This collection is to share the history of adventurous women in the Patapsco Heritage Greenway area. It aims to inspire future women to adventure in the area. #PHGwomen
These resources provide examples of the role of traditions in the American Indian Movement and how American Indians have attempted to keep their traditional way of life viable. #ethnicstudies
The Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center hosted a language and culture seminar at the Anchorage Museum in 2011, bringing together eight fluent Iñupiaq speakers for four days to discuss cultural heritage objects from their region in the Smithsonian exhibition Living Our Cultures, Sharing Our Heritage: The First Peoples of Alaska at the Anchorage Museum. This video set presents a range of information about life in northwest Alaska for the Iñupiaq people: hunting tools used for living from the land and sea to ceremonial items used at celebrations and gatherings to everyday clothing to cultural traditions and values. The videos are in Iñupiaq with subtitles in English and Iñupiaq, for following along in both languages. An educational guide with six lessons is included below, along with links to objects discussed from the Smithsonian collections.
Tags: Alaska, Native art, museum, education, language, Indigenous, Iñupiaq, Inupiaq, Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center in Alaska
By Beverly Faye Hugo (Iñupiaq), 2009
(This is shortened version of a longer essay from the Smithsonian book Living Our Cultures, Sharing Our Heritage: The First Peoples of Alaska.)
Sea, Land, Rivers
There’s ice and snow, the ocean and darkness – darkness in the winter and twenty-four hours of daylight in the summer. Barrow was originally called Utqiaġvik (meaning, “the place where ukpik, the snowy owl, nests”). That’s where my people, the Iñupiat, have survived and lived, and I am doing as they have done. On the Arctic coast you can see vast distances in all directions, out over the ocean and across the land. The country is very flat, with thousands of ponds and lakes, stretching all the way to the Brooks Range in the south. It is often windy, and there are no natural windbreaks, no trees, only shrubs. Beautiful flowers grow during the brief summer season. The ocean is our garden, where we hunt the sea mammals that sustain us. Throughout the year some seasonal activity is going on. We are whaling in the spring and fall, when the bowheads migrate past Barrow, going out for seals and walrus, fishing, or hunting on the land for caribou, geese, and ducks.
Whaling crews are made up of family members and relatives, and everyone takes part. The spring is an exciting time when the whole community is focused on the whales, hoping to catch one. The number we are permitted to take each year is set by the Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission and the International Whaling Commission. Whaling is not for the faint of heart. It can be dangerous and takes an incredible amount of effort – getting ready, waiting for the whales, striking and pulling and towing them. But the men go out and do it because they want to feed the community. Everyone has to work hard throughout the whaling season. People who aren’t able to go out on the ice help in other ways, such as buying supplies and gas or preparing food. You have to make clothing for them; they need warm parkas, boots, and snow pants.
We believe that a whale gives itself to a captain and crew who are worthy people, who have integrity – that is the gift of the whale. Caring for whales, even after you’ve caught them, is important. After a whale is caught and divided up, everyone can glean meat from the bones. Each gets his share, even those who don’t belong to a crew. No one is left out.
We are really noticing the effects of global warming. The shorefast ice is much thinner in spring than it used to be, and in a strong wind it will sometimes break away. If you are out on the ice, you have to be extremely conscious of changes in the wind and current so that you will not be carried off on a broken floe. We are concerned as well about the effects of offshore drilling and seismic testing by the oil companies. They try to work with the community to avoid problems, but those activities could frighten the whales and be detrimental to hunting.
Community and Family
Iñupiaq residents of Barrow, Wales, Point Hope, Wainwright, and other coastal communities, are the Taġiuqmiut, “people of the salt.” People who live in the interior are the Nunamiut, “people of the land.” The Nunamiut used to be nomadic, moving from camp to camp with their dog teams, hunting and fishing to take care of their families. They packed light and lived in skin tents, tracking the caribou and mountain sheep. My husband, Patrick Hugo, was one of them. For the first six years of his life his family traveled like that, but when the government built a school at Anaktuvuk Pass in 1959 they settled there.
My parents, Charlie and Mary Edwardson, were my foremost educators. They taught me my life skills and language. When I came to awareness as a young child, all the people who took care of me spoke Iñupiaq, so that was my first language. Our father would trap and hunt. We never went hungry and had the best furs for our parkas. Our mother was a fine seamstress, and we learned to sew by helping her. My mother and grandmother taught us to how to care for a family and to do things in a spirit of cooperation and harmony.
I was a child during the Bureau of Indian Affairs era, when we were punished for speaking Iñupiaq in school. My first day in class was the saddest one of my young life. I had to learn English, and that was important, but my own language is something that I value dearly and have always guarded. It is a gift from my parents and ancestors, and I want to pass it on to my children and grandchildren and anyone who wants to learn.
