This collection brings together EDSITEment and Smithsonian resources to support the initial research into a project for National History Day. While originally created for the 2019 theme, "Triumph and Tragedy in History," resources found in this collection are useful for researching other National History Day themes.
These resources - including objects, documents, websites, and articles - reveal challenges and opportunities experienced by American immigrants in the 19th to mid-20th centuries. Resources highlight hardships that compelled people to leave their homelands, difficulties immigrants faced upon arrival, and ways they overcame obstacles to build new lives and communities in America. The second tile of this collection contains questions to help with the analysis of photograph, document, artwork, portrait, and object resources.
The history of immigration in America is an immense topic, and this collection addresses only aspects of it. Use this collection to brainstorm project topics, find connected resources, and as a launching point for further research.
This collection was created in collaboration with EDSITEment, a website for K-12 educators from the National Endowment for the Humanities.
Share your National History Day collections and let us know what you think! Write to us on Twitter: @EDSITEment & @SmithsonianLab, #NHD2019. If you publish a collection on your National History Day topic, be sure to enter #NHD2019 in the description!
Tags: 1800s, 1900s angel island, ellis island, immigration test, community, prejudice, irish, jewish, syrian, lebanese, arab, italian, mexican, german, greek, bohemian, czech, slovenian, know nothing, triangle shirtwaist factory fire, swedish, chinese exclusion act, japanese american incarceration, internment, bracero program, stories project, #NHD
This teaching collection helps students to look closely and think critically by examining Domigo Ulloa's painting, Braceros, and historical documentation related to the bracero program, a series of short-term labor contracts from 1942-1964 in which an estimated two million Mexican men came to the US to work on farms and roads. The collection prompts students to consider the program from a variety of perspectives, including individual, collective, social, economic, and political.
Included here are the painting, a bilingual video with Smithsonian American Art Museum (SAAM) curator E. Carmen Ramos, four suggested Thinking Routines - "See, Think, Wonder," "Step In, Step Out, Step Back," "The 3 Y's," and "Think, Feel, Care" - from Harvard's Project Zero Artful Thinking and Global Thinking materials, supporting digital content from the National Museum of American History, and a blogpost from SAAM of two DC student's written responses to the prompt, "What Domingo Ulloa's Braceros Means to Me."
For use in Social Studies, Spanish, English, and American History classes
This collection supports Unit 1: Intersectionality of Economics, Politics, and Policy, of the Austin ISD Ethnic Studies Part B course.
This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Latino Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center.
In this activity, students will examine photographs documenting the Bracero Program, the largest guest-worker program in US history. Started in 1942 as a temporary war measure to address labor demands in agriculture and railroads, the program allowed Mexican nationals to take temporary agricultural work in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, and 24 other states. By the time the program ended in 1964, over 4.6 million contracts were awarded.
Using two Project Zero Global Thinking Routines - "Unveiling Stories" and "The 3 Ys" - students will analyze the stories these photographs tell about the experiences of braceros in this program, and the impact of these stories in multiple contexts. Additional resources (primary sources, a digital exhibition, and an article) and information on how to use these routines in the classroom can by found by clicking Read More ».
Keywords: mexican, immigration, work, migration, migrant workers, agriculture, reform, politics, government, leonard nadel, photojournalism, activity, inquiry strategy, global competency, global competence, latino, chicano, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Arkansas, 1940s, 40s, 1950s, 50s, 1960s, 60s
This assignment asks students to look at evidence and develop a narrative. Developed by UC Berkeley History-Social Science Project.
This collection will provide an opportunity for students to analyze artwork, read background information, and connect art with historical events. At the heart of this activity is artwork created by Latino artist Carmen Lomas Garza. These paintings reflect the experiences of Garza's family and Latino life in 1980s America. In addition to image analysis, teachers could extend an opportunity for students to identify and discuss connections between Garza's art and the Mexican American experience from the 1960s to the present. This collection includes:
- A timeline of U.S.-Mexican American relations
- Video/audio of Reagan signing the 1986 Immigration Reform Control Act
- And an overview of immigration reform via ABC-CLIO (requires subscription).
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills Connections #TEKS
- 24A describe how the characteristics of and issues in U.S. history have been reflected in various genres of art, music, film, and literature;
A profound result of the vast employment of traqueros in the transportation industry was the railroads' corporate strategy to establish means for "chain migration." Chain migration refers to the process of immigrants from a particular region or town following the path of prior immigrants (from their same region or town) to the same destination.
As the agricultural, petroleum, and cattle ranching industries of the Southwest expanded to a vast scale in the early 20th century, the demand for traquero labor grew as well. To meet this demand, companies like the Santa Fe Railroad incentivized traqueros to bring along their families, including wives and children, to live on sites by the rail yards rent-free.
A key tactic in this strategy was the practice of housing traqueros in converted boxcars. These converted boxcars would be grouped together into settlements, which tended to be of two types: one was a species of "mobile villages" that moved along the train tracks, whereas the other type was comprised by taking boxcar quarters off the rails and grouping them together on the outskirts of rail yards in areas usually saved for section gangs. Historian Al Camarillo, in his book Chicanos in a Changing Society: From Mexican Pueblos to American Barrios in Santa Barbara and Southern California, 1848-1930 (1979) has termed the process of establishing boxcar settlements as "barrioization," because these family-centered communities demonstrated the sustainability of Mexican American communities, as well as familiarized Mexican immigrants with different parts of the U.S. that would become significant Mexican immigrant destinations.
Mexican boxcar communities existed all over the country and in major cities including Chicago, Pittsburgh, Los Angeles, and San Diego.
