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In 1834, secularization of the 21 Missions of California was enforced. This meant California Missions were either converted into Catholic Churches or converted to ranches, or to other uses. As a result, La Purísima Mission property and land holdings were divided into ranches.
As the years progressed, the property was bought and sold a number of times. In 1845, La Purísima Mission was sold to Juan Temple of Los Angeles for $1,000. At the close of the 19th century the property was so badly neglected the adobe buildings, and other features of the Mission eventually collapsed from weather and lack of upkeep.
In 1933, the Union Oil Company obtained ownership of La Purísima Mission for oil speculation, and the condition of the Mission was in complete ruin. It wasn't until 1934, when preservation and reconstruction of the Mission began through efforts of the County of Santa Barbara, the State of California, the National Park Service, and the Civilian Conservation Corps.
This collection shows the neglect and decay of the adobe buildings at La Purísima Mission through the lens of history.
This is a Smithsonian Learning Lab topical collection, which contains images, text, recordings, and other multimedia resources that may complement the Tween Tribune feature, Martin Luther King, Jr. found inspiration in Henry David Thoreau. Use these resources to introduce or augment your study of this topic. If you want to personalize this collection by changing or adding content, click the Sign Up link above to create a free account. If you are already logged in, click the copy button to initiate your own version. Learn more here.
This collection supports the free Smithsonian Science How webcast, "What's a Lichen? How a Smithsonian Scientist Studies a Unique Symbiosis," scheduled to air on November 14, 2019. Manu is a scientist at the Smithsonian who studies lichens, a lichenologist. She collects lichens from all over the world, depositing them into the U.S. National Herbarium, which is located at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History. Manu identifies the lichens she collects with observations of how the lichen looks, their DNA data and where they were found.
Lichens are a symbiotic relationship between algae and fungus. They have been on earth for millions of years, living on rocks, trees, and soil in all different habitats on all seven continents. Even though lichens are all around us, scientists are still learning about what they are, where they live, and how many different species of lichens there are.
Fungus is any group of spore-producing organisms feeding on organic matter, and include molds, yeast, mushrooms, and toadstools. Algae is a simple, non-flowering plant. Algae contain chlorophyll and produce sugar through photosynthesis, like other plants, but do not have true stems, roots, leaves, or vascular tissue like most other plants. Lichenization is a fungal lifestyle, and therefore the name of lichen is the name of the fungus component.
When you look at a lichen, what you’re looking at is the “house” that the fungus and algae grow together. Scientists call this house a “thallus.” When algae and fungus come together to form this house, we see a lichen. This partnership is called a symbiotic relationship, because it helps both the fungus and algae survive. Research has shown that lichens are not a natural biological group, meaning they do not all come from a single common ancestor, in other words, lichens have many origins. Currently there are almost 20,000 species of lichenized fungi known.
In this symbiotic relationship, the fungus and algae benefit from being associated with each other. The fungus provides the house, its shelter (the thallus). This shelter helps the algae survive in habitats where it would otherwise be exposed to the elements and possibly could not survive. The algae provide food for the fungus, in the form of sugar. The sugar is a byproduct of photosynthesis that occurs within the algae.
Lichens are very important for the environment. They are an important food source for many animals, provide nest materials for birds, and provide habitat and material for biomimicry for insects and other organisms.
Lichens are also important for humans by providing natural dyes, perfumes, litmus paper, and even food. Humans even use lichens as bio-indicators, organisms that help humans monitor the health of the environment. Some species of lichens are sensitive to environmental pollution, so their presence or absence can help us understand more about the health of the environment, like air quality.
Lichens produce over one thousand different chemical compounds, most of them unique to lichens. These compounds include acids and pigments. Some chemicals may even fluoresce under UV light, making them important components for lichen identification.
Lichens have DNA, which is used to identify lichen and compare relationships amongst and within species. DNA analysis has been an important tool for lichenologists in identifying and understanding the biodiversity of lichens.
Sign up for the Smithsonian Science How webcast to introduce your students to Lichenologist Manuela Dal Forno! The program airs at 11am and 2pm on November 14, 2019. Sign up and view the program here: https://naturalhistory.si.edu/...
