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Found 5,750 Collections

 

National History Day: American Immigrant Experiences

This collection brings together EDSITEment and Smithsonian resources to support the initial research into a project for National History Day.  While originally created for the 2019 theme, "Triumph and Tragedy in History," resources found in this collection are useful for researching other National History Day themes.  

These resources - including objects, documents, websites, and articles - reveal challenges and opportunities experienced by American immigrants in the 19th to mid-20th centuries.  Resources highlight hardships that compelled people to leave their homelands, difficulties immigrants faced upon arrival, and ways they overcame obstacles to build new lives and communities in America.  The second tile of this collection contains questions to help with the analysis of photograph, document, artwork, portrait, and object resources. 

The history of immigration in America is an immense topic, and this collection addresses only aspects of it.  Use this collection to brainstorm project topics, find connected resources, and as a launching point for further research.

This collection was created in collaboration with EDSITEment, a website for K-12 educators from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

Share your National History Day collections and let us know what you think! Write to us on Twitter: @EDSITEment & @SmithsonianLab, #NHD2019. If you publish a collection on your National History Day topic, be sure to enter #NHD2019 in the description!

Tags: 1800s, 1900s angel island, ellis island, immigration test, community, prejudice, irish, jewish, syrian, lebanese, arab, italian, mexican, german, greek, bohemian, czech, slovenian, know nothing, triangle shirtwaist factory fire, swedish, chinese exclusion act, japanese american incarceration, internment, bracero program, stories project, #NHD

Rubina Pantoja
128
 

Domingo Ulloa's

This teaching collection helps students to look closely and think critically by examining Domigo Ulloa's painting, Braceros, and historical documentation related to the bracero program, a series of short-term labor contracts from 1942-1964 in which an estimated two million Mexican men came to the US to work on farms and roads. The collection prompts students to consider the program from a variety of perspectives, including individual, collective, social, economic, and political.  

Included here are the painting, a bilingual video with Smithsonian American Art Museum (SAAM) curator E. Carmen Ramos, four suggested Thinking Routines - "See, Think, Wonder," "Step In, Step Out, Step Back," "The 3 Y's," and "Think, Feel, Care" - from Harvard's Project Zero Artful Thinking and Global Thinking materials, supporting digital content from the National Museum of American History, and a blogpost from SAAM of two DC student's written responses to the prompt, "What Domingo Ulloa's Braceros Means to Me." 

For use in Social Studies, Spanish, English, and American History classes

#LatinoHAC #EthnicStudies

This collection supports Unit 1: Intersectionality of Economics, Politics, and Policy, of the Austin ISD Ethnic Studies Part B course.

This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Latino Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center. 


Rubina Pantoja
10
 

Bracero Program: Unveiling Stories

In this activity, students will examine photographs documenting the Bracero Program, the largest guest-worker program in US history. Started in 1942 as a temporary war measure to address labor demands in agriculture and railroads, the program allowed Mexican nationals to take temporary agricultural work in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, and 24 other states. By the time the program ended in 1964, over 4.6 million contracts were awarded.

Using two Project Zero Global Thinking Routines - "Unveiling Stories" and "The 3 Ys" - students will analyze the stories these photographs tell about the experiences of braceros in this program, and the impact of these stories in multiple contexts. Additional resources (primary sources, a digital exhibition, and an article) and information on how to use these routines in the classroom can by found by clicking Read More ».

Keywords: mexican, immigration, work, migration, migrant workers, agriculture, reform, politics, government, leonard nadel, photojournalism, activity, inquiry strategy, global competency, global competence, latino, chicano, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Arkansas, 1940s, 40s, 1950s, 50s, 1960s, 60s

#LatinoHAC #EthnicStudies

Rubina Pantoja
37
 

The Bracero Program: Constructing a Narrative

This assignment asks students to look at evidence and develop a narrative. Developed by UC Berkeley History-Social Science Project. 

Rubina Pantoja
9
 

Mexican Art & U.S. History: Carmen Lomas Garza

This collection will provide an opportunity for students to analyze artwork, read background information, and connect art with historical events. At the heart of this activity is artwork created by Latino artist Carmen Lomas Garza. These paintings reflect the experiences of Garza's family and Latino life in 1980s America. In addition to image analysis, teachers could extend an opportunity for students to identify and discuss connections between Garza's art and the Mexican American experience from the 1960s to the present. This collection includes:

  • A timeline of U.S.-Mexican American relations
  • Video/audio of Reagan signing the 1986 Immigration Reform Control Act
  • And an overview of immigration reform via ABC-CLIO (requires subscription). 

