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Found 480 Collections

 

IB Biology Topic 1

Images in this collection represent the Nature of Science (NOS) learning statements found in each of the Topic 1 (cell biology) subtopics of the IB Biology curriculum (2016).   The images and descriptions can be used as an introductory activity to illustrate the depth, variation and cultural relevancy of biological discovery and technological advancement that is part of the IB Biology course.  Or, the images could serve as a revision activity before the end of course exam; students pair the image to the corresponding NOS learning statement. 

Gretel von Bargen
8
 

African Americans and the Civil War

This collection highlights the enslaved and free African American perspective and experience during the Civil War with collection objects from the National Museum of African American History and Culture, other Smithsonian units, and relevant media.

Keywords: NMAAHC, NMAAHC Education, African American, Civil War, United States Colored Troops, soldier, war, emancipation, history, primary sources

National Museum of African American History and Culture
45
 

Exploring Identity: How can portraiture conceal or reveal?

What is identity? How is it constructed? These activities investigate how portraits can conceal or reveal aspects of identity. How does the artist choose to portray an individual? How does the sitter choose to be shown?

This collection includes a three-part activity that can be modified by choosing to spend more or less time sharing out as a group. It begins with a discussion about identity, using the Chalk Talk Thinking Routine and a comparison of two portraits to further push students' thinking on how portraiture can both conceal and reveal aspects of identity. In the next parts of the activity, students are able to choose from a variety of portraits for individual reflection and then come together as a group to discuss a larger work to about culture and identity. Several Project Zero Thinking Routines can be used to stimulate and record thinking. 


Part I: Chalk Talk and comparing portraits

Students participate in the Chalk Talk Thinking Routine using the questions provided. A quick gallery walk where students circulate and read all responses can allow the class to get a feel for the many (or singular) perspective(s) of identity. Using the See-Think-Wonder Thinking Routine, students compare and contrast two portraits: LL Cool J by Kehinde Wiley and John D. Rockefeller by John Singer Sargent. Students can share with a neighbor and then out to the larger group or simply share out as a large group depending on class size, etc. 

 

Part II: Portraiture and Identity

Using the Individual Exploration of Portraiture worksheet, students can choose one image from the fifteen provided and spend some time exploring their selected portrait. Students can be given 5-10 minutes to interact with their chosen image. Using one of Roger Shimomura’s portraits, students will use the Unveiling Stories Thinking Routine to better understand the many layers to this work of art. Again, students can share out in pairs first or simply share out to the whole group depending on class size, etc.

 

Part III: Returning to chosen portrait and final reflection

Students will once again return to their selected portrait and complete the "second look" section of the Individual Exploration of Portraiture worksheet. A final reflection about identity and portraiture can be completed either as a group or individually using the I Used to think…; But Now I Think… Thinking Routine.

#NPGteach

Emily Veres
23
 

Conflict and Compromise at the National Portrait Gallery

This Learning Lab collection has been created to support the 2018 National History Day theme, Conflict and Compromise. Utilizing portraits and other resources from the National Portrait Gallery, this collection is organized by Topics within the Conflict and Compromise theme. 

Be sure to check out the following at the end of the collection: 

-Reading Portraiture Guide for Educators highlights close looking strategies that can be used with the portraits listed

-Conflict and Compromise In History Theme Book from National History Day 2018

#NHD2018 #NHD

Briana White
52
 

Inventing Scotland

What makes something Scottish and who decides this? Using the Smithsonian archives this collection features a range of objects and images, some traditionally Scottish and some less so, and asks students to consider how we represent countries and what problems that can present. See 'Information' button for lesson plans.

Amy Johnstone
35
 

A Special Place - Woodcut & Linocut Prints

View selected prints of different places, then discuss:

  • What is the first thing you notice?
  • What do you believe is special about this place?
  • How did the artist use composition to highlight what is special?

Choose one print to examine:

  • What kinds of lines, patterns or textures did the artist use?
  • How did the artist use tools to create areas of light and dark?

Apply in your own work:


  • What makes a place special or meaningful to you?
  • What clues will help capture the uniqueness of your special place?