This collection can be used by students to explore the founding, history, and spread of Islam. Includes short informational texts paired with artifacts from around the globe and some links to additional resources. Students are tasked with tracking the countries that are mentioned on a map, taking notes on how the religion spread, and how the religion may have changed as it spread to new areas and ethnic groups. There is a quiz to assess their understanding of these concepts at the end.
The guiding questions for this collection are:
1) Where was Islam founded and where did it spread?
2) How did the religion spread from place to place?
3) How were the practices and the beliefs adapted by the people of different geographic areas?
Our World by Design highlights design objects in Cooper Hewitt's 2018 ad campaign. Each object brings awareness to the critical role design plays in enabling people to engage and interact in the world.
tags: Civil Rights, Martin Luther King, A. Phillip Randolph
In recent years, antisemitism is thought to be a relatively new phenomenon. However, its roots are found much deeper in history: back to Roman times. The collection is based chronologically to follow Antisemitism from its source leading through the 21st century A.D. My expectation is that these collections will serve as a means to deepen the understanding of Antisemitism found within the Christian culture.
In the first century B.C.E. Cicero (Lawyer, writer and orator) wrote his Pro L. Flacco in defense of his client L. Valerius Flaccus. In defending his client (the governor of Asia), who was accused of embezzlement as well as corruption, Cicero accuses the Jews as the foundations for the conspiracies against his client. Cicero claims that Jews are the "variance" and go directly against the pietas (family, gods and state) Roman culture embraced. Cicero further back up his claim by stating that Roman gods don't even care for them or else the Jews city of Jerusalem would not have been conquered by the Romans and made tribute. In his work Pro L. Flacco he coined the phrase "barbara superstitio." The insult was meant to directly oppose the meaning of pietas; to oppose Rome itself. It wasn't until a century later, when Rome laid siege to Judea, that his anti-Jewish beliefs would take root.
Nearly a hundred years after Cicero first wrote his poisonous anti-Jewish work did Judea rebel against Rome. Emperor Vespasian's son Titus, constructed an army that brutally attacked the city of Jerusalem. There are several explicit records that denote Titus' relentless starvation of Jews, burning of synagogues (while Jews remained inside), outright slaughter of Jews (approximately 600,000 to 1.1 million Jews), and the remainder were sold into slavery. The sacking of Judea was extremely important to the Romans, because it signified their dominance. In celebration of this monumental event, the Arch of Titus was created to depict the sacking of Judea. In the relief, the menorah that Titus took from the Second Temple is displayed as the focus of the sculpture.
During the time of the rebellion, Tacitus constructed his Historiae (70 C.E.) where he demonized Jews for their sacrilegious views of Roman gods. Tacitus created the four pillars that formed the anti-Semitic beliefs. He stated that Jews were affluent, perverted, "out-breeding," and sacrilegious. The way in which Tacitus illuminated the Jews caused the creation of a "mythology". This anti-Jewish mythology deemed Jews as tempting people from their families, religions, and patriotism (all pietas of Roman culture) as a way of destroying all who were not Jewish.
In addition to the Arch of Titus, commemorative coins were also issued as part of the celebration. The coins depict a Roman soldier hovering over a Jewish woman. The anti-Jewish propaganda (the Arch and the coins, among others) allowed this perpetual violence to become palatable among Romans.
In light of the growing anti-Semitic violence, Titus Flavius Josephus, a Jewish scholar during the 1st century A.D., wrote his work Contra Apionem , where he attempted to combat the anti-Jewish propaganda being spewed by the Romans. Much of Josephus argument was founded on past rebellions by Jews (like that in Egypt) and combating agitated Greek philosophers (regarding the spread of Judaism).
In the following century after the conquest of Rome, Jews revolted to take back Judea. Just as the Romans created commemorative coins, so did the Jews. The rebellion was led by Simon Bar Kokhba. However, the Jews took Roman coins and filled them down before being over-struck with their own rebellious images.