#ethnicstudies #LISDSS

Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills Connections #TEKS

  • 24A describe how the characteristics of and issues in U.S. history have been reflected in various genres of art, music, film, and literature;

Rubina Pantoja
24
 

Traqueros, part 2: Chain Migration and Boxcar Communities

A profound result of the vast employment of traqueros in the transportation industry was the railroads' corporate strategy to establish means for "chain migration." Chain migration refers to the process of immigrants from a particular region or town following the path of prior immigrants (from their same region or town) to the same destination. 

As the agricultural, petroleum, and cattle ranching industries of the Southwest expanded to a vast scale in the early 20th century, the demand for traquero labor grew as well. To meet this demand, companies like the Santa Fe Railroad incentivized traqueros to bring along their families, including wives and children, to live on sites by the rail yards rent-free. 

A key tactic in this strategy was the practice of housing traqueros in converted boxcars. These converted boxcars would be grouped together into settlements, which tended to be of two types: one was a species of "mobile villages" that moved along the train tracks, whereas the other type was comprised by taking boxcar quarters off the rails and grouping them together on the outskirts of rail yards in areas usually saved for section gangs. Historian Al Camarillo, in his book Chicanos in a Changing Society: From Mexican Pueblos to American Barrios in Santa Barbara and Southern California, 1848-1930 (1979) has termed the process of establishing boxcar settlements as "barrioization," because these family-centered communities demonstrated the sustainability of Mexican American communities, as well as familiarized Mexican immigrants with different parts of the U.S. that would become significant Mexican immigrant destinations.

Mexican boxcar communities existed all over the country and in major cities including Chicago, Pittsburgh, Los Angeles, and San Diego. 

On April 18th, 2016, Dr. Antonio Delgado, a former Smithsonian Institution Visiting Scholar (1998), presented his research on Mexican boxcar communities in Chicago at the McHenry County Historical Society Museum. Illinois Humanities sponsored the event, publishing the Daily Herald's notice of the program on the Illinois Humanities' news blog. The online story includes a trailer for local station WTVP's documentary, Boxcar People, for which the now adult children of traqueros were interviewed. 

#EthnicStudies #MexicanAmericans #Traqueros #Railroads #BoxcarCommunities #ChainMigration #Latinos #Chicanos

Rubina Pantoja
6
 

Emma S. Barrientos Mexican American Cultural Center Virtual Tour

Take a virtual tour of the Emma S. Barrientos Mexican American Cultural Center on-site art installations.

Emma S. Barrientos Mexican American Cultural Center
53
 

Asian American Modernism

This collection is meant to build on two earlier collections, "Asian American Art: Emerging from the Shadows"  and "Asian American Artists and World War II" and to introduce the viewer to artists of Asian ancestry in America using Chang, Johnson & Karlstrom's text, Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970 (2008), the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco's exhibition catalog "Asian/American/Modern Art: Shifting Currents, 1900-1970" (2008),the vast resources of the Smithsonian Learning Lab, Project Zero's Global Thinking Routines and other resources.  This collection is part two of four that I have organized, chronologically, on Asian American Art.  The other three collections are "Asian American Art: Emerging from the Shadows",  "Asian American Artists and World War II" and "Asian American Contemporary Art".  It is my hope that these collections will serve as entry points to understanding the many contributions of Asian American artists in the U.S. from 1850 until the present time.

Visual art is a language that is socially and culturally constructed.  Socially constructed learning values diverse perspectives, engages with local and global experts, and employs inquiry, discovery and exploration to move students toward global citizenship.  Because the visual arts leverage the power of dialogue and debate to sharpen critical thinking, starting with the arts is a logical place to help students develop cultural intelligence.

Other purposes of these collections are to explore tangible and intangible cultural heritage; as well as jumpstart brave conversations about race, identity and immigration in the U.S. with teachers, tutors of English Language Learners and others who are interested in becoming cultural leaders in our public schools.

