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World War I Sources

Lily Weaver

How Does Daily Life Inform the Creation of Music?

The National Association for Music Education Connect #11 standard asks students how the experiences of a composer might be heard in a composition. Put another way: How can music, without lyrics, be autobiographical? A famous example is Beethoven's Symphony No. 6, or Pastoral, which Aaron Copland called "one the first examples of descriptive orchestral music." Beethoven drew inspiration from walks in the countryside. In the Pastoral, he sought to describe that inspiration, and even titled the movements as if they were chapters in a book: 1) Cheerful Feelings on Arrival in the Countryside,” 2) “Scene by the Brook,” 3) Merry Gathering of Country Folk,” 4) Thunder, Storm,” and 5) Shepherd’s Song After the Storm.” You can hear all by following the links.  The movements are represented below five Smithsonian artworks. Students might match the pictures to the movements, or might choose their own pictures. For thoughts on these pictures, click the text box

Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access

Native American Unit


Cristi Marchetti

Marine Ace-of-Aces, Brigadier General Joseph J Foss

      Commissioned on 31 March 1941 as a Second Lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps, Joseph J Foss would go on to become one of the most decorated American fighter pilots of World War II. In 1932, Foss became interested in aviation after witnessing an air show in South Dakota which was presented by The United States Marine Corps.[1] Prior to his commission in the Military, Foss had obtained his private pilot’s license, and upon completion of his military training Foss went on to become a flight instructor.[2] By 1942, Foss became the XO of the U.S.M.C. Fighter Squadron VMF-121 which was operating out of Henderson Field on the island of Guadalcanal. [3] Flying a F4F-4 Wildcat, Captain Foss had amassed 23 aerial victories during his first month with VMF-121; by January 1943 Foss would down three more enemy aircraft, tying World War I American Ace, Eddie Rickenbacker’s tally of 26 planes.[4]  On 18 May 1943, President Roosevelt presented the Congressional Medal of Honor to Captain Foss, for his actions at Guadalcanal in the fall of 1942 [5], five other pilots for Foss’s squadron VMF-121 would also receive the Medal of Honor.[6] By 1944, now Major Foss would return to the Pacific theater with VMF-115, where he would fly the F4U-1A Corsairs, but was not able to achieve any additional victories before the war would end.[7] With-in the Department of the Navy, Brigadier General Joseph Foss’s aerial record of 26 kills was second to United States Navy Captain David Campbell’s 34 confirmed kills[8], and third overall in the Pacific Theater to United States Army Air Forces Major Richard Bong’s 40 kills.[9] This collection displays not only the model of aircraft BGen Foss had flown in WWII, but includes the headgear he had worn in the Pacific Theater. Included is a copy of his Congressional Medal of Honor Citation, and his picture on the cover of Life Magazine.


[1] “Brigadier General Joseph J Foss, ANG (DECEASED).” Marine Corps University. United States Marine Corps. Accessed November 7, 2019.

[2] Ibid.,

[3] Hull, Michael D. 2018. “Wildcat Warrior: Marine Corps Ace of Aces Joe Foss Wreaked Havoc on the Japanese over Guadalcanal, Becoming the First to Equal Eddie Rickenbacker’s American World War I Victory Record.” Aviation History.

[4] Ibid,44-45

[5] “Brigadier General Joseph J Foss”

[6] Hull, 43

[7] Ibid, 45

[8] "FLIER DAVID MCCAMPBELL, LOGGED 34 WWII KILLS." Rocky Mountain News [Denver, CO], July 4, 1996, 14B. Gale OneFile: News (accessed November 7, 2019).

[9] "Richard Bong, America's Ace Zero In: The pilot's domination over the Pacific helped win World War II." Investor's Business Daily, February 3, 2010, A03. Gale OneFile: News (accessed November 7, 2019).

[1] “Brigadier General Joseph J Foss, ANG (DECEASED).” Marine Corps University. United States Marine Corps. Accessed November 7, 2019.

[2] Ibid.,

[3] Ibid.,

[4] Hull, Michael D. 2018. “Wildcat Warrior: Marine Corps Ace of Aces Joe Foss Wreaked Havoc on the Japanese over Guadalcanal, Becoming the First to Equal Eddie Rickenbacker’s American World War I Victory Record.” Aviation History.

[5] Ibid,44-45

[6] “Brigadier General Joseph J Foss”

[7] Hull, 43

[8] Ibid, 45

[9] "FLIER DAVID MCCAMPBELL, LOGGED 34 WWII KILLS." Rocky Mountain News [Denver, CO], July 4, 1996, 14B. Gale OneFile: News (accessed November 7, 2019).