Ceremony and Celebration
Nalukataq (blanket toss) is a time of celebration when spring whaling has been successful. It is a kind of all-day picnic. People visit with friends and family at the windbreaks that the crews set up by tipping the whale boats onto their sides. At noon they serve niġliq (goose) soup, dinner rolls, and tea. At around 3:00 P.M. we have mikigaq, made of fermented whale meat, tongue, and skin. At 5:00 they serve frozen maktak (whale skin and blubber) and quaq (raw frozen fish). It’s wonderful to enjoy these foods, to talk, and catch up with everyone at the end of the busy whaling season.
Kivgik, the Messenger Feast, was held in the qargi (ceremonial house). The umialgich (whaling captains) in one community sent messengers to the leaders of another, inviting them and their families to come for days of feasting, dances, and gift giving. They exchanged great quantities of valuable things – piles of furs, sealskins filled with oil, weapons, boats, and sleds. That took place until the early years of the twentieth century, when Presbyterian missionaries suppressed our traditional ceremonies, and many of the communal qargich in the villages were closed down.
In 1988, Mayor George Ahmaogak Sr. thought it was important to revitalize some of the traditions from before the Christian era, and Kivgik was started again. Today it is held in the high school gymnasium. People come to Barrow from many different communities to take part in the dancing and maġgalak, the exchange of gifts. You give presents to people who may have helped you or to those whom you want to honor. Kivgiq brings us together as one people, just as it did in the time of our ancestors.
Tags: Iñupiaq, Inupiaq, Alaska Native, Indigenous, Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center in Alaska, whale, whaling, human geography
The Alaska Office of the Smithsonian’s Arctic Studies Center hosted an Iñupiaq language and culture seminar in January 2011, bringing together eight fluent speakers: Sylvester Ayek, Bernadette Alvanna-Stimpfle, Alvira Downey, Herbert Foster Sr., Willie Goodwin Jr., Jana Harcharek, Faye Ongtowasruk and Rachel Riley. They met for four days to discuss Iñupiaq cultural heritage objects in the Smithsonian exhibition Living Our Cultures, Sharing Our Heritage: The First Peoples of Alaska at the Anchorage Museum.
During the seminar, the Iñupiaq language was documented, including three different dialects, and language and culture teaching materials were written for use in schools and homes throughout Alaska and beyond. Six objects from the Smithsonian collections – with links below – are featured in the guide and lessons presented here. These resources pair with six video lesons that offer teachers, students, parents and lifelong learners access to Iñupiaq language and lifeways.
Tags: Alaska, Native art, museum, education, language, Indigenous, Iñupiaq, Inupiaq, Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center in Alaska
When watching at birds you get surprised how well they build nests. Birds do it being obsessed by instincts. Nonetheless lions hunting catch victims not only are led by instincts. During hunting they can creat groups. And here a question arises. What makes them hunt with a group, instincts or all the same they are conscious of the process of groupping? What can do instinct? May it creat groups for so complicated process as hunting? Although in case with birds is seen well that instints assign birds to build nests. Birds conduct this process and fully act by influence of instincts. Instincts schedule birds. Supposed that lions hunt and unite in groups for hunting being under instincts. Then it points that instincts make organizational work. And what then is consciousness of a human? If instincts can handle so complicated process as groupping hunt then it can be supposed that instincts can manage consciousness of a human and task a human what to do. Here it is seen that instincts and consciousness tightly linked with one another.
The first piece of art is Woman Lifting a Basket, Waving a Handkerchief. I chose this piece because it represents selected response. Selected response can be a positive way to assess students. In fact, I use a lot of selected response questions in my classes. They use simple language, simple syntax, clear directions, and include clearly written questions. Just like the woman in the piece, selected response can be tricky. They can look similar, follow a pattern, but if they are too similar, or are not clearly defined, they can be tricky and can confuse students. Sometimes they do not give an accurate representation of a student's ability.
The second piece of art is America's Changing Colors by Leah Purcell. This piece represents the module on culturally responsive teaching. This piece shows, literally, the changing colors of America. Where we used to teach a mostly white represented, white centric curriculum, now we are learning to focus more on students of color. The four components of culturally responsive teaching include developing a knowledge base about cultural diversity, demonstrating care and building learning communities, communicating with ethnically diverse students, and responding to ethnic diversity. I believe that all four components are clearly implied in this piece.
