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“When Day Is Done”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “When Day Is Done” that had lyrics written by Buddy G. DeSylva and music composed by Dr. Robert Katscher. The sheet music was published by Harms Incorporated in New York, New York in 1924. The plain white cover features a black text for the title and credits.

“Whatever the Hue of Your Eyes”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Whatever the Hue of Your Eyes” that was written by Harry B. Smith and composed by William Marion Cook. The sheet music was published by Joseph W. Stern & Company in 1900. The cover features an illustration of a woman riding a donkey across sand with pyramids in the background, and an inset photo of Virginia Earle. The song came from the show “The Casino Girl,” which starred Virginia Earle.

“What's the Matter with Father”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “What's the Matter with Father,” that was written and composed by Harry Williams and Egbert Van Alstyne. Jerome H. Remick & Company of New York, New York published this sheet music in 1910. The blue cover has an illustration of a smiling older man, signed by “Starmer” in the lower right. There is a small inset photograph of Williams and Van Alstyne below the illustration, with a larger inset photograph of an unidentified actress on the right of the cover.

“What Are You Going to Do to Help the Boys”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “What Are You Going to Do to Help the Boys.”The song’s lyrics were written by Gus Kahn and the music was composed by Egbert Van Alstyne. The sheet music was published by Jerome H. Remick & Co. of New York City in 1918. The blue cover features a large question mark in the center with an illustration of Uncle Sam inside, looking down at a pile of war bonds. The song says that if you are too young or too old to fight in the war, “the least you can do is buy a Liberty Bond or two.”

“Werner’s Musical Recitations”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music of “Werner’s Musical Recitations” was a collection of songs by various artists that was published by Werner Publishing of New York, New York in 1900. Publishers would often sell these compilations of sheet music after the music’s first publication as a discount option for consumers.

“Weary River”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Weary River” that was written by Grant Clarke and composed by Louis Silvers. The music was published by Irving Berlin, Inc. of New York City in 1929. The orange cover had an inset photograph of Richard Barthelmess. Barthelmess performed the song “Weary River” in a movie of the same name, using Vitaphone technology to record the sound for the film.

“We'll Meet Again”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music for the song “We’ll Meet Again” was written and composed by William T. Francis and published by Arthur W. Tams of New York, New York in 1900. This sheet music appeared as a musical supplement to the “Philadelphia Times” on Sunday, July 29, 1900. The cover features a lady in Grecian dress playing a lyre on a pinkish background.

“We'll Make Hay While the Sun Shines”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “We'll Make Hay While the Sun Shines” from the film “Going Hollywood.”Arthur Freed wrote the lyrics to the song and Nacio Herb Brown composed the music. The sheet music was published by the Robbins Music Corporation of New York City in 1933. The purple cover has a central photograph of Marion Davies and Bing Crosby, who were the stars of the Metro Goldwyn Meyer film.

“We Won't Go Home Until Morning”

National Museum of American History
The sheet music for the song, “We Won’t Go Home Until Morning” was written by Keller Mack and composed by Frank Orth. The music was published by M.D. Swisher of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1907. The white cover has blue-green lettering and an inset photo of Bessie Wynn, who sang the song as a vaudevillian actress.

“Wah! Hoo!”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Wah! Hoo!” that was written and composed by Cliff Friend. The Crawford Music Corporation of New York City published this sheet music in 1936. The yellow and black cover features an illustration of a cowboy riding a bucking horse, and an inset photograph of Eddie Davis who featured the song at the New York City club “Leon & Eddies.”Eddie Davis and Leon Enken opened the club as a speakeasy in 1928 with Davis as the main entertainment.

“Wabash Blues”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Wabash Blues.” Dave Ringle wrote the song’s lyrics and Fred Meinken composed the music. Leo Feist Inc. of New York City published this sheet music in 1921. The blue cover has an image of a yellow house, with an inset photograph of Vincent Lopez, a popular band leader at the time who would have featured the song with his orchestra.