[10] "Richard Bong, America's Ace Zero In: The pilot's domination over the Pacific helped win World War II." Investor's Business Daily, February 3, 2010, A03. Gale OneFile: News (accessed November 7, 2019).

Benjamin Pintens


Various WWII propaganda
Christopher Parks

Challenges of City Growth

This is a collection of images that represent urbanization, immigration, working conditions, growth of industries, and technological innovations after the Civil War.

Amy Gaulton

Music Innovation: How Technology Has Helped to Change Music Over Time

This topical collection provides examples of places, objects and people connecting music and STEM for a teacher professional development workshop hosted by the National Museum of African American History and Culture. During the workshop, teachers explored popular music, the creation of Hip-Hop and the technological advances needed for it to become what it is today. Teachers and students may use this collection as a springboard for the classroom. This collection is not comprehensive, but rather provides a launching point for research and study. #SmithsonianMusic

Ashley Naranjo

Facing Genocide: The US Response to the Holocaust

My aunt remembers sitting at the kitchen table as a child while her parents, my grandparents, read the Yiddish newspaper, Der Tag. Often one would start crying, saying, nishta ("gone"), "this one nishta; that one nishta," in response to the paper's lists of towns in Europe overrun by the Nazis. 

This collection examines the US response to the Holocaust, pairing historical documentation with four thinking routines from Harvard's Project Zero Global Thinking and Agency by Design materials - "Unveiling Stories," :Think, Feel, Care," "The 3 Y's," and "Circles of Action," - to prompt students to ask important questions about our individual and collective responsibility to humanity. 

Included here are photographs, documentation, and resources from the National Museum of American History and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), including a teaching resource and USHMM's online exhibition, Americans and the Holocaust, which examines "the motives, pressures, and fears that shaped Americans’ responses to Nazism, war, and genocide." Examined with thinking routines from Harvard's Project Zero Global Thinking and Agency by Design materials, students will explore complex and deeply troubling issues that continue to have relevance today. 

This collection complements chapter 14 ("World War II and America's Ethnic Problem") of Ronald Takaki's A Different Mirror for Young People: A History of Multicultural America, and supports Unit 1: Intersectionality of Economics, Politics, and Policy, and Unit 3: Local History and Current Issues, of the Austin ISD Ethnic Studies Part B course. 


Philippa Rappoport

Voices of Women

Women who have lended their voices to the positive movement of underrepresented people. 

Angela L Davis Henry

Influential Architecture: A Comparison of Past & Present

This collection is meant to introduce the viewer to world architecture of the past & present day using Rebold & DiYanni's text, Arts and Culture, An Introduction to the Humanities (2012).

One of my hobbies is traveling, and when I do travel, one aspect that I pay attention to is the architecture of the place I'm in. As I was studying architecture for this class, I realized that buildings even in my home state of Ohio had beautiful Roman influences, although they were built two millennia later.

This project will focus on world architecture, its history and innovations, as well as comparisons to the influences we see on buildings going up all around our world today. It should be noted that the artistic comparisons in this collection are of my own observation alone and any influence the modern architects may have had may have been intentional or simply coincidental.

I hope you enjoy this collection.

Resource: Arts and Culture, An Introduction to the Humanities by Janetta Rebold Benton & Robert DiYanni. 


Rachel Marshall

Animals in Art

This three part collection is a curation of examples of the relationship between animals and art. Animals were around before the human race appeared and they will probably still be around when we are long gone. Animals have been involved in every civilization whether they are pets or predators. Some see animals as sacred beings- whether it be for religious purposes, or because they are a beloved pet. In modern society, actual animal bodies could be considered art as well. Mounting deer heads, making bear skin rugs, or taxidermy, These forms can also be seen as a way of representing an animal is sacred to them. 

I will be exploring animals in art from Egyptian to modern day in different forms including paintings and sculptures. 




This collection demonstrates the evolution of fashion in society with an integrated evaluation of femininity and social regard to women throughout  history. Although the defining characteristics of femininity are still not universally identical, the concept originated within ancient history, and was documented in ancient art and through fashion. These investigations and collection are displayed chronologically beginning in 28,000 B.C.E throughout the 21st Century A.D. This collection will expose fashion and its relation to femininity as it began and the social constructs that have impacted its inclusion in art today. 

Fashion is to be regarded as an aesthetic expression through clothing, footwear, lifestyle, accessories, makeup, hairstyle and body exposure. The influence on fashion included war, politics, and social movements and is often connected to cultural movements and social markers, symbols, class and culture. Major fashion reforms came as a result of changing trades and techniques.

