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Coin, Netherlands, 1 Gulden, Lockheed Sirius "Tingmissartoq", Lindbergh

National Air and Space Museum
1 gulden coin from Netherlands, 1931.

One hundred and seventy-one (171) coins collected by Charles and Anne Lindbergh during their flights. Originally there were one hundred and eighty-four (184) but thirteen (13) were used in two (2) separate displays, see catalog number A20030078001 and A20030079033.

Coins are from British West Africa, Canada, China, Denmark, Estonia, France, Great Britain, Greenland, Iceland, Ireland, Morocco, the Netherlands, Newfoundland, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, and the United States.

These are a few of the coins Charles A. Lindbergh and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, collected during their 1931 flight to the Orient and 1933 flights across the North and South Atlantic. Although they collected souvenirs along the way, their two trans-global trips were more than just vacations. They were also significant survey flights which provided information for the planning of commercial air routes. Their 1931 trip to the Orient proved the viability of traveling from the West to the Far East via the Great Circle route to the North. Their 1933 trip across the North and South Atlantic revealed many of the difficulties of transatlantic air travel.

A vacation flight with "no start or finish, no diplomatic or commercial significance, and no records to be sought." So Charles A. Lindbergh described the flight that he and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, were planning to make to the Orient in 1931. Their choice of route, however, showed the feasibility of using the great circle to reach the Far East.

The Lindberghs flew in a Lockheed Sirius low-wing monoplane, powered by a 680-hp Wright Cyclone. The Sirius had been designed in 1929 by John K. Northrop and Gerard Vultee, and this model was specially fitted with Edo floats, since most of the Lindberghs flight was to be over water.

Their route took them from North Haven, Maine, to Ottawa, Moose Factory, Churchill, Baker Lake, and Aklavik, all in Canada; Point Barrow, Shismaref, and Nome, Alaska; Petropavlosk. Siberia; and on over the Kurile Islands to Japan. After receiving an enthusiastic welcome in Tokyo, they flew to China. They landed on Lotus Lake near Nanking on September 19, thus completing the first flight from the West to the East by way of the North.

At Hankow, the Sirius, with the Lindberghs aboard, was being lowered into the Yangtze River from the British aircraft carrier Hermes, when the aircraft accidentally capsized. One of the wings was damaged when it hit a ship's cable, and the aircraft had to be returned to the United States for repairs.

Their next venture in the Sirius came as a result of the five countries' interest in the development of commercial air transport. In 1933 Pan American Airways, Imperial Airways of Great Britain, Lufthansa of Germany, KLM of Holland, and Air France undertook a cooperative study of possible Atlantic routes. Each was assigned the responsibility for one of the following areas: New Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland; Newfoundland via the great circle route to Ireland; Newfoundland southeast to the Azores and Lisbon; Miami, Bermuda, the Azores, and Lisbon; and across the South Atlantic from Natal, Brazil, to Cape Verde, Africa.

Pan American was to survey the Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland route. Ground survey and weather crews in Greenland were already hard at work when Lindbergh, Pan Am's technical advisor, took off from New York on July 9 in the rebuilt Lockheed Sirius, again accompanied by his wife, who would serve as copilot and radio operator. A Sperry artificial horizon and a directional gyro had been added to the instrument panel since the previous flight, and a new Wright Cyclone SR1820-F2 engine of 710 horsepower was installed. Lindbergh's plan was not to set up a particular route but to gather as much information as possible on the area to be covered.

The Jellinge, a Danish ship, was chartered by Pan Am to maintain radio contact with the Lindberghs in the Labrador-Greenland-Iceland area. The ship also delivered advance supplies for them to Halifax, Saint John's, Cartwright, Greenland, and Iceland.

Every possible space in the aircraft was utilized, including the wings and floats, which contained the gasoline tanks. There was plenty of emergency equipment in case the Lindberghs had to make a forced landing in the frozen wilderness.