Our journey of Antisemitism during the Medieval period starts with the First Crusade in 1095 through 1099. During the First Crusade Christians attacked the Jew's sacred city, Jerusalem, taking the city as theirs. The First Crusade began to recall (if it ever went away) the Roman pillars against Jews. Until the year 1100 Jews were indistinguishable from Christians in artwork. In the early 1100's Jews were given pointed hats to differentiate them in paintings.
The hatred of Jews began to rise in England with the mutilated dead body of William of Norwich in 1144. The crazy rumors surrounding his mutilation formed the myth known as Blood Libel. The myth of the blood libel was seen as the slaughter of young Christian children, where Jews used their blood for religious rites. Not long after, starting in 1150, Jews were demonized in art as well.
The fear of Jews ran rampant throughout Europe. Christians even began to publicly display their hatred on the churches themselves. In 1240, the construction of Notre Dame included statues of Synogoga and Ecclesia, latin for Synagogue and Church. The two women represented more than just the names, they also represented the Christians view on the Jewish religion. Synogoga is depicted as wearing a helmet that covers her eyes (for her inability to "see" the truth), slouching, holding a broken spear (represent the death of Christ; blaming Jews for Christ's death), and the Torah (which she is barely hanging on to). In contrast, Ecclesia is standing straight with a crown (assuming the Christians are now the ones with the royal blood line), a cross staff, as well as a grail or chalice. The grail or chalice is perhaps in representation of the Holy Grail, the vessel believed to catch the blood of Christ during his Crucifixion.
In 1267 two church councils order Jews to wear the pointed hats (as they did in paintings). Around the same time Jews were beginning to be depicted with abnormally large noses as well as with beards. This change of style is easily noted in the illuminated manuscript produced in 1275, called "Jesus before Caiaphas," Jesus (although a Jew) is not pictured with the Jewish nose as the four other men in the illumination are. Also note the two men in the front with the pointed hats.
Churches continued the theme of degradation of Jews in their facades. However, in 1305 they reached an all time low, the Judensau was born. The Judensau is the depiction of Jews suckling a pig. According to Jewish law, pigs are considered to be unclean (not for consumption) and furthers the insult, comparing Jews to swine and claiming they are dirty and unclean peoples.
As the style of art transitioned into the High Renaissance style, the depictions of Jews became further demonized. A late Renaissance painting by Albrecht Durer called "Christ Among the Doctors" notes this demonetization. The Jews are easily noticeable by their horrid appearance.
The persecution of Jews continued across the continent. In Bildchronik of Diebold Schiling illuminated manuscript page, Jews are wearing the pointy hats as well as yellow identifying badges on their clothing while being burned alive at the stakes. One of the many reasons that this hatred was so easily accessible was the invention of the printing press. In a printing from 1596 we can see the reproduction of Martin Luther's 1543 Judensau article, which he pinned on his church door in Wittenberg, Germany.
Throughout this period Jews were forced to leave their homes due to expulsions from lands like that of the Spanish Inquisition led by King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella. In 1807 Napoleon Bonaparte emancipated the Jews in his Great Sanhedrin. In protecting the Jews, Napoleon received much backlash, including the Russian Orthodox Church claiming Napoleon to be the “Antichrist” as well as an outright “Enemy of God.”
In 1843 Karl Marx published his work “On the Jewish Question.” The book has received mixed criticisms on whether it is truly an antisemitic piece of literature, especially considering he was of Jewish linage. It appears however, that many critics believe that Marx’s perceptions of Jews economic role largely fulfill the antisemitic pillars.
Richard Wagner in his 1850 publication “Das Judenthum in der Musik,” which translates to “Jewishness in Music” in German, attacks both Jews and Jewish composers (particularly Giacomo Meyerbeer and Felix Mendelssohn). He wrote his work under a pseudonym in order to prevent personal Jewish inquiry.