ARTMAKING CHALLENGES:

  • Draw a picture of a special place using foreground, middle ground, and background. Use a variety of lines and cross hatching to create texture and value.
  • Sketch your special place, then transfer the design to a soft rubber printing plate. Using a lino cutter, outline the major areas and cut away areas that will remain light. Use a variety of lines and cross hatching to create areas of light and dark in the prints. Ink your printing plate and pull several prints.
  • Create a painting of a special place using foreground, middle ground, and background. Mix tints and shades. Use color to communicate an emotion linked to your special place.  

Jean-Marie Galing
14
 

Calculated Change

Through this collection students will learn about how people exposed systemic societal issues to advocate for change in policy and change in thought. The thread that brings these practitioners together is that they slowly looked at the issues, exposed the truth, and did not only rely on data but a combination of people, stories, to back up their claims and advocate for change and education. 

Amanda Riske
23
 

2018 National High School Design Competition

This Learning Lab was created as a resource for students and teachers participating in the 2018 National High School Design Competition.

This year's competition challenges students to make the everyday accessible by considering a place, process, or object they regularly use, identifying a challenge that a user with a disability might have with it, and designing a solution that addresses that challenge and makes the place, process, or object more accessible for all.

For more details on the competition go to https://www.cooperhewitt.org/2...

#designthinking

Cooper Hewitt Education Department
44
 

Photography and Image Manipulation

Guiding Questions:

What should a photograph look like?

Why might someone want to alter, change, or edit a photograph? What is the goal?

What are the ethical considerations regarding image manipulation?

Time- 1-2 class periods with optional extension activities

This collection includes images related to the topic of image manipulation and artistic photography, and includes a lesson plan for teachers as well as images and students activities related to media literacy across the curriculum. The collection of images and articles is designed to facilitate conversations around how and why images might be manipulated and for what purpose. Discussion questions and thinking routines allow for students to critically analyze the images as whole group and in small groups to consider why and how a photographer or artist might alter an image. Extension activities and resources are also included.

Day 1:

Warm Up/ Engagement:

What should a photograph look like?

Have students do a think-pair-share together addressing the question. Alternatively, this could be done as a silent chalk talk.

Debrief as a group.

Background:

Discuss:

Why might someone want to alter, change, or edit a photograph? What is the goal?

Have you ever altered or changed a photograph? How? Why? (Think Shapchat, Instagram, Photoshop, etc.)

Is it ever a problem to manipulate a photography? Why?

As critical viewers of media and images, students should always consider the audience and purpose of photographs. For example, an artistic photograph doesn’t have the same audience or purpose as a journalistic photograph.

Explain to students:

We’re going to look closely at the work of two photographers (Jerry Uelsmann and Robert Weingarten) to see how photographers might manipulate their images (digitally or otherwise), why they might do this, and the effect it has on the viewer.

Close Looking:

Lead students through a discussion of one of Uelsmann’s images by looking closely at one image as a group using the Visible Thinking routine, “See Think Wonder.”

Discuss the photographer’s likely message, audience and purpose of the image. Then have students consider how Uelsmann might have created the image.

Then, read an article about Jerry Uelsmann in Smithsonian Magazine, “Before Photoshop.”

Debrief the article and have students journal on their reactions to Uelsmann’s quote, “The camera is a license to explore.”

Alternatively, students can read and discuss the article,"Photography Changes What We Think 'Reality' Looks Like."

Have students share responses with the group as a closing activity.

Day 2

Warm-Up: Recap learning/connections from last class.

Explain that in today’s class we’ll consider the work of another artist and photographer, Robert Weingarten. Weingarten’s work is a “non-traditional” form of portraiture. Before looking at his images, have students brainstorm their ideas on what is a portrait. Students could engage in the 3-2-1 Bridge Routine on this topic.

Close Looking:

Lead students through a discussion of one of Weingarten’s  images by looking closely at one image as a group using the Visible Thinking routine, “Zoom-In.” After looking at the image as a whole, have students consider the image as as whole using the “Connect-Extend-Challenge” routine.

Weingarten’s portraits of Colin Powell and Celia Cruz are linked in the collection.

Discuss the photographer’s likely message, audience and purpose of the image. Then have students consider how Weingarten might have created the image.

After discussing the image, watch the video about Weingarten’s process.  

If time allows, group students into small groups to visually compare/contrast the works of Uelsmann and Weingarten on chart paper.