Shana Lapre

Man's Best Friend

This collection of art looks at the role of dogs in human society over the progression of time. By looking at how they are represented in art, and their roles they play in them.


Tim Evans

Animal Symbolism in Art and Culture - #AHMCFall2019 - Emily Heffernan (Curated Collection Parts 1, 2 and 3)

People of all ages and cultures have used animals in their art work, sculptures and even music. Do you remember how Taylor Swift incorporated snakes into her album artwork?  Even her merchandising used animals as a message demonstrating that Taylor may have been portrayed like a snake in the media but she is a strong fierce competitor in the music industry. No on could take that away from her,  she was turning a negative image into a positive outcome. 

 Snakes in Taylor Swifts Music  (Click the link if you want to check out her album).  

A little bit about me... I am an animal lover and growing up with pets in my life (we currently have a dog named Wally who just turned nine) it has always interested me to see how people focus on animals as a subject matter. Many cultures have used specific animals to represent their beliefs and incorporated the animals' characteristics.  (One example is that Asian cultures identify tigers with power or agility characteristics. 

For my first collection (Part 1) I will be looking at three explosive periods of civilization and examine art in various forms whether its cave paintings or mosaics.  My first piece  is going to focus specifically on animals as I figured each of the three collections can expand upon my interests, animals being one of them.  I think the potential audience my collection applies to is college student, high school students, art history majors and any one else  interested in animals and their significance through out time.


1. Earliest Culture - Paleolithic Period

The first two tiles will examine the Paleothic Period and why animals were so important and I will include a small except of what their beliefs are.

2. Egyptian Civilization 

The third and fourth tiles will talk about the Egyptian Culture and why cats were so symbolic in art.

3. Roman Civilization 

Lastly, the final fifth and sixth title will examine the animals statues explored in our  text book and  include a very interesting mosaic showing why crocodiles were so popular. 


Work Cited:

Online Resources:

1. George, Alison. “Code Hidden in Stone Age Art May Be the Root of Human Writing.” New Scientist, 6 Nov. 2016,

2. Alsherif, A. (2014). [online] Available at: http://www.rockartscandinavia.... [Accessed 23 Sep. 2019].

3. Robin, et al. “10 Prehistoric Cave Paintings.” Touropia, 17 Nov. 2010,

4. Seawright, Caroline. “Animals and the Gods.” K4W Foundation, 26 Nov. 2012,

5. “In Ancient Egypt, Cats Were Mummified and Buried with Jewelry, and Harming a Cat Was an Offense That Could Be Punished with Death.” The Vintage News, 13 Feb. 2018,

6. Alsherif, A. (2014). [online] Available at: http://www.rockartscandinavia.... [Accessed 23 Sep. 2019].

7. Wilde, Robert. “A Brief History of the City of Rome.” ThoughtCo, ThoughtCo, 20 Feb. 2019,


Curated Collection PART 2 - Monday, October 14, 2019

For my section collection (Part 2) I will be looking at three exciting periods of civilization and examine art in various forms whether its oil paintings or mosaics.  My second piece  is going to focus specifically on  different types of animals that are depicted in vital periods and cultures.  Again, I think the potential audience my collection applies to is college students, high school students, art history majors and any one else  interested in animals and their importance throughout out time.

Animals on Top 40 Music Albums (Clink the link if you want to see examples of animals in song titles and album covers)


4. Early Christianity Civilization

Animals were a significant symbol through early Christianity. They impacted culture through tales of the Bible and also were depicted in mosaics, art forms and statutes.  I focused on two depictions of the "Good Shepard" and how lambs were  valued very highly through out civilization.

5. Early Middle Ages and the Romanesque Period

This is my favorite period because of the exotic and exquisite animals shown in art.  I really enjoyed this period because of The Unicorn Chronicles which I will explain in length on my title.  Beasts such as winged animals or lizards are discussed on my second title. Check it out! 

6. The Renaissance in Italy and Northern Europe

Lastly, my final two art forms show how dogs and peacocks (especially) are reflected in art.  Again, showing animals' significance through out our time.


Work Cited:

Online Resources:

8. “Good Shepherd.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Sept. 2019,,_Domitilla-Katakomben,_Der_gute_Hirte.jpg.

9. “Good Shepherd.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Sept. 2019,

10. Web. <http://“The Hunt of the Unicorn.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 2 Oct. 2019,>.

11. "Animals in Medieval Art." The MET. The MET, 01 Sep 2000. Web. 14 Oct 2019.