In an issue of “Sound Money” published in 1896, a antisemitic political cartoon shows Uncle Sam being crucified akin to Jesus. There are two men on the outside stabbing Uncle Same, they are supposed to be members of Wall St. The cartoonist gives them the large Jewish noses as well as labeling them as pirates. Indicating that Jews have control of the US’s money and are stealing it. In addition, they are stabbing Uncle Sam with “Single Gold Standard” and wetting Uncle Sam’s lips with poisonous “Debt” on the sponge of “Interest on Bonds.” The two men on the inside flanking Uncle Same represent James G. Blaine as the “Republicanism” and Grover Cleveland as “Democracy” in which they are seen pick pocketing Uncle Sam.
Throughout Europe pogroms were taking place. Pogroms were violent acts against Jews that often ended in massacre or persecution. One such Pogrom was that in Kiev, Ukraine in 1919. During the pogrom many Jews were raped, murdered or affected by looting. The picture is of four Jewish victims at an Alexander Hospital. In total 1,326 pogroms took place in Ukraine; some 30,000-70,000 Jews were murdered.
Meanwhile accusations of the medieval belief of blood libels were still prominent throughout even the early 20th century.
In the 1920s Henry Ford published his article “The Ford International Weekly” were most weeks (91 issues) had some antisemitic statement. Eventually these antisemitic statements grew into its own publication of “The International Jew: The World’s Foremost Problem” published in 1920, comprised of 4 volumes.
As you can see, the world was riddled with antisemitism by the time of the 1920s, including the United States. Although Hitler is thought of as the reason behind the Holocaust, he clearly wasn’t lacking in supporters. It was merely a matter of how far these people were (who shared his antisemitic beliefs) willing to go. In 1925 Hitler wrote his “Mein Kampf” meaning “My Struggles” in German. In this work he outlined his antisemitic beliefs as well as his intentions.
Ten years after Hitler’s publication of “Mein Kampf,” Nazi Germany passed the antisemitic laws known as the “Nuremburg Laws” in 1935. The laws largely dealt with protecting both German blood as well as honour. People were classified by their blood status, depending on your Jewish percentage of blood was the way in which you were approved to obtain Reich citizenship or not. If you were considered to be racially defiled (certain percentage of Jewish blood) you were first sent to prison and later sent to concentration camps.
Directly proceeding Kristallnacht or the Night of Broken Glass on November 9-10, 1938, started the six-year long genocide known as the Holocaust, 1938-1945. I have included several pictures that evoke strong emotions of Jews inside the concentration camps. I have tried however to abstain from using the more graphic and dead riddled photos. I felt that one picture was not merely enough to demonstrate the torture and the injustice Jews received during this time. I wish I could say that after 6 million Jews died that History could finally end its antisemitic beliefs and achieve peace. However, that is not the case.
Hatred still ruins in the veins of many people during the later half of the 20th and 21st centuries. Just over 10 years after the Holocaust officially ended, in 1958 an Atlanta, Georgia temple, Hebrew Benevolent Congregation Temple, was bombed. Luckily no one was injured, however the building received extensive damage.
Rumors surrounding the Holocaust’s legitimacy surfaced. In 1969 professor of History David Hoggan published “The Myth of the Six Million.” In his book, he denied that the Holocaust ever happened!
In Miami, Florida in 1988 yet another synagogue (Bet Shira Congregation) was attacked, this time however it was defiled with misdrawn swastikas. The defamation was completed by a group of local teenagers.
One year ago, in March 2018 in Paris, France, an elderly lady Mireille Knoll was murdered “…because she was Jewish.” She was not only stabbed but also burned. It is believed that as a child (9 years old) she was able to escape capture and deportation to Auschwitz.
Later last year in October, a temple, Tree of Life, in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania was attacked by an antisemitic gunman killing 11 people and injuring 7 more, 4 of which were police officers.
By no means have I been able to provide a thorough account of all the hatred Jews receive and continue to receive daily. This project serves as a cultural understanding and in hopes that one day, the world will be able to eradicate its hatred.