Exit Ticket:

How do these photographs change your understanding of photography and what can be done with images?

I used to think…

Now I think….

Possible Extension Activities:

Have students create a composite image (surreal landscapes or portraits)  inspired by Robert Weingarten or Jerry Uelsmann with their own photographs and Photoshop.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MmwrWCMdYqI

Have students explore other historical images that have been manipulated (intentionally or unintentionally) that are included in the collection.

Article on historical image manipulation from the ClickIt Exhibit

Have students look at the ethical issues in digitally manipulating photographs

https://www.commonsensemedia.org/educators/lesson/retouching-reality-9-12

Have students consider other ways in which the evolution of technology has influenced the images we create.

Using Agency By Design, a design thinking framework, have students complete the following activities:

Parts-Purposes- Complexities Routine-- Digital Camera

Take-Apart Activity w/ digital cameras/analog camera

Have students research different topics in the history of photography including camera obscura, daguerreotype process, Muybridge and moving images, and Kodak.

Readings/Videos:

Additional reading on Uelsmann:

https://www.digitalphotopro.com/profiles/jerry-uelsmann-the-alchemist/

#visiblethinking

Allie Wilding
28
 

Migration - Lesson Plans and Information

How was migration affected by the use of canoes/boats?

The earliest human migrations and expansions of archaic and modern humans across continents began 2 million years ago with the migration out of Africa of Homo erectus. This was followed by the migrations of other pre-modern humans including Homo heidelbergensis, the likely ancestor of both modern humans and Neanderthals.

Michele Hubert
6
 

Photography and News

Guiding Questions:

  • How much of a story can a photo tell? What are the limits?
  • Why do journalists take photos?
  • How is news photography different than other types of photography? What is photojournalism?

Time- 1-2 class periods with optional extension activities

This collection provides an opportunity for students to consider a first impression of news photos through careful image analysis. The initial viewing of the image is followed by reading historical newspaper articles or other primary sources about the event in question to compare their thinking with some context to their initial impressions. Images can be powerful and can greatly influence our impression of events, but without context, we can form inaccurate impressions based on our own biases. Students need to be careful and critical viewers of media as well as media creators. Images include events covered in history/social studies courses such as the Civil Rights Movement, Little Rock Nine, World War II, Japanese internment,  9/11, the Detroit Riots, the Scopes trial, women’s suffrage, Dolores Huerta and United Farm Workers, and the Vietnam War.

Day 1:

Warm Up/ Engagement:

Have students journal or a mind-map about the following questions:

  • How much of a story can a photo tell? What are the limits?
  • Why do journalists take photos?
  • What is photojournalism?
  • How is news photography different than other types of photography?

Have them do a Think-Pair-Share

Debrief as a whole group

As a whole group, discuss the photo of the female students who integrated Central High School in Little Rock. Do not show the caption to students. The global competency thinking routine, “Unveiling Stories,” is good to use for news or other current event photos because it allows students the opportunity to explore multiple layers of meaning.

Once students have discussed the image, show them the caption. Then give additional background on the Little Rock Nine. To review/background on the Little Rock Nine, consider exploring resources from Facing History and Ourselves. There is a New York Times article listed below as well.

Next, go back and look at photo with the caption and see how the initial understanding has shifted with the Connect-Extend-Challenge routine. This is a thinking routine that is great for connecting new ideas to prior knowledge.

Day 2

Have students read the article from the Click! Exhibit, “Photography Changes How We Read the World.”

After reading, lead students through the What Makes You Say That? Routine which encourages interpretation with justification and evidence.

Small Group Jigsaw activity

In pairs or small groups, assign one image in the collection to each group. Make sure they know they will present their findings to the whole class. Have them go through the “Unveiling Stories” routine with their new image. Give students 10 mins to record their thoughts and ideas on chart paper or sticky notes. Next, give each group the related primary source news article (listed below through ProQuest) or your choice of a primary source. Have students read the article together. Then, have them go back to the image and do the Connect-Extend-Challenge routine while visualizing their thinking on the same chart paper or with additional sticky notes.

Have each group share out and summarize their findings from their initial reaction to how their thinking changed after reading an additional primary source.

As a final debrief, make sure that students reflect on their learning from their image analysis.