“Up in a Balloon”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music for the song “Up in a Balloon” was written and composed by G. W. Hunt and published by R.M. DeWitt of New York, New York in 1869. The cover is a green background with white parchment scrolls that frames the lettering on the cover. There are five small cherubs scattered around the cover, and one is playing a harp, and another the pan flute.

“Under the Double Eagle”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Under the Double Eagle” was composed by Josef Franz Wagner and published by the Armstrong Music Publishing Company of New York, New York. The song was written by Wagner in the 1880s, but popularized in America by John Philip Sousa. The cover of the sheet music has a green and purple motif, with an image of a double-headed eagle in the upper right.

“Under the Daisies”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music for the song “Under the Daisies” was written and composed by H. Millard and published by S. T. Gordon and Sons of New York, New York in 1865. The cover features an image of a graveyard, with a tombstone that reads “In Memory,” and the cover notes that this song was written by Millard, “to his friend, Harry Standfield.”

“Under the Banana Tree”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Under the Banana Tree.” Arthur J. Lamb wrote the lyrics for the song and Lawrence B. O’Connor composed the music. The sheet music was published by G.W. Setchell of Boston, Massachusetts in 1904. The blue cover has an illustration of blue flower, with an inset image of popular singer and actress Jennie Yeamans in the center. The illustration was signed “Fisher.”

“Under the Bamboo Tree”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music for the song “Under the Bamboo Tree” was published by Joseph W. Stern & Company of New York, New York, and composed by the Cole and Johnson Brothers. The sheet music cover features an image of Marie Cahill, a famous actress of the time who sang the song in the musical “Sally in our Alley.” The cover is styled after a bamboo wall to go along with the title of the song.

“Tracing American Journeys” Chronicles Experiences of 17 Immigrant Entrepreneurs

Smithsonian Insider

The United States was in part shaped by the dreams and contributions of immigrants who sought a better life for themselves and their families. Thanks […]

The post “Tracing American Journeys” Chronicles Experiences of 17 Immigrant Entrepreneurs appeared first on Smithsonian Insider.

“Toreador Song”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the “Toreador Song,” from the opera “Carmen.” The song was originally composed in French by Georges Bizet, but this English translation is done by Jerry Castillo. The sheet music was published by the Calumet Music Company of Chicago, Illinois in 1935. The bright red cover features a silhouetted image of a toreador, or bullfighter, with an inset photograph of George Olsen on the lower left.

“Too Young”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Too Young.” The song’s lyrics were written by Sylvia Dee and the music was composed by Sid Lippman. The sheet music was published by the Jefferson Music Company of New York City in 1951. The blue-tinged cover features a central photograph of Nat King Cole, who recorded the song for Capitol Records. There is also a white silhouette bust of Thomas Jefferson just below the title.

“Till the Sands of the Desert Grow Cold”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Till the Sands of the Desert Grow Cold.” The song’s lyrics were written by George Graff Jr., and the music was composed by Ernest R. Ball. The sheet music was published by M. Witmark and Sons of New York City in 1911. The sheet music has a plain white cover with plain black lettering, and the song’s lyrics are typical of a love song written during this period.

“Till We Meet Again”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Till We Meet Again.”The song was written by Raymond B. Egan and composed by Richard A. Whiting. The music was published by Jerome H. Remick & Company of New York, New York. The cover image features an image of an officer clutching a woman to his chest while he fades into the shadows; the woman is reclining against him holding a rose in her hand.

“Three Jolly Sailors”

National Museum of American History
The sheet music for the song "Three Jolly Sailors" was written by Louise E. Stairs and published by the Theodore Presser Company of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1936. The cover is white and has blue text and an illustration of three boys riding on a raft down a river, and one boy is standing with a pole propelling the raft downstream.