#AHMC2019 #antisemitism #medieval #EcclesiaSynogoga #Judensau #JesusBeforeCaiaphas #ChristAmongDoctors #BildchronikofDieboldSchiling #PrintingpressJudensau #AntisemitismRomans #Cicero #ArchofTitus #BustofJosephus #RomanCommerorativeCoins #Tacitus #Barkokhbacoins #Holocaust #MeinKampf #HenryFord #KeivPogrom #Napoleon #Nuremburglaws
While they may be little, young children are capable of deep thinking, perspective taking, sharing ideas and taking action; all skills necessary to be an active participant in society. Not only should young children be included and respected as citizens of both the local and global community, fostering these skills encourages the next generation to be invested in the betterment of society. Art is an effective and engaging catalyst to build these civic skills with young children. In this collection, educators from the Smithsonian Early Enrichment Center and the Quaker Valley School District share their use of artwork and thinking routines in their practice with young children. Through hearing stories, seeing examples, and engaging in model lessons, participants will experience relevant thinking routines, have opportunities to reflect on techniques presented and work cooperatively with peers as they create lessons inspired by provided artworks modeled techniques. Participants will leave the session feeling inspired and confident to incorporate art into their practice to build civic skills using demonstrated techniques.
Meet the politicians, reformers, inventors, authors, soldiers and others who shaped the course of American history from the colonial era to the end of the Civil War. Students will analyze portraits to learn about the diverse and significant contributions to American society made by individuals in the Portrait Gallery’s collection.
During the settlement of the North American colonies, children developed fun ways to pass time. Unlike today, where we simply log onto our phone, computer, or another electronic device, Colonial children were forced to be a bit more creative. Common toys that are still used today were used, such as dolls and "action figures" (soldiers). However, many of their games involved a more "hands on" approach such as ring toss and Battledores, which is similar to Badminton that is still played today. Many of their toys consisted of materials and objects you would find around the house.
This series of images and documents show how the events of Bacon’s Rebellion are like that of the American Revolution. Like the American Revolution, Bacon’s Rebellion was caused by grievances that colonists had with the colonial government, spurred various tales about events that supposedly happened during the conflicts, and changed the way that Virginians thought about the country around them. These connections can be found through documents containing information about Bacon’s Rebellion, paintings that present images of people and romanticized tales about the events of the conflict, and inside a place known as Bacon’s Castle, a place that is still standing today.
The two conflicts had a similar structure from each other. Both rebellions started as a series of complaints that escalated into a conflict as the people protesting became more extreme. The American Revolution and Bacon’s Rebellion also had lasting impacts on the country (or colonies) because Virginia obtained a new government due to their revised charter after the rebellion and then obtained an entirely new constitution after the Revolution. The two events also contained their sets of war heroes on both sides as well as fictional tales that are set during the events of the previously mentioned conflicts.
Weapons were extremely useful to 18th Century colonists. Some used them to keep their families safe, while others used them to show off their wealth. On the other hand, there were a multitude of wars and skirmishes that occurred in America in the 18th century, from the French and Indian War and the Revolutionary to the Whiskey Rebellion. This armed colonists across America, and affected how the Revolutionary War would be fought.
The French and Indian War in particular played a massive role in the Americans' aquiring of weapons. Many colonists fought alongside the British in the French and Indian War just 13 years earlier. In effect, many colonists used the same weapons they used to fight alongside the British, to fight against them in the Revolutionary War. The large quantity of British weapons in America eventually led to American emulation of British weapons. American weaponsmiths created plenty of weapons for the Revolutionary War after a period where most weapons entering the Americas where from Britain. Weaponsmiths made low tier imitations of British weapons such as different variations of muskets, rifles, bayonets, swords, and tomahawks. These weapons were very useful and vital with regard to the war effort. In effect, The Americans used a mixture of British and American-made weapons that eventually led to American victory at Yorktown in 1781.
This collection should show the progression of weaponry in Colonial America during the Revolutionary War. The British shot Americans in the Boston Massacre with their muskets, and the colonists fought back during the Revolutionary War with old British weapons from the French and Indian War. This collection should also show how Americans even began imitating British weapons and eventually won the war with their lower tier weapons.
Our World by Design highlights objects from Cooper Hewitt's 2018 ad campaign. Each object brings awareness to the critical role design plays in enabling people to engage and interact in the world.