A great reflection routine is “I used to think… Now I think…”. Have students complete this routine with the topic of photojournalism/news photography.

Extensions

Readings:

Audio:

Exhibit:

Project:

  • Report on an event with images and in writing  

Companion Article Sources on ProQuest Historical Newspapers:

For 9/11 Photos-

A CREEPING HORROR

KLEINFIELD N R

New York Times (1923-Current file); Sep 12, 2001;

ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851 - 2011) pg. A1

For D-Day Photo:

Allies Seize Beachheads on French Coast, Invasion Forces Drive Toward Interior

By the War Editor of The Christian Science Monitor

The Christian Science Monitor (1908-Current file); Jun 6, 1944; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Christian Science Monitor (1908 - 2001) pg. 1

For Detroit Riot Photo:

Detroit Is Swept by Rioting and Fires; Romney Calls In Guard; 700 Arrested

New York Times (1923-Current file); Jul 24, 1967;

ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851 - 2011) pg. 1

For Vietnam Withdrawal Photo:

A Farewell to Vietnam: 2 Flown Out Tell Story

New York Times (1923-Current file); Apr 28, 1975;

ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851 - 2011) pg. 1

For Dolores Huerta Photo:

Farm Labor Law Chances Improve

By Susan Jacoby Washington Post Staff Writer

The Washington Post, Times Herald (1959-1973); May 2, 1969; ProQuest Historical Newspapers The Washington Post (1877 - 1998) pg. A24

For Little Rock Photo:

STUDENTS ACCEPT NEGROES CALMLY

By BENJAMIN FINE Special to The New York Times.

New York Times (1923-Current file); Sep 26, 1957;

ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851 - 2011)

For WWII/D-Day Photos:

PARADE OF PLANES CARRIES INVADERS

New York Times (1923-Current file); Jun 6, 1944;

ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851 - 2011) pg. 1

For Scopes Trial Photo:

DEFENSE CASE IS OUTLINED

Special to The New York Times.

New York Times (1923-Current file); Jul 16, 1925;

ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851 - 2011) pg. 1

For Women’s Suffrage March Photo: WOMEN PARADE FOR SUFFRAGE AT CAPITAL

The Christian Science Monitor (1908-Current file); Mar 3, 1913; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Christian Science Monitor (1908 - 2001) pg. 1

#visiblethinking


Allie Wilding
20
 

The Declaration of Independence and Slavery - "The Paradox of Liberty" (Rhetorical Analysis)

This collection will be used to supplement students' rhetorical analysis of The Declaration of Independence. Earlier in the year, students discussed the paradoxical nature of the Puritans arriving in the New World to escape religious intolerance, yet they were exceedingly intolerant of other religions (i.e., Quakers). In a similar fashion, we'll examine the Declaration of Independence and a critical portion deliberately removed: references to abolishing slavery. We will examine a variety of works of art, noting the clues they give us regarding our founding fathers' often complex ideologies. #SAAMteach

A Detailed lesson plan follows in the "Notes to Other Users."

Annette Spahr
9
 

Interacting with Our Environment: Whose Home Is It?

Photos and paintings of Algonquin Provincial Park are grouped with Tom Uttech's "Mamakadendagwad."  What is the impact when someone or something enters an environment or ecosystem?  Lesson could be an introduction for multiple content areas.  In science, students could study mammals, birds, and insects of Ontario, Canada; ecosystems; and invasive species. In history, what is the wilderness? It could be paired with Charle C. Mann's argument about Native American and European impact on land in Jamestown.  It could also be paired with Juane Quick-to-See Smith's painting "State Names" to consider how humans name places they settle.  English students could extend the discussion by reading Iroquois creation myths and Joseph Bruchac's "Snapping Turtle."  #SAAMteach

Deborah Howe
13
 

Perspectives on Reconstruction

Included in this collection are pieces that can be used to foster inquiry in how Reconstruction affected different groups in the South.  It also contains a lesson using one piece, Taking the Oath: and Drawing Rations along with an example of a loyalty oath from Florida for students to dive deeper into analyzing art and putting themselves into the shoes of someone living in the South during Reconstruction. 

This lesson was made for 11th Grade American History students, but can be modified for other age groups.