The next piece that I have chosen for my collection is Requiem for Charleston by Lava Thomas. This piece embodies choice, as the choices the artist makes in this piece define it. She chose to use tambourines to signify gospel music, as the people that were killed in the Charleston church shooting were in an AME church and played gospel music. There are so many other profound choices that the artist made, including the fact that the names of the victims are inscribed in lambskin, signifying the innocence of these victims. I associated this piece of art with the module on assessment driven decision making. Assessments and the data that comes from them helps us as teachers to decide on our next steps. We decide whether to reassess, remediate, accelerate, or extend learning based on the data we get from assessments. There is a parallel between Lava Thomas's piece and the module only in that the decisions impact so many aspects. Unfortunately, Ms. Thomas's portrayal of such a tragedy can also represent the importance of decision making in art and for us, in teaching.
I chose the module Informal Assessments to go with the next, unbelievable, piece of art. The Throne of the Third Heaven of the Nations' Millennium General Assembly can be connected to informal assessment because the artist, James Hampton, is an untrained artist. He had absolutely no formal artistic training. Yet, he could create something this intricate and amazing. This is similar to informal assessment because although it is not a formal, written, assessment, it can be just as valuable as any other assessment. Informal assessments, such as questioning, conversations, homework, or any ungraded assignments, can give just as much information on where a student is and what assistance they need as data collected from a formal assessment. Just as Hampton created a masterpiece with no formal training, informal assessments can bring to light vital information.
The fifth piece of art is a piece that was created for the bicentennial. It is titled Preamble I related it to the module on teaching the whole student. This is because the license plates separately aren't anything special. But together, they form the preamble to the Constitution. Not only that, but they represent almost every state in the United States. This reminded me of the biopsychosocial framework. Biological, psychological, sociocultural, and life cycle forces all work together to form a person and who they are. If we do not teach to each part of the student, or if all of their needs are not met, then their education and their development will be affected. Just as this is the case, this piece of artwork would not be complete without all of the pieces that complete it.
The final piece that I have chosen is Woman Eating, a sculpture by Duane Hanson. I paired this with the module titled Validity, Reliability, and Bias. Hanson's sculptures are known for being incredibly realistic, so much so that people mistake his sculptures for actual people. This immediately reminded me of validity and reliability. The three types of validity are criterion related, construct related, and content related. There are also three types of reliability-stability, alternate form, and internal consistency. I know that this piece of art may be a stretch when it comes to this module, but when you actually see this piece of art, it is so realistic that you do a double take. It also addresses some bias, as the woman has two desserts, is slovenly, and is alone. This certainly also relates to bias. If in assessment, just as in art, we do not take into account reliability, validity, and bias, we cannot fully understand the student, the data, nor the artwork.
This collection was created to complement a National Art Education Association (NAEA) webinar, "Constructing Curriculum with the Smithsonian" (December 11, 2019) featuring resources from the National Museum of African American History and Culture, the National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian Learning Lab.
The webinar features inquiry-based strategies in examining the American experience depicted through portraiture and unpacking the context of historical narratives communicated through art with students.
This collection was created in collaboration with Briana Zavadil White (National Portrait Gallery) and Candra Flanagan (National Museum of African American History and Culture).
This lesson is used after students have finished reading William Shakespeare's "The Tempest."
1. I print each of the paintings in this collection (most uploaded from The Folger Shakespeare Library's Digital Collection), and then post them across the board, around the room to create a "Gallery Walk" environment.
2. I remind students, before they begin, that the keyword in this play is "art." Just as it is Prospero's "art" to control Ariel and Caliban through magic and bring his abusers to the island, so it is the dramatist's art to create an enchanted island on a simple wooden stage. I share with them that artists have been, in turn, then inspired by what has appeared on the stage during productions of "The Tempest," for centuries. The various works of art posted around them span from the 1700's through the 20th Century.
3. Students are asked to walk through the gallery, and select one painting, one artistic interpretation of "The Tempest" that speaks to them, appeals to them, for any reason. Conversely, they should pick one they believe, for them personally, misses the mark as far as how they would interpret or envision this character, this scene, this play in general. They are to mark their names - - only their names - - on the board under the paintings.
4. When finished, we have then have a discussion about their choices - it's quite free wheeling - - no wrong answers here - - wonderful sharing of ideas. Many of the ideas and conversations I subtly steer to reflect some of the questions they will address in the wrap up writing assignment that follows.
5. When our conversations have finished, and after we've heard from everyone about their various interpretations, I give them the wrap up writing assignment. There are five individual response questions, with students being asked to write responses ranging anywhere from 175-200 words for each question. Three out of the five questions require them to return to this SAAM Learning Lab collection in order to write their responses, one other question is a classic literary analysis (thematic) question, while the last one is a historical context question.
(I've attached the prompts as a resource.)
Note: This assignment went over far better than I expected and I look forward to recreating it/adapting it for other units.