As Gordon H. Chang and Mark Dean Johnson state in the introduction of the exhibition catalog, "Asian/American/Modern Art: Shifting Currents, 1900-1970" (2008):

"Forty years ago there were no Asian Americans.  There were Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Filipinos, and others of Asian ancestry in the United States, but no 'Asian Americans,' as that term was coined only in 1968.  This population was commonly seen as foreign, alien, not of America.  Their lives and experiences were not generally accepted as part of the fabric of the country, even though Asians had begun settling here steadily in the mid-nineteenth century.

Then, in the late 1960s, as part of the upsurge in the self-assertion of marginalized communities,  'Asian America' emerged to challenge the stigma of perpetual foreignness.  'Asian American' was a claim of belonging, of rootedness, of pride and identity, and of history and community; it was also a recognition of distinctive cultural achievement"  (Chang, Johnson, 2008).

#APA2018

Rubina Pantoja
18
 

My ethnic studies musings

This collection was started as a way to share resources related to Mexican American Studies.  It has now morphed into a larger collection for anyone interested in ethnic studies.  It is still very much a work in progress.

Rubina Pantoja
30
 

Emma S. Barrientos Mexican American Cultural Center Caminos Teen Leadership Program

CAMINOS is an immersive; one year long paid internship empowering Austin-area Teens to carve their own path in the creative arts. Students work alongside ESB-MACC professionals on a variety of community oriented activities, projects, and exhibitions.

#ethnicstudies

Emma S. Barrientos Mexican American Cultural Center
13
 

Activism: Then & Now

This collection focuses on using primary resources from the Smithsonian Learning Lab to help students examine how activism is viewed in our country. 

From the First Resource: Today, our nation honors the memory of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. He was a stoic leader during a tumultuous time in our nation's history who brought about significant positive change by pursuing civil rights for Americans of color. However, MLK's activism was not beloved by an entire nation during his lifetime. We can explore the sacrifices he made in his endless pursuit of civil rights, his mistreatment by the systems he spoke out against, and the patterns that have been applied to contemporary activists now.  

#EthnicStudies

Wendilyn Ilund
6
 

National Art Education Association Webinar: "Constructing Curriculum with the Smithsonian"

This collection was created to complement a National Art Education Association webinar, "Constructing Curriculum with the Smithsonian"  (December 11, 2019) featuring resources from the National Museum of African American History and Culture, the National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian Learning Lab. 

The webinar features inquiry-based strategies in examining the American experience depicted through portraiture and unpacking the context of historical narratives communicated through art with students. 

This collection was created in collaboration with Briana Zavadil White (National Portrait Gallery) and Candra Flanagan (National Museum of African American History and Culture).

Ashley Naranjo
15
 

Cindy Whitehead’s GN4LW Skateboard - Conversation Kit Resources

A skateboarding pioneer, Cindy Whitehead turned pro at seventeen, skating both pool and half-pipe and becoming one of the top-ranked vert skaters while competing against the boys—something girls were not doing in the mid-1970s. But Whitehead had no choice but to wear boys’ shorts when competing; there were no skate products for girls in the 1970s.

She changed that in 2013 with her girl-empowered brand Girl is NOT a 4 Letter Word (GN4LW). Whitehead is especially supportive of young female skaters through the GN4LW skate team and products which are geared towards women and girls.  

Whitehead’s signature phrase printed in gold on many of the GN4LW products personifies her independent spirit, "Live life balls to the wall. Do epic s***. Take every dare that comes your way. You can sleep when you’re dead." 


This Learning Lab collection contains artifacts and resources that support the Conversation Kit on Cindy Whitehead's GN4LW Skateboard as part of the Smithsonian's American Women's History Initiative. 

NMAH Education
17
 

American Animal Conservation

DRAFT: What stories do the animals on the American Trail at the Smithsonian's National Zoo? Students will use the Project Zero Global Thinking Routine Unveiling Stories to uncover and consider the complexity around conservation. I asked students to consider more than just what is the initial stories. I wanted to know what they thought the human and world stories might be. With the success of these animals I wanted students to also consider what the new and untold stories that might remain. This thinking routine is a great way to explore the complicated stories of the gray wolf, bald eagle, beaver, brown pelican, California sea lion, common raven, North American river otter, and wood duck. #goglobal

Ellen Rogers
40
 

Hispanic Women

What's missing in today's history books, especially in the Southwest? Quite a lot actually.  Today's social studies textbooks reflect the standards each state has adopted and in many cases, when it comes to learning about people who have sacrificed their lives or changed the way we live here in United States, there are groups of people who are missing.  Even in 2019, more than 50 years after the Civil Rights Movement, there are only minimal standards acknowledging the contributions of people of color.  In Texas, women are marginally covered with the standards, and women of color even less so.  In elementary grades, only five Hispanic women are included within the standards, most of them being in 4th grade Texas history.  Only two are a part of the middle school state curriculum, both in 7th grade Texas history.  In high school, Dolores Huerta and Sonia Sotomayor are the only Hispanic female individuals judged worthy to be included although the Las Madre's e la Plaza de Mayo, a group of Argentinian women are included in the world history standards.