#SAAMteach  #bestcohort  #artislife

Rachel Sherman
9
 

Complications of Mobilizing the American Homefront 1942-1945

#SAAMteach

This collection examines artwork paired with both primary and secondary sources  that illustrates the complications of mobilizing the American homefront between 1942-1945.  

patty
4
 

Braceros & House on Mango Street

English, Hispanic History, House on Mango Street, Braceros, Hispanic American, American History, camps, workers, labor, Latino Americans, Sandra Cisernos, Domingo Ulloa


#SAAMteach

Brittni Doyle
19
 

Photojournalism: A Study of Perspective

This collection contains a series of photos from Camilo Jose Vergara.  The students will be asked to rate a series of photos for their chronology and how those photos can be interpreted by the viewer.  In the end, students will be asked to document an important part of their family history through photo journalism and then write about their choices and the importance of their selected art. #SAAMteach

Danielle Clayton
9
 

To What Extent Was Reconstruction Successful?

This collection is designed for a high school U.S. history course and includes a unit/lesson plan that guides students through the process of writing a persuasive essay drawing on varied sources for evidence. The unit is book-ended by two lessons which analyze three separate works of art. #SAAMteach

Matt Edmonds
17
 

Place, Community, and Representation in Photography

Guiding Questions:

How do photographers represent places and other people? What is the goal?

What are the ethical considerations in that representation for photographers?

How can we use images and photography to convey a message and persuade?

How have photographers throughout history used their images to create social change?

How can media, especially photography, raise awareness for social problems and challenges?


The lesson will provide examples of how analyzing and creating documentary photographs can foster deep thinking about global and local issues. Additionally, students will consider how to use digital photography and other digital media tools to communicate ideas or persuade an audience. Students will look at photos from social reformer Jacob Riis who documented the poverty and poor living conditions of immigrants to New York City. His work led to social change and reforms. His images also raise questions about the ethics obtaining photos and representation. The collection also includes images from the Smithsonian’s “Down These Mean Streets” exhibit. Students will consider a view of New York life through documentary street photography and how place and city life are represented in photography.


Time- 1-2 class periods with optional extension activities

Day 1:

Warm Up/ Engagement:

Have students do a chalk talk on chart paper on the following terms:

immigration, urbanization, sweatshop or factory, New York City

These concepts will be important for students to consider and have some familiarity with prior to discussing the work on Jacob Riis.

Looking Closely:

Next, show a photograph from Jacob Riis using the Project Zero Global Thinking Routine, "The 3 Ys" to analyze the story the image tells about living conditions for immigrant workers in New York City.

Students should consider why someone might be taking this photograph and who the intended audience might be.

Additionally, students might read some primary sources from that period written by Jacob Riis or others about the living conditions for immigrants on the Lower East Side of New York in the late 1800s.

Next, have students consider or take on different perspectives in the image by drawing the scene to include the photographer.

Have students read the Smithsonian article about Riis and watch a short video about his life and work. Alternatively, there’s an article from the Click! exhibit on Riis that students can read about how photography changes our awareness of poverty.

Exit Ticket/Reflection:

What did Jacob Riis intend to communicate through his photographs?  Do you think his images are respectful of immigrants and poor people? Why or why not?

Day 2

Today’s work focuses on exploring images from the “Down These Mean Streets: Community and Place in Urban Photography” exhibit. Allow students time to explore the gallery and identify photos that are meaningful to them.

In small groups, have students work in groups of two or three to analyze an image of their choosing in the collection using the “3 Ys” routine. Have students share their findings with the group.

As a reflection, have students consider some of the guiding questions about how photographers choose to represent places and communities.

What associations does the viewer have with these photographs?

What mood is created with these photographs?

How might you be able to create a sense of place with photography?

Extensions:

Additional resources related to Jacob Riis:

Library of Congress Exhibit

Magic Lantern Presentation from Riis

Jacob A. Riis: Revealing New York’s Other Half Educator Resource Guide

  • Have students complete their own documentary photo essay on their own neighborhood or community.
  • Have students read excerpts from ‘Down These Mean Streets’ and connect them to the images in the collection.
  • Join the Out of Eden Walk community and have students document their neighborhood and gather stories.
Allie Wilding
24
 

What is an American?

Context:  A lesson for a U.S. History/American Literature humanities class.  This lesson will come towards the end of our study of the Revolutionary period.

