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Betts 15-Inch Collapsible Terrestrial Globe

National Museum of American History
This is a cloth globe on a steel frame that expands and collapses like an umbrella. The cartouche in the North Pacific reads “BY THE QUEEN’S ROYAL LETTERS PATENT / BETTS’S / PORTABLE / TERRESTRIAL GLOBE / COMPILED FROM / THE LATEST AND BEST AUTHORITIES / LONDON: GEORGE PHILIP & SON, 32 FLEET STREET / LIVERPOOL: CAXTON BUILDINGS, AND 49 & 51 SOUTH CASTLE STREET.” The pine box that holds the collapsed globe is marked “BETTS’S PATENT PORTABLE GLOBE” and “London: George Philip & Son, 32, Fleet Street Liverpool: Caxton Buildings, & 49 & 51 South Castle Street.” John Betts (fl. 1844-1875) was a London publisher who specialized in inexpensive educational goods. He obtained a British patent (GB 1338) for "Collapsible Geographical Spheres" in 1856, and began advertising his patent portable globe soon thereafter. This example was produced by George Philip & Son, a publishing firm that was established in London in 1834, and that was still offering Betts’s globes in the 1920s. The inclusion of “Cape Colony” suggests that this example was made before the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910. The inclusion of “Ind. Ter.” in the United States suggests that it was made before 1907 when Oklahoma became a state. Ref: John Betts, A Companion to Betts’s Portable Globe and Diagrams (about 1850). John Lanman, “Folding or Collapsible Terrestrial Globes,” Der Globusfreund 35-37 (1987): 39-44. Elly Dekker, Globes at Greenwich (Oxford, 1999), pp. 276-278, and 444-447. Yojiro Utsunomiya, “The Amount of Geographical Information on ‘Betts’s Portable Terrestrial Globe’” Globe Studies 53-56 (2007): 100-?

p-type solar cell for terrestrial use

National Museum of American History
Solar cells come in many shapes and sizes, and are manufactured with a variety of materials. The wafer of this round cell is made with the element silicon and has an anti-reflection coating of titanium dioxide. The dark areas convert sunlight into electricity while the thick and thin lines are part of the electrical circuit. The two white, golf club-shaped parallel lines are the main circuit leads that gather the charge from the seventeen thin “fingers” that run horizontally across the wafer. This solar cell was designed for use on the ground rather than in space.

Video Game Cartridge, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial

National Museum of American History

Williamson 7-Inch Concentric Globe, Terrestrial and Celestial

National Museum of American History
In this curious instrument, a terrestrial globe sits inside a glass sphere on which the stars and constellations have been painted. This, in turn, is mounted on a decorative cast-zinc base. The cartouche on the terrestrial globe reads: “IMPROVEMENT IN / CELESTIAL & TERRESTRIAL / GLOBES / PATENTED BY H. WILLIAMSON / NEW YORK. DEC. 3, 1867 / Sold by HARPER & BROTHERS / Franklin Square, N.Y.” The words “PATENTED / DEC. 3, 1867 / No 85” and “G.C. WESSMANN / NEW YORK / MAKER” appear on a brass band that circles the terrestrial globe. Hugh Williamson of New York City obtained a patent (#71,830) for a concentric globe in 1867, and a second prize at the American Institute fair of 1869. Ref: Hugh Williamson, A Manual of Problems of the Globes, Designed as an Accompaniment to Williamson’s Patent Concentric Celestial and Terrestrial Globes (New York, 1868). D. J. Warner, “The Geography of Heaven and Earth,” Rittenhouse 2 (1988): 134-135.

p-type hexagonal solar cell for terrestrial use

National Museum of American History
Solar cells come in many shapes and sizes, and are manufactured with a variety of materials. The wafer of this hexagonal cell is made with the element silicon. The dark areas convert sunlight into electricity while the thick and thin lines are part of the electrical circuit. The white, tapered arrow along the center is the main lead and gathers the charge from twelve thin “fingers” that run horizontally across the wafer. This solar cell was designed for use on the ground rather than in space. The hexagonal shape allows many cells to be grouped together on a panel, minimizing wasted space between each cell.

Reproductive mode plasticity: Aquatic and terrestrial oviposition in a treefrog

Smithsonian Libraries
Diversification of reproductive mode is a major theme in animal evolution. Vertebrate reproduction began in water, and terrestrial eggs evolved multiple times in fishes and amphibians and in the amniote ancestor. Because oxygen uptake from water conflicts with water retention in air, egg adaptations to one environment typically preclude development in the other. Few animals have variable reproductive modes, and no vertebrates are known to lay eggs both in water and on land. We report phenotypic plasticity of reproduction with aquatic and terrestrial egg deposition by a frog. The treefrog Dendropsophus ebraccatus, known to lay eggs terrestrially, also lays eggs in water, both at the surface and fully submerged, and chooses its reproductive mode based on the shade above a pond. Under unshaded conditions, in a disturbed habitat and in experimental mesocosms, these frogs lay most of their egg masses aquatically. The same pairs also can lay eggs terrestrially, on vegetation over water, even during a single night. Eggs can survive in both aquatic and terrestrial environments, and variable mortality risks in each may make oviposition plasticity adaptive. Phylogenetically, D. ebraccatus branches from the basal node in a clade of terrestrially breeding species, nested within a larger lineage of aquatic-breeding frogs. Reproductive plasticity in D. ebraccatus may represent a retained ancestral state intermediate in the evolution of terrestrial reproduction.

The terrestrial Mollusca inhabiting the Society Islands / by Andrew Garett

Smithsonian Libraries
Caption title.

From the Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 2nd series, vol. 9.

Also available online.

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