12. Cain, A. (2019). Decoding Animals in Art History, From Immortal Peacocks to Lusty Rabbits. [online] Artsy. Available at: [Accessed 14 Oct. 2019].


Curated Collection PART 3 - Sunday, November 10, 2019

For my section collection (Part 3) I will be looking at three exciting periods of civilization and examine art in various forms whether its oil paintings or bronze sculptures. My third and FINAL piece is going to focus specifically on  different types of animals (mostly dogs) that are depicted in vital periods and cultures.  Again, I think the potential audience my collection applies to is college students, high school students, art history majors and any one else  interested in animals and their importance throughout out time. Thanks so much for a great semester!

(Click the link if you want to learn more about Jeff Koons's art work)


5. Eighteenth Century, Romanticism and Realism

This is my favorite period, because I got to talk about Watson and The Shark and discuss a bit about my Museum Paper, which this piece really made a splash through out history and continues to cause a discussion.

6. Impressionism, Early Twentieth Century

I really enjoyed this period as there was so many animals and artworks to chose from but I focused on discussing sculptures, which I found on a website  that you can buy today. I also chose two pieces, a pig and a dog as those are my favorite animals.

7. Mid-Twentieth Century and Later

For my last two titles, I am talking about two famous artists that are more current and have caused quite an impact in the 20th century.  I think everyone has seen Jeff Koons's  art work before, currently he has a piece at the Encore, the new casino in Everett.  


Work Cited:

Online Resources:

13. “Watson and the Shark.” Home,

14.  Damien Hirst - Away from the Flock from 1994. (n.d.). Retrieved from

15.  The Animals Art Has Always Loved.

16.  Stanska, ByZuzanna. “Jeff Koons And His Balloon Dogs.” - Art History Stories, 13 Feb. 2018,

17. “Early 20th Century French Bronze Pig Sculpture on Black Marble Base.” For Sale at 1stdibs,

18. “Early 20th Century French Patinated Bronze Dog Sculpture Signed T. Cartier.” For Sale at 1stdibs,

Emily Heffernan

The Reflection of Reality

Art mirrors cultural movements throughout history and sometimes causes people to feel a specific way about a certain situation. As far back as history goes, there have been artist that create pieces in order to show the world how they feel about a certain situation. Instead of doing this in basic ways like protesting or fighting, they will use their skills to show people in a more effective way. Whether it is through visual drawings, architecture, literature, or in song and dance. Some art is created to portray a message, and some art is created just to match the trend of the given time. A lot of artwork was created because there were popular things happening, not very controversial, but significant enough that people would appreciate the work.

In this collection we will be viewing pieces of art that all reflect the movements of society throughout history. We will also be looking at the reasons that these pieces were significant and why they might show us the importance of that particular event, trend, or movement. 


Kinley Baird

The Impact of America's Musical Evolution

My curated collection will investigate the non-linear timeline of music and its impact on listeners. I am a firm believer that music does not “improve” with time as it is ever-evolving in new and unique ways. However, I do believe that the additions and discoveries for new styles of music creation to be relative. Music folds over itself. In many aspects of life, not only in music, humans  have built off of past discoveries in order to continue their own research and eventual creation. 

After studying early European music pieces, I have been inspired to further explore musical evolution.  Today's artists have access to all of the music that had been created and recorded. The ability to build upon certain sounds from historic cultures is imperative to what we hear now. While modern artists have better means to effectively produce music, it does not necessarily mean that the quality is superior; they are  simply using preexisting music forms to build their own one-of-a-kind art. The connections I've made are between these ground-breaking moments in music history and what we still hear today.

The audience that this subject should appeal to is the melting pot of America. Music acts as an artistic timeline because it can poetically represent the emotions of the average person in the given demographic. The more that I learn and research of ancient music styles, the more I see a reflection in today's pop music culture.In this collection, I will emphasize the importance to be aware that while different demographics of the world live and experience different physical existences; they experienced the same human emotions. Music helps to prove this idea, giving us the ability to pinpoint the feelings of the past, present and future. 


Cam Rodriguez

Historic Relevance of Artistic & Innovative Feats

This collection explores historic art, music, culture, philosophy, engineering, and literature. The history of feats among those topics are discussed, as well as how they were relevant to society at the time and today. This collection should appeal to those who have a general interest in composition of any form, whether it'd be an interest in visual art, or something as different as the makeup of a certain philosophy. Tiles can contain many different things, as artistic and innovative feats have existed in every culture, regardless of the time period. Make sure to click the information tab accompanied with each image for descriptions. 