“This is 9-1-1. What is your emergency?”: A history of raising the alarm

National Museum of American History

At 2 p.m. on February 16, 1968, a special red telephone rang at the police station in Haleyville, Alabama. Rather than a police officer, U.S. Congressman Tom Bevill answered the call. On the other end of the line was Alabama Speaker of the House Rankin Fite, calling from the mayor’s office (actually located in another part of the same building). Bevill’s simple answer of “hello” may not rank alongside Samuel Morse’s “What hath God wrought,” but it ushered in an important part of daily life, one that has saved countless American lives over the past 50 years. The call marked the first use of the emergency number 9-1-1, a technological answer to a life-and-death question—how do you get help quickly in the event of an emergency? Americans wrestling with the problem have experimented with many innovative solutions over the years.

In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, getting to the scene of a fire as quickly as possible was the best defense against a damaging conflagration. Just as today, time was of the essence. Watchmen would alert the populace with wooden rattles and raise the alarm by shouting through the streets (sometimes known as “hallooing fire”). Citizens and volunteer firefighters alike would grab leather buckets, hooks, axes, and other necessary equipment and head in the direction of the clamor. A simple fire pumper might be drawn by hand to the scene as well. But finding a fire fast, especially in a warren of urban streets, could be difficult.

Wooden device with a grooved handleA wooden alarm rattle like this one would have been standard equipment for watchmen patrolling city streets in late-18th and early-19th-century America.

The citizens of Philadelphia tried one solution when they restored the steeple of the Pennsylvania State House (better known as Independence Hall) in 1828. They hung a new bell and put a watchman on duty to keep a lookout for fires. Franklin Peale, son of painter Charles Willson Peale, suggested an alarm system for the new bell that would direct fire companies to the scene of a blaze. In the event of a fire near the State House itself, the bell in the steeple was rung continuously. One peal at regular intervals indicated a fire to the north, two peals meant a fire to the south, three to the east, four to the west, and so on. This system is preserved in the decoration on the top of a fire hat from Philadelphia in the museum collections. A compass rose, with a bell at the center, displays the alarm code. Bell codes were used in other cities as well, like New York. In Boston, the city was divided into fire districts, and church bells would peal the number of a district where a fire was discovered. However, the 19th century saw American cities growing in size and population, and a better system was needed to pinpoint the location of an emergency.

Two images; Left, a fire hat with elaborate designs. Right, the top of the hat decorated with a compass rose.This fire hat, worn by a member of Philadelphia’s Taylor Hose Company, has the bell code for the city painted on its crown, in the form of a compass rose. The marks stand for the number of peals of the bell that corresponded to each direction, with Independence Hall as the center point.

William F. Channing and Moses Farmer were both obsessed with the potential for electromagnetism and telegraphy. Specifically, both believed it could be harnessed to create a reliable and near-instantaneous fire alarm system throughout the city of Boston. The two collaborated to lobby city officials to fund “the Application of the Electric Telegraph to signalizing Alarms of Fire” (as their presentation was titled) and received $10,000 to develop and establish their system.

After running nearly 50 miles of wire throughout the city, connected to dozens of alarm boxes and bells, Channing and Farmer’s system was ready in the spring of 1852. If someone opened an alarm box and turned a small crank, the special-purpose telegraph would send out a pulsating electric current to electromagnets that pulled and released the bell clappers, producing alarms both at the scene of the emergency and at the central station, where the location was recorded. The first attempt by the public to use the system was on April 29, 1852. Unfortunately, the helpful citizen cranked too fast, such that the message could not be read, and the man had to run to the central signal office to alert them of the fire in person. Nevertheless, Channing and Farmer would continue to refine their system, and within months it proved a reliable tool in raising the alarm in Boston.

Channing and Farmer made a joint application for a patent for their system, and a patent was issued on May 19, 1857 (Patent No. 17355). Their patent model resides today in the Electricity Collections here at the museum, along with earlier prototypes.

A wooden model. It consists of a wooden base supporting an upright board that has two fire alarm transmitting stations operated by a crank and one alarm station, powered by two battery cells at the back.This is the original patent model for William Channing and Moses Farmer’s “Electromagnetic Fire Alarm Telegraph for Cities.” Patent No. 17355 was issued on May 19, 1857. It consists of a wooden base supporting an upright board that has two fire alarm transmitting stations operated by a crank and one alarm station, powered by two battery cells at the back.