This collection seeks to provoke thinking about the lives, contributions and sacrifices of Hispanic women in American history.  

#EthnicStudies

Leticia Hallmark
47
 

Beauty/Truth/Revealing/and Concealing: Adding complexity to a literary analysis (Wrap up lesson with "A Doll's House," by Henrik Ibsen) #SAAMTeach

While this lesson revolves around Henrik Ibsen's "A Doll's House," it can be used in conjunction with any work of literature featuring strong characters - the type who generate potentially negative reactions among students, such as: "I hate him... There's nothing good about ______....he's the villain... she's the hero, etc." The lesson is designed to push students out of their comfort zone, give themselves permission to speculate and entertain a variety of viewpoints, and as a means to step away from the literature they just read, then step back in with perhaps a more open-minded approach.

This is a discussion-heavy lesson, requiring some patience on the part of the teacher not to jump in and fill in the gaps. But after completing it the first, second, and then third time, I could definitely sense the students were now more apt to be "risk takers" and more "open minded" with their interpretations and insight.

Step by step instructions follow in the "Notes to Other Users" section. #SAAMTeach

Annette Spahr
8
 

Mexican Art & U.S. History: Carmen Lomas Garza

This collection will provide an opportunity for students to analyze artwork, read background information, and connect art with historical events. At the heart of this activity is artwork created by Latino artist Carmen Lomas Garza. These paintings reflect the experiences of Garza's family and Latino life in 1980s America. In addition to image analysis, teachers could extend an opportunity for students to identify and discuss connections between Garza's art and the Mexican American experience from the 1960s to the present. This collection includes:

  • A timeline of U.S.-Mexican American relations
  • Video/audio of Reagan signing the 1986 Immigration Reform Control Act
  • And an overview of immigration reform via ABC-CLIO (requires subscription). 

#ethnicstudies #LISDSS

Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills Connections #TEKS

  • 24A describe how the characteristics of and issues in U.S. history have been reflected in various genres of art, music, film, and literature;

Angela King
24
 

The California Gold Rush: A Journey to the Goldfields

James Marshall's famous discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in Colma forever changed the landscape, economy and culture of California due to the mass migrations of 300,000 people. Rumors of gold's discovery spread quickly, and was confirmed by President Polk in an address to Congress. The news spread to countries around the world.

The journey to California was long and dangerous. The three major routes were: around Cape Horn by ship (six to eight months), the Isthmus of Panama (two to three months), and the Overland trail (three to five months). By ship, dangers included: ship wrecks, lack of food and water, seasickness and disease. Ships that survived the long journeys arrived to the ports of San Francisco, where migrants had to continue their journey to the Sierra Nevada foothills.  

Traveling 2,000 miles on the Overland Trail by foot and wagon exposed travelers to other dangers such as misinformed trails, and a lack of food and water. Travelers were exposed to inclimate weather while crossing deadly rivers, deserts, and high mountain passes. Only the very basic necessities including food, water, wagons, stock, hunting tools, blacksmithing tools, clothing, blankets, sewing kits, medical supplies would be taken for the journey.   

On the Overland Trail, many miners joined companies. These companies were made up of people with various skills; such as, carpentry, medicine, navigation, hunting, blacksmithing and wheelwrights. The likelihood of surviving these long and dangerous journeys increased significantly for those individuals who joined companies. If a company survived the journey to California on the Overland Trail, the company also had a higher likelihood of success in gold mining. Individuals within the company could stake multiple gold mining claims and the gold would then be divided among the people of the company. During the gold rush, individuals were only allowed to own one claim.  


columbiastatehistoricpark
16
 

Hawaiian Monarchs

This topical collection includes resources related to the eight monarchs of the Kingdom of Hawaii.  In order of succession, the monarchs are: Kamehameha I (r. 1810 - 1819); Kamehameha II (r. 1819 - 1824); Kamehameha III (r. 1825 -  1854); Kamehameha IV (r. 1855 - 1863); Kamehameha V (r. 1863 - 1872); Lunalilo (r. 1873 - 1874); Kalākaua (r. 1874 - 1891); and Liliʻuokalani (r. 1891 - 1893).  