 Essential Question:  What does it mean to be an American in 1782?

Questions:

  • How does Crevecoeur define an American here?  How accurate is his definition for that time period?
  • To whom is Crevecouer making this appeal?  What sort of person would be motivated by these passages?
  • Who is included in Crevecoeur's appeal?  Who is left out?
  • How is "this new man" different?
  • How does Crevecoeur help build the ideals and myths of America?
  • How does this letter build on the idea of American Exceptionalism?  America as the land of "new and improved"?

Activities:

Students will have read Letter III before class.

Using the Smithsonian Learning Lab and the text excerpts below (or the entire text of Letter III), students will identify three key quotes or words  and find artwork that connects to chosen text.  Three total text excerpts and three works of art.  The works of art can support, refute, or simply connect to some aspect of the quote and the idea of what it means to be an American.

Students will share their chosen artworks and quotes via the class Google classroom. 

We will use the images as the basis for a class discussion on what it means to be an American.

After the class discussion, students will write a short paper on "What is an American?" 

----------------------------------

Student instructions:

1.. Using the Smithsonian Learning Lab and the text excerpts below (or the entire text of Letter III),  identify three key quotes or words  and find artwork that connects to chosen text.  You can use the images below as a starting point, but don't feel limited to these.  The Smithsonian has an amazing and extensive collection.  Take time to use the search function and explore the collection.  You have all period to do so.  Be original.

2.  By class tomorrow, post on the google classroom your text excerpts and accompanying three works of art.  The text can be a whole sentence or just a few key words.  The works of art can support, refute, or simply connect to some aspect of the text and the idea of what it means to be an American.  Be sure to include the title, artist, and date for each artwork.  Your artwork doesn't have to come from the Revolutionary time period.  The important thing is that you use your critical reading and thinking skills to make a connection between the text and the art work.

3.  Tomorrow we will have a class discussion based on the images and excerpts.  Be prepared to share your thinking on your choices with the class.


Tips:

As always, remember to consider speaker, audience, and purpose.  Who is speaking? To whom is he appealing? Why? 

Not sure where to start?  Find what you think are the ten most important words in the passage.  Narrow it down to the top three.

Based on our studies so far, what  are the different groups, ethnicities, races, religious affiliations make up the population at this time?  Which of these does Crevecouer include?  Leave out? 

How did these people come to be in America?   Does that matter in Crevecouer's writing?




--------------------------------

"Letters From An American Farmer"

by J. Hector St. John De Crevecoeur

"What then is the American, this new man?...He is an American, who, leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced, the new government he obeys, and the new rank he holds. He has become an American by being received in the broad lap of our great Alma Mater. Here individuals of all races are melted into a new race of man, whose labors and posterity will one day cause great changes in the world. Americans are the western pilgrims...

"After a foreigner from any part of Europe is arrived, and become a citizen; let him devoutly listen to the voice of our great parent, which says to him, "Welcome to my shores, distressed European; bless the hour in which thou didst see my verdant fields, my fair navigable rivers, and my green mountains!--If thou wilt work, I have bread for thee; if thou wilt be honest, sober, and industrious, I have greater rewards to confer on thee--ease and independence. I will give thee fields to feed and clothe thee; a comfortable fireside to sit by, and tell thy children by what means thou hast prospered; and a decent bed to repose on. I shall endow thee beside with the immunities of a freeman. If thou wilt carefully educate thy children, teach them gratitude to God, and reverence to that government, that philanthropic government, which has collected here so many men and made them happy. I will also provide for thy progeny; and to every good man this ought to be the most holy, the most powerful, the most earnest wish he can possibly form, as well as the most consolatory prospect when he dies. Go thou and work and till; thou shalt prosper, provided thou be just, grateful, and industrious"  (Letter III, 1782).


Mike Burns
27
 

Force, Work, Motion -- Lesson Plans and Information

How do canoes work? How do they float/move in the water?

An object will float if the gravitational (downward) force is less than the buoyancy (upward) force. So, in other words, an object will float if it weighs less than the amount of water it displaces. This explains why a rock will sink while a huge boat will float. The rock is heavy, but it displaces only a little water.

