https://www.nytimes.com/video/opinion/100000004674545/41-miles.html.) I've also included two sculptures from the Smithsonian American Art Museum, an interview with Lisa Sasaki, head of the Smithsonian's Asian Pacific American Center, and resources from the University of Minnesota Libraries Publishing's Immigration Syllabus - Americans / Immigrants, Weeks 1-4.
You may wish to use the "3 Y's" thinking routine here as well, which asks students to consider the following questions:
1. Why might this [topic, question] matter to me?
2. Why might it matter to people around me [family, friends, city, nation]?
3. Why might it matter to the world?
(See https://learninglab.si.edu/res... for more information.)
#APA2018, #LatinoHAC, #EthnicStudies
This collection supports Unit 1: Precious Knowledge - Exploring notions of identity and community, of the Austin ISD Ethnic Studies Part A course.
This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Latino Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center.
This interdisciplinary collection explores the idea of a manifesto through the framework of High School Visual Art, Language Arts and History. Inspired by the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden's "Manifesto: Art x Agency" exhibition, this collection examines the ideas of historical manifestos while also examining whose voices are historically absent, and how they can be amplified in the future. Just as each generation of artists created manifestos to challenge the status quo, this generation of students can be empowered to do the same. #GoGlobal
Using this Collection:
- Use the “Unit Outline” to see how each lesson/activity is organized. The “Introduction to Manifestos” lesson and corresponding artwork provide focused activities for use in the classroom, while the rest of the collection serves as suggestions and ideas for deepening thinking and questioning, culminating in a student-produced manifesto.
- Detailed suggestions on how to implement the learning activities are found in the "information" section of each of the Activity Tiles as well as the Project Zero Thinking Routine Tiles.
- Notes regarding the use of each Project Zero Thinking Routine are documented as annotations within each individual Thinking Routine tile and provide specific instructions on how align these routines with this collection.
Global Competence Connection:
- Students “recognize perspectives” by analyzing how manifestos and movements have championed certain voices over others, and contextualizing their own experiences within a broader historical and global context.
- Students “communicate their ideas” through the creation of a manifesto that demonstrates their unique perspective.
Using the manifestos and artworks in this collection as a foundation, you can use other content specific texts for your subject area and unique classroom demographics. Some ideas include:
“The Origin of the Species” by Charles Darwin
“The Communist Manifesto” by Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx
“United States Declaration of Independence” by Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Robert R. Livingston, Roger Sherman
“Universal Declaration of Human Rights” by The United Nations