The Kingdom of Hawaii was established as a constitutional monarchy in 1810 by King Kamehameha I.  In 1893, a coup led by American businessmen driven by sugar and pineapple business interests in the Hawaiian islands overthrew Queen Lili'uokalani.  Despite native protests and Lili'uokalani's efforts to reclaim the throne, the United States annexed Hawaii as a territory in 1898.  Hawaii became an American state in 1959.

This collection is not comprehensive but rather provides a launching point for further research and study.

This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Asian Pacific American Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center.

Keywords: Kamamalu, Emma, Kapi'olani, Kapiolani, Kalakaua, Liliuokalani, Hawaiian, royals, royalty

#APA2018

Tess Porter
37
 

California Gold Rush Era Mining Technique Photos

Mining techniques evolved over time with development of larger mining companies. These photos also show cultural diversity during the California Gold Rush. 

columbiastatehistoricpark
14
 

DRAFT Grade 4 Beliefs Unit - Art, Humanities and Engineering - Museums Go Global

Washington International School is an International Baccalaureate (IB), Primary Years Program (PYP). I am the STEAM Specialist who integrates 21st century skill inquiry projects, hands on science and engineering, and digital tools/technology. This collection is to support many teachers who will contribute to content for this unit. The Language specialists, art teacher, design technology, STEAM Specialist and physical education.

Transdisciplinary unit: Who we are.  Beliefs - An inquiry into the nature of the self; beliefs and values; personal, physical, mental, social and spiritual health; human relationships, including families, friends, communities and cultures; rights and responsibilities; what it means to be human.

Central Idea: Humans have common beliefs that attempt to answer life’s big questions. 

The main line of Inquiry this collection will align with is:

Global religious beliefs and practices

The following subject teachers plan to do the following:

- Art = Beliefs and metaphors with clay

- Digital Technology = Building sacred structures 

- STEAM = Engineering and Science of sacred structures globally and historically

New thinking routines: Step inside, Beauty and Truth and Unveiling Stories


I am looking to have students find similarities in elements and expressions to build their own sacred structure. We will look at the Renwick's exhibition that featured Burning Man Festival and the artists as modern forms of spiritual expression. 

#GoGlobal 

Sandra Vilevac
46
 

Early Mesoamerican Cultures

This collection looks at the art, architecture, and religion within the early Mesoamerican  groups. 

#Maya #Aztec #ethnicstudies

Sara Mahoney
9
 

Triumph and Tragedy: U.S. Reconstruction, 1865-1877

This collection brings together Smithsonian and other federal resources to support the initial research into a project for National History Day 2019, "Triumph and Tragedy in History." #NHD2019


These resources - including photographs, broadsides, political cartoons, publications, correspondence, ledger books, and government documents - explore the varying experiences, political arguments, and consequences of the period following the American Civil War, known as Reconstruction. Resources highlight the opposing ideas for and against Reconstruction policies - and their consequences - by the federal government and its citizens, including political leaders and activists. Also included are digital resources related to Constitutional Amendments passed during this era, supporting secondary resources, and various cartoons, broadsides, speeches, and imagery portraying the African American response to Reconstruction policies and the promises of citizenship and equal rights. Other primary source documents included provide a glimpse into how Reconstruction may have affected individual lives and businesses, and links to digitized collections (and corresponding transcriptions) of thousands of documents from the U.S. Bureau of Freedmen, Refugees, and Abandoned Lands. 

By no means is this collection comprehensive; instead, it provides a launching point for further research. 

Tags: Civil War, Reconstruction, U.S. Reconstruction, postwar, South, perspective, politics, southern democrats, Radical Republicans, African Americans, Freedmen's Bureau, Records of the Bureau of Freedmen, Refugees, and Abandoned Lands, art, photographs, political cartoons, military, 19th century, 1800s, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, Hiram Revels, amendments, #NHD

Smithsonian Transcription Center
49
 

Images of immigration

Gallery walk activity - students will look at the 3 images and letter and then discuss what they, see, think, and wonder. 

#ethnicstudies

Robert Cheshire
6
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