On April 18th, 2016, Dr. Antonio Delgado, a former Smithsonian Institution Visiting Scholar (1998), presented his research on Mexican boxcar communities in Chicago at the McHenry County Historical Society Museum. Illinois Humanities sponsored the event, publishing the Daily Herald's notice of the program on the Illinois Humanities' news blog. The online story includes a trailer for local station WTVP's documentary, Boxcar People, for which the now adult children of traqueros were interviewed.
#EthnicStudies #MexicanAmericans #Traqueros #Railroads #BoxcarCommunities #ChainMigration #Latinos #Chicanos
This collection is meant to build on two earlier collections, "Asian American Art: Emerging from the Shadows" and "Asian American Artists and World War II" and to introduce the viewer to artists of Asian ancestry in America using Chang, Johnson & Karlstrom's text, Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970 (2008), the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco's exhibition catalog "Asian/American/Modern Art: Shifting Currents, 1900-1970" (2008),the vast resources of the Smithsonian Learning Lab, Project Zero's Global Thinking Routines and other resources. This collection is part two of four that I have organized, chronologically, on Asian American Art. The other three collections are "Asian American Art: Emerging from the Shadows", "Asian American Artists and World War II" and "Asian American Contemporary Art". It is my hope that these collections will serve as entry points to understanding the many contributions of Asian American artists in the U.S. from 1850 until the present time.
Visual art is a language that is socially and culturally constructed. Socially constructed learning values diverse perspectives, engages with local and global experts, and employs inquiry, discovery and exploration to move students toward global citizenship. Because the visual arts leverage the power of dialogue and debate to sharpen critical thinking, starting with the arts is a logical place to help students develop cultural intelligence.
Other purposes of these collections are to explore tangible and intangible cultural heritage; as well as jumpstart brave conversations about race, identity and immigration in the U.S. with teachers, tutors of English Language Learners and others who are interested in becoming cultural leaders in our public schools.
As Gordon H. Chang and Mark Dean Johnson state in the introduction of the exhibition catalog, "Asian/American/Modern Art: Shifting Currents, 1900-1970" (2008):
"Forty years ago there were no Asian Americans. There were Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Filipinos, and others of Asian ancestry in the United States, but no 'Asian Americans,' as that term was coined only in 1968. This population was commonly seen as foreign, alien, not of America. Their lives and experiences were not generally accepted as part of the fabric of the country, even though Asians had begun settling here steadily in the mid-nineteenth century.
Then, in the late 1960s, as part of the upsurge in the self-assertion of marginalized communities, 'Asian America' emerged to challenge the stigma of perpetual foreignness. 'Asian American' was a claim of belonging, of rootedness, of pride and identity, and of history and community; it was also a recognition of distinctive cultural achievement" (Chang, Johnson, 2008).
A collection of everyday items that could be used as a defense.
This collection is designed to help teachers build their practice in the areas of culturally responsive teaching (CRT) and global competence. The resources in this collection can be used to lead a professional learning series on culturally responsive teaching as an instructional framework and the Instructional Try-its can be used as an entry point for teachers seeking to embed CRT into their practice. As suggested in the Powerpoint provided, a series on this topic could consist of six 35-60 minute sessions that occur on a weekly or bi-weekly basis. Another approach for using this collection is to use the five Instructional Try-its to expand the number of weeks dedicated to this professional learning series.
Additional uses for the resources in this collection include:
1) examining the global competence framework developed by the Asia Society and the role that thinking plays in learning, instruction, and the development of certain dispositions or mindsets.
2) exploring the social action approach of culturally responsive teaching (which matches almost exactly with the “take action” piece of the global competence framework)
3) asking questions in order to understand the students’ lives and world views. Through the instructional try-Its, teachers can develop approaches and understandings that will help them empower their students as they learn to challenge the power structures that create inequities in access to power.
Note for users: To find detailed information on applicability and use of each thinking routine included in the collection, be sure to click on the tab marked with a paperclip.
Time Machine symbolical
I think symbolical part of this book is white flower that Wenna gives to Time Traveler. It symbolical that human's life is so fragile just as the flower, but is beautiful too. Life can withered like flower too.
This collection was developed as part of the 2019 Smithsonian-Montgomery College Faculty Fellowship Program under the theme of “The Search for an American Identity: Building a Nation Together.” It has been modified by Jodi Halligan to use as a learning activity on observing differences between Soviet and American space suits and related technology and design.
Why and how do people protest?
How might works of art show support or advocate for a cause?
How are people, communities, and events affected by works of art?
Discover compelling stories of creativity, struggle, and resilience in this new set of resources for K–12 educators featuring works of art that reflect the richness and diversity of the people, places, and cultures of the United States. Encourage creative, critical, and historical thinking in your students as you examine works of art from the country’s creation to the present day.
Who has access to the American Dream? How do groups fight for access? How is the fight for access reflected in art and culture?
TEKS US.24B describe the impacts of cultural movements in art, music, and literature such as Tin Pan Alley, the Harlem Renaissance, the Beat Generation, rock and roll, the Chicano Mural Movement, and country and western music on American society #ethnicstudies
How have women created space for themselves in the arts and culture?
This collection features resources related to the December 5, 2019, professional development webinar, "Remaking the Rules: Exploring Women Who Broke Barriers," hosted by educators from the Smithsonian American Art Museum and the National Portrait Gallery. This joint webinar is one of three in the series A Woman’s Place Is in the Curriculum: Women’s History through American Art and Portraiture. Learn how American art and portraiture can bring diverse women’s stories into your classroom, connecting with themes you may already teach. Discover strategies for engaging your students in close looking and critical thinking across disciplines. #SAAMTeach #NPGteach
This project received support from the Smithsonian American Women’s History Initiative. To learn more, visit the Smithsonian American Women History Initiative website. #BecauseOfHerStory