It was at a Smithsonian Institution lecture in March 1855 that emergency alarms took another step. At that lecture, William Channing described the details and merits of the Channing and Farmer system, humbly noting theirs was “a higher system of municipal organization than any which has heretofore been proposed or adopted.” Despite this lofty claim, both men had failed to sell their system to other cities and municipalities, and Channing was falling into debt.

Attending the lecture was John Nelson Gamewell, a postmaster and telegraph operator from Camden, South Carolina. Seeing an opportunity, Gamewell raised the funds to buy the rights to market the Channing and Farmer system. Beginning in 1856, he sold the system to several American cities, including New Orleans, St. Louis, and Philadelphia. By 1859 Gamewell obtained the full rights and patents to the system and was on the verge of creating a fire alarm empire when the Civil War broke out. The U.S. government seized the patents from the Confederate Gamewell, and John Kennard, a fire official from Boston, bought them on the cheap in 1867.

After the war, Gamewell moved north and partnered with Kennard to create a new company to manufacture and sell fire alarms. Building on their success, Gamewell established the Gamewell Fire Alarm Telegraph Company, and its logo—a fist holding a clutch of lightning bolts—would soon be found on alarm boxes throughout North America. By 1890 Gamewell systems were installed in nearly 500 cities in the United States and Canada.

A red box shaped like a fire house station with a pull handle. The box is decorated with the company logo of Gamewell, complete with a hand gripping bolts of electricity.An example of a Gamewell fire alarm box, with the company’s innovative Peerless 3 Fold mechanism still inside. This unit dates to the mid-1940s. By the early 20th century, Gamewell had over 90% of the market share in the United States; these fire alarm boxes would have been a common feature in nearly every American town and city.

While Gamewell boxes became a common sight on public streets and buildings in the early 20th century, more and more Americans were installing a new device in their homes and businesses: the telephone. Before the advent of rotary dial phones (ask your parents, kids), all calls went through with operator assistance, and emergency calls could be directed to the appropriate party. With dial service, a person with an emergency had to call direct to their local police station, hospital, or fire department. Experiments with a universal emergency number in the UK in the 1930s prompted the National Association of Fire Chiefs to recommend such a system for the United States in 1957. On January 12, 1968, after a decade of study and debate and presidential commissions, the Federal Communications Commission and AT&T announced the selection of 9-1-1 as a national emergency number. One FCC member boasted at the time that 911 would be better remembered than 007.

The number was indeed easy to remember, quick to dial when needed, particularly on rotary phones (did you ask?), and difficult to dial in error. AT&T had already established special three-digit numbers—4-1-1 for directory assistance and 6-1-1 for customer service—so the new emergency number fit the existing system.

Some 2,000 independent phone companies in the United States had been left out of the decision, many preferring “0” as the standard number. Nevertheless, one such company decided get behind 9-1-1 in a big way. Bob Gallagher, the president of the Alabama Telephone Company (ATC), decided his company would beat “Ma Bell” to the punch. ATC staff picked Haleyville as the best location and worked after hours to design and implement the infrastructure. Almost exactly one month after AT&T’s announcement, Speaker Fite and Congressman Bevill spoke over the first dedicated 9-1-1 line. Nome, Alaska, would debut a 9-1-1 system about a week later.

A red rotary phoneThe phone from the first 9-1-1 call, on display in Haleyville, Alabama. Photo courtesy of Mayor Ken Sunseri, Haleyville, Alabama.

It would take time for the system to grow in the United States, so publicity like that which surrounded the Haleyville call helped to spread the idea. Twenty years later, only half the U.S. population had access to a 9-1-1 system. By the end of the last century, that number had grown to well over 90%. Today an estimated 240 million calls a year are made to 9-1-1. Upwards of 80% of these calls now come from wireless devices, something almost impossible to consider 50 years ago, just as the watchman with a wooden rattle might not envision an alarm traveling over electrical wires.

Tim Winkle is the deputy chair of the Division of Home and Community Life and the curator of the Firefighting and Law Enforcement Collection.