This collection follows a chronological trend starting with Ancient Egypt. The Pyramids of Giza are some of mans greatest constructions, and it's still a mystery as to how ancient man had the capability to construct such feats. Ancient Egyptian music is discussed, as well as how the harp is indigenous to the Egyptians. Ancient Greece is touched upon, especially the modern relevance of the Pythagorean Theorem. Greeks loved the human body, and they had high standards of beauty, which is very similar to today's definition of beauty. The great Roman aqueduct system was the first of its kind, it's interesting to see the initial stages of a sewer system, as you will in this collection. The Roman Empire had its share of graffiti, much of which is similar to modern graffiti, except people used to etch into rocks as opposed to using spray paint.

That's a quick summary of the initial pieces in this collection. There's certainly much more content for you to explore- much of which covers a lot of history up until World War One. Enjoy!


Brian Kelley

Comparing Modern Artists Who Were Inspired By The Ancient Arts

This collection dives into the comparison of modern and contemporary artists who were inspired by the ancient arts (prehistoric, ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, etc.) and builds upon the meaning of art and transformation of the different styles. What do these artists have in common? How were they inspired by the ancients?


Ashley Goerke

Leaders Throughout History

This collection explores varies leaders through history and why they were so memorable. These leaders will vary from rulers, commanders/captains, artists, and religious beliefs.  Throughout history leaders were treated as great people, who were able to make a stable for themselves through war, adventure, creation, and beliefs. 

One of my interest is looking back a leaders who set a name for themselves and what they have done that made them so known. All leaders from the past and modern time, have their own story and reading through each one of them is interesting to me, as it not only explain what they have done, but also how life was like. 

This collection will focus on why these leaders were so admired and what they have done for the people to view them as leaders through sculptures, architectures,  paintings, and literature. This collection is very interesting and all ages will find this collection very entertain and informative as it explain leaders from the past and modern time, but also around the world.   



The Influence of Warfare on Art Throughout History

The concept of groups of people initiating an organized conflict with one another predates civilization itself, and will likely always be present among us.  Many of the great historic civilizations who made major contributions to the arts also contributed to the development of military strategy and tactics, and participated in historic conflicts. In these civilizations, war is a frequent subject of the artwork they've produced, and the influence of war on the cultures of these societies is notable. This collection will examine the influences that warfare had on the art and culture of these civilizations through the analysis of individual works, and is meant to be viewed by those with an interest in military history and its commemoration through artwork/architecture.



Religion and Architecture

This collection examines how religious architecture became more about art than just a structure. Religion and its associated art and architecture were and have been at the center of every civilization.  While this visual journey begins with religious architecture that is dedicated to many gods or even particular gods, we will see new religions that are dedicated to one God. We will visualize how new religions brought about their own changes within the architecture. This will allow us to visualize how religious architecture has always played a vital role in early civilizations continuing to the world we live in today. 

As we examine these early structures, we can see how some of the themes are the same in different cultures. For example, while the Sumerians utilized more of a solid structure for religion as in the Ziggurat of Ur. The use of the columns and the use of the open space is later used in ancient Egypt, ancient Greece, and ancient Roman architecture. Following each visual of the structures, we will see whom the structure was built and dedicated.  

As we continue our journey, we start to see the development of Monotheistic religions that being with Judaism then to Christianity and then to Islam. All share similar origin stories. We can see the use of columns and space throughout this development. 

Modern times introduces us to more glass covered structures but also structures that take elements of the past and incorporate into modern engineering standards. 


Markus Vilhjalmsson

Curated Collection Part 1: How art, music, literature, and philosophy are interconnected

The purpose of this collection is to explore how music, literature, and philosophy are interconnected in multiple cultures. This collection contains prehistoric art images and information on them, as well as descriptions of how these works were inspired by the changing culture of the time. This collection will focus on works that were very inspired by music, literature and philosophy. This collection is for anyone wanting to learn more about the influences of many famous pieces of art.  #AHMCFall2019

Colette Nichols

Roman Art

The Romans culture included a ton of art. Granted, most of their ideas came from the Greek culture that preceded them. A lot of their art is a play on a Greek original. They dabbled in architecture; building temples, tombs, etc. They built sculptures with materials such as copper and iron. They even had a few writers and poets. This particular collection focuses on the architecture, sculptures and paintings related to their culture. I chose this topic and these segments because I am extremely interested in seeing how art was when it was first coming to fruition, generations ago. It is fascinating to mentally compare it to the art forms we see today. #AHMCFall2019

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