What does it take to prepare our youth for a world on the move with quality?
This collection is the first in a series of four created to support the Re-Imagining Migration DC Seminar Series, held between December 2019 to March 2020. The seminar series is led by Verónica Boix Mansilla, Senior Principal Investigator for Harvard Graduate School of Education's Project Zero, and Research Director for Re-Imagining Migration, with in-gallery experiences provided by educators from the Smithsonian American Art Museum, the National Museum of American History, the National Portrait Gallery, the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, and the National Gallery of Art.
This set of collections is designed to be dynamic. We will continue to add material, including participant-created content, throughout the seminar series so that the collections themselves can be used as a type of textbook, reflecting the content, development, and outputs of the full seminar series. Please check back to the hashtag #ReImaginingMigration to see a growing body of materials to support educators as they strive to serve and teach about human migration in relevant and deep ways.
How did the music scene of the 1920s build the stereotypes revolving around the flappers and gangsters?
My research helps put together a few different events that happened during the 1920s. It focuses on how jazz affected the gangsters and flappers with how people saw them. It also shows how the newly found jazz music helped the groups of gangsters and flappers form their new personas and embrace their new lives,
Walrus ivory is a precious sculptural material that for millennia has been carved into a nearly endless variety of forms essential to Arctic life, from harpoon heads to needle cases, handles, ornaments, buckles and many more. Naturalistic and stylized figures of animals and humans were made as charms, amulets and ancestral representations. Carvers today bring this conceptual heritage to new types of work.
During a week-long residency organized by the Arctic Studies Center at the Anchorage Museum in 2015, Alaska Native carvers Jerome Saclamana (Iñupiaq), Clifford Apatiki (St. Lawrence Island Yupik) and Levi Tetpon (Iñupiaq) studied historic walrus ivory pieces from the Smithsonian’s Living Our Cultures exhibition and Anchorage Museum collection, and demonstrated how to process, design and shape walrus ivory into artwork. Art students, museum conservators, school groups, local artists and museum visitors participated throughout the week. Also, a two-day community workshop in Nome was taught by Jerome Saclamana and hosted by the Nome-Beltz High School. The video set presented here introduces the artists and document the materials, tools and techniques they use to make walrus-ivory artwork. An educational guide with six lessons is included below pair with the videos, along with links to a selection of Iñupiaq and St. Lawrence Island Yupik objects from the Smithsonian collections that were carved from walrus ivory.
Tags: Iñupiaq, Inupiaq, Eskimo, ivory, walrus, carving, carver, carve, Native art, museum, education, St. Lawrence Island Yupik, Yupik, Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center in Alaska
The cultures of newly freed African Americans have had one of the greatest impacts on the music industry to date. The cultures they carried from their ancestors and their plantation families aided the impact they had on jazz.These cultures not only opened up opportunities for blacks but it allow for whites to seek interest in the same musical style.
The new opportunities were brought over to the United States when slavery first became popular in the mid 18th century. These opportunities were brought to the table when African American music roots were exposed on plantations and even after the end of the slave trade. Their musical cultures consisted of a lot of different features that the United States hadn't particularly heard before the beginning of Jazz in the late 19th century.
Jazz after its initial debut was seen as out of the ordinary. However, with time it gained a huge following of African Americans and even whites, The importance of its huge success was the cultural diversity within its listeners and performers, Whites and Blacks were often not allowed to view things the same or even be in the same room therefore allowing for performance of jazz to be difficult. Hence why Black and Tan bars became a thing after the prohibition arose as well as stricter segregation laws. Blacks and Whites came together to create underground bars for live performances and to have the availability of alcohol.
The importance of African Americans and whites coming together during this allowed for the cultures of their music to flourish and to be exposed to society. When allowing for this exposure it lead for whites to listen, understand and see how much people enjoyed the sounds of the African American music scene.
World War II and the increased usage of air power led to the rise of radar for the purpose of early warning capabilities. This was crucial due to the bombing runs conducted by Germans across Europe, specifically in Britain, as well as the pivotal role of air power in the Pacific theater. The first picture is of a captured Japanese radar set, including two indicators, two receivers, one transmitter, among other essential components. This radar was used by the Japanese Navy. The second picture shows an American Identification Unit Contactor. It was used by the Americans in Britain to identify themselves as friendly, prior to the invention of dedicated IFF (Identification Friend or Foe) transponders. There were only 500 units produced. The US Navy developed the Oscilloscope Radar, shown in picture three. It was a simplified display system which allowed a fighter pilot to utilize the radar himself, without the use of a radar operator. It was simple to use and had a range of five miles. The next two pictures show the British Airborne Intercept Radar receiver and transmitter. These were the common radar devices utilized by the British throughout World War II.