Posted Date: 
Thursday, February 15, 2018 - 06:30
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“This Is a D.C. Thing!” Head-Roc on Social Issues in Music

Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage

He has been called the “Mayor of D.C. Hip-Hop.” Vance Levy, known to many as Head-Roc, has made a name for himself across the region through his commitment to making and supporting music that matters. On the scene since 1993—as a founding member of Infinite Loop and a member of Three Levels of Genius (3LG), which won the Washington Area Music Association’s hip-hop award four times—his musical talents and fearless outspokenness have distinguished him as a force to be reckoned with on and off the stage.

With his initiative Chocolate City Rocks, Levy works to bring public awareness and support to socially conscious D.C. artists by organizing performances and other events held around the city. As a writer, he has commented on local issues for the Washington City Paper and Huffington Post DC. As the education director for Washington Area Lawyers for the Arts, he also contributes to ensuring that artists have access to legal resources.

Levy grew up near Seventh and Kennedy streets NW, an area he refers to as “Uptown.” Though his family later moved to Maryland, he has spent much of his adult life working and living in the district. From this vantage point, he can testify to how music in the city has impacted both him and the broader culture of Washington, D.C.

Here’s what he had to say in an interview from September 2019.

How did you get the name Head-Roc?

My first name, attribute, was G-Clef. It stands for Giving Civilized Lessons Educating Forever. I went by that in the hip-hop collective I’m a member of, the Infinite Loop. One day we were doing a show with KRS-ONE in a place called the Zulu Cave, which was near Bladensburg Road and New York Avenue—where the train tracks are—at a place called De Zulu Cave. This was a place that catered to sounds from Jamaica, reggae music, dance hall. At this show, I was handling the business for the Infinite Loop, and there were some negotiations that needed to happen last minute.

So, I was talking to the promoter, and there was a Rasta nearby, who, apparently, witnessed everything that went down between me and the promoter. When that situation ended, he stopped us and he said, “Man, where I’m from, we call you Heady!” And they started laughing, and they started calling me Heady, and they wouldn’t call me G-Clef no more.

So to put the “hip-hopinization” on it, if you will: Head. Dash. Roc. You got Vin Rock (Naughty By Nature), Chubb Rock. You got a lot of “Rocks,” you know, so: Head-Roc. That’s how that came about.

How has D.C. music influenced you?

Fourth or fifth grade, sixth grade, middle school, high school—that’s when I really began to identify D.C. music. Like understanding about go-go, “Oh, this is a D.C. thing!” You know, you heard it, but I began to understand it as something unique to D.C. in my middle school years, in the 1980s. Once we identified that this is from D.C., we all wanted to play it. So, we would have go-go bands in the garage, practicing in the garage at my parents’ house or at my friends’ parents’ houses.

How did you know you wanted to be a musician?

In elementary school, I used to make comic books with a group of friends. It was called the “Cosmic Comics Group.” We would have our own comic book characters. We had our own universe. That was my first artistic expression.

It wasn’t until high school when a brother named Sir Johnson and his family moved into my neighborhood. They were from New Jersey. Sir was a barber. He used to cut hair for Busta Rhymes. He’s actually quite a figure in hip-hop. I don’t like to say he’s a “background” figure, but, you know, he was a less recognized figure in hip-hop.

But let me be clear about this: I attribute meeting him to be the origins of my wanting to be a musician. One thousand percent! His family had two turntables in the basement and all these records. I had never seen a setup like that before. And they would be in there practicing, DJing and all that. There was a brother, who goes by the name DJ Infinite, used to live with the Johnson family. He and I, together with Sir, formed a group we called Last Resort.

I credit Infinite and Sir and the Johnson family with being the reasons why I eventually decided that I could earn a living as an artist in the discipline of music.

What do you find most powerful and unique about D.C. music?

For me as a black artist, D.C. music is very bluesy. It’s very soulful. It’s very funky. We are laid back! We some laid back cats here. So I have a D.C. understanding of rhythm, and that gave me an advantage in hip-hop because our rhythm is laid back. It’s very funk, heavily funk-based. And what’s more, the standards for funk here are very high. Extremely high. There are a lot of D.C. musicians that play all over the world, in funk bands, in different types of outfits that require a funky understanding of rhythm, if you will.