Michele Hubert
5
 

Food Chain -- Lesson Plans and Information

How does fishing, pollution and human activity affect the energy balance in the ocean?

The oceans are an important resource for much of humanity. In the United States alone, about one in six jobs has something to do with the ocean. Unfortunately, while humans depend on the ocean for many different things, their activities can also have a negative effect on the ocean and its wildlife.

OVERFISHING OF SPECIES

One of the biggest effects humans have on the ocean is through fishing. An increasing demand for protein has led to an increase in large-scale fishing operations, and throughout the 20th century, many countries failed to put safeguards into place to prevent overfishing. As a result, the populations of a number of large fish species have dropped by as much as 90 percent from their preindustrial populations. This depletion has led to disruptions in ocean food chains, removing predators and allowing other populations to grow unchecked. As the populations of targeted fish decline, many operations move down the food chain to other species, and over time this can cause significant alterations to marine ecosystems.

POLLUTION AND DUMPING

Human pollution also has a significant effect on the oceans. In the 1980s, travelers passing through the Pacific Ocean began to notice areas containing a high concentration of plastic trash, apparently collected by the ocean's natural currents into one area. The so-called Pacific Trash Vortex may contain up to 1.9 million pieces of trash per square mile, and a similar patch of garbage exists in the northern Atlantic. In addition, oil spills such as the one resulting from the Deepwater Horizon fire in 2010 can contaminate large stretches of the ocean, wiping out entire populations of fish and other species and affecting the regional ecosystem for decades.

CARBON EMISSONS

Air pollution also affects the oceans. As the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases, the ocean absorbs some of the excess. The gas reacts with seawater and reduces its pH, increasing the acidity of the water. Since the industrial revolution, the pH of the ocean has decreased by 0.1 pH, representing a 30 percent increase in the acidity of seawater. This affects the growth of animals and plants in the ocean, weakening coral and shellfish.

ORGANIC WASTE

Organic waste dumped into the oceans can have a devastating effect on ecosystems. Excess nutrients from fertilizers and sewage runoff flow into the ocean via rivers, and this sudden abundance of organic material can disrupt the balance of life in affected areas. Organic pollution can cause algae blooms, a rapid increase in certain species of microorganisms that may produce toxins or consume the free oxygen in the region, killing off or driving away other species.

 


Michele Hubert
10
 

Why Move West?

Each resource symbolizes a reason why Americans chose to move west.  For each one, complete the following activity:

1) Source it: Is it a primary or secondary source? Who made it? When was it made? What is the author's purpose (PIE)? Hint- click the i on the left side of the screen to learn more about the source.

2) Identify at least 4 details that you see in the image.

3) Why would this resource motivate people to move West? Use a specific detail that you saw to prove your point.

Michelle Moses
9
 

Weather and Climate (Earth and Space Systems)-- Lesson Plans and Information

What does the weather do to the ocean currents?

Ocean water and currents affect the climate. It takes a greater amount of energy to change the temperature of water than land or air; water warms up and cools off much slower than land or air does. As a result, inland climates are subject to more extreme temperature ranges than coastal climates, which are insulated by nearby water. Over half the heat that reaches the earth from the sun is absorbed by the ocean's surface layer, so surface currents move a lot of heat. Currents that originate near the equator are warm; currents that flow from the poles are cold.

The Great Ocean Conveyor Belt

The great ocean conveyor belt is an example of a density-driven current. These are also called thermohaline currents, because they are forced by differences in temperature or salinity, which affect the density of the water.

The great ocean conveyor belt begins as the coolest of all currents - literally. At the beginning of the conveyor belt:

The Gulf Stream delivers warm, and relatively salty, surface waters north to the Norwegian Sea. There the water gives up its heat to the atmosphere, especially during the frigidly cold winters. The surface waters cool to near freezing temperatures, at which time they become denser than the waters below them and sink. This process continues making cold water so dense that it sinks all the way to the bottom of the ocean.

During this time, the Gulf Stream continues to deliver warm water to the Norwegian Sea on the surface. The water can't very well pile up in the Norwegian Sea, so the deep cold water flows southward. It continues to flow southward, passing the Equator, until it enters the bottom of the Antarctic Circumpolar current. It then drifts around Africa and Australia, until it seeps northward into the bottom of the Pacific.


Michele Hubert
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