I find this to be true of D.C. music, whether it’s go-go, hip-hop, punk: a lot of us are talking about the social conditions in this town because this is the nation’s capital. If there’s one place in the country where the Constitution and the amendments—where like things are supposed to run by the book, it’s supposed to be here. But it doesn’t run like that! So that’s what artists are talking about.

Even in go-go music, I mean very powerful music. The Junkyard Band’s song “The Word,” talking about Reagan and the Pentagon. It’s a go-go song talking about Reagan in the early eighties! They’re talking about what’s going on in this town. Hip-hop music does the same thing, and so does the punk community. The punk community’s famous for talking about what’s going on in this town. And then there’s the music of other cultures and communities here as well, who are expressing themselves as they carve out their way to hold their ground to survive in this city.

So there’s a lot going on. There’s pop culture and the mainstream and what you would call the “underground.” I’d like to give it a little more prestige than that: “independent”! Let’s say it like that. There’s the community that is independent of the opinions of the mainstream and pop gatekeepers and tastemakers, and so at that independent level, aw man, everybody knows D.C. music is awesome! Some of the best musicians in the country, in the world, come out of here!

Find more from Head-Roc on Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram.

Flyer for “Make Me Wanna Holler!” event on April 20, 2019
Design by Emmaline Nelson, National Postal Museum

Perspectives on D.C.’s Music Legacy

Music is embedded into every nook and cranny of D.C. It begs the question: what is D.C. music? Can it be defined?

On April 20, 2019, the Smithsonian collaborated with Chocolate City Rocks and the Charles Sumner School Museum and Archives to present Make Me Wanna Holler!, a series of activities celebrating the U.S. Postal Service’s new stamp honoring D.C. native son Marvin Gaye. Levy organized a discussion in which artists working in different social spaces dug deep into their thoughts and feelings about D.C.

The panel included Elise Bryant (DC Labor Chorus and the Labor Heritage Foundation), Anthony Fields (hip-hop musician, BKA Dimensions of The Package, A.R.K., Infinite Loop), Raj Lidj (funk/go-go musician and creator of Reg’go), and Katy Otto (punk musician and activist, Trophy Wife). Read transcripts of audio excerpts.

Vance “Head-Roc” Levy: What Is D.C. Music?

Levy begins the panel discussion by sharing his thoughts on the meaning of “D.C. music.” He calls attention to the significance of go-go and its components, addressing why it’s so significant to D.C.’s culture.

Katy Otto: The D.C. Punk Scene

Otto talks about her introduction to punk music in high school and how it resonated with her, inspiring her to play the drums.

Ras Lidj: The Reg-go Sound

Creator of the “reg-go” sound, Ras Lidj recites lyrics from two songs, beginning with “Tour Bus,” which was inspired by his experience working at Tower Records in Northwest D.C. during the day and not being able to find cabs that were willing to take him home at night.

Katy Otto, Infinite, Elise Bryant, and Ras Lidj take part in a discussion panel moderated by Vance Levy
Katy Otto, Infinite, Elise Bryant, and Ras Lidj take part in a discussion panel moderated by Vance Levy.
Photo by Nichole Procopenko, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives
A chalkboard at the panel discussion asks, “What does D.C. music mean to you?” Visitors responded on Post-It notes.
Photo by Nichole Procopenko, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives
A chalkboard at the panel discussion asks, “What does D.C. music mean to you?” One visitor responded, “Go-go, hand dancing, marching bands...everything!!”
Photo by Sojin Kim, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives

Gissel Bonilla is a senior at School Without Walls, a magnet school in Northwest D.C. She volunteered at the 2018 Smithsonian Folklife Festival and began interning at the Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage in 2019 through the Center for Inspired Teaching’s afterschool program, Real World History.

Special thanks to Takoma Radio WOWD FM for the audio recording of the discussion session.

25-48 of 2,559,877 Resources