From New York, the Lindberghs flew up the eastern border of Canada to Hopedale, Labrador. From Hopedale they made the first major overwater hop, 650 miles to Godthaab, Greenland, where the Sirius acquired its name-Tingmissartoq, which in Eskimo means "one who flies like a big bird."

After crisscrossing Greenland to Baffin Island and back, and then on to Iceland, the Lindberghs proceeded to the major cities of Europe and as far east as Moscow, down the west coast of Africa, and across the South Atlantic to South America, where they flew down the Amazon, and then north through Trinidad and Barbados and back to the United States.

They returned to New York on December 19, having traveled 30,000 miles to four continents and twenty-one countries. The information gained from the trip proved invaluable in planning commercial air transport routes for the North and South Atlantic.

The aircraft was in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City until 1955. The Air Force Museum in Dayton, Ohio, then acquired it and transferred it to the Smithsonian in 1959.

Coin, Great Britain, George V Florin, Lockheed Sirius "Tingmissartoq", Lindbergh

National Air and Space Museum
Great Britain, George V Silver Florin, 1921.

One hundred and seventy-one (171) coins collected by Charles and Anne Lindbergh during their flights. Originally there were one hundred and eighty-four (184) but thirteen (13) were used in two (2) separate displays, see catalog number A20030078001 and A20030079033.

Coins are from British West Africa, Canada, China, Denmark, Estonia, France, Great Britain, Greenland, Iceland, Ireland, Morocco, the Netherlands, Newfoundland, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, and the United States.

These are a few of the coins Charles A. Lindbergh and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, collected during their 1931 flight to the Orient and 1933 flights across the North and South Atlantic. Although they collected souvenirs along the way, their two trans-global trips were more than just vacations. They were also significant survey flights which provided information for the planning of commercial air routes. Their 1931 trip to the Orient proved the viability of traveling from the West to the Far East via the Great Circle route to the North. Their 1933 trip across the North and South Atlantic revealed many of the difficulties of transatlantic air travel.

A vacation flight with "no start or finish, no diplomatic or commercial significance, and no records to be sought." So Charles A. Lindbergh described the flight that he and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, were planning to make to the Orient in 1931. Their choice of route, however, showed the feasibility of using the great circle to reach the Far East.

The Lindberghs flew in a Lockheed Sirius low-wing monoplane, powered by a 680-hp Wright Cyclone. The Sirius had been designed in 1929 by John K. Northrop and Gerard Vultee, and this model was specially fitted with Edo floats, since most of the Lindberghs flight was to be over water.

Their route took them from North Haven, Maine, to Ottawa, Moose Factory, Churchill, Baker Lake, and Aklavik, all in Canada; Point Barrow, Shismaref, and Nome, Alaska; Petropavlosk. Siberia; and on over the Kurile Islands to Japan. After receiving an enthusiastic welcome in Tokyo, they flew to China. They landed on Lotus Lake near Nanking on September 19, thus completing the first flight from the West to the East by way of the North.

At Hankow, the Sirius, with the Lindberghs aboard, was being lowered into the Yangtze River from the British aircraft carrier Hermes, when the aircraft accidentally capsized. One of the wings was damaged when it hit a ship's cable, and the aircraft had to be returned to the United States for repairs.

Their next venture in the Sirius came as a result of the five countries' interest in the development of commercial air transport. In 1933 Pan American Airways, Imperial Airways of Great Britain, Lufthansa of Germany, KLM of Holland, and Air France undertook a cooperative study of possible Atlantic routes. Each was assigned the responsibility for one of the following areas: New Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland; Newfoundland via the great circle route to Ireland; Newfoundland southeast to the Azores and Lisbon; Miami, Bermuda, the Azores, and Lisbon; and across the South Atlantic from Natal, Brazil, to Cape Verde, Africa.

Pan American was to survey the Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland route. Ground survey and weather crews in Greenland were already hard at work when Lindbergh, Pan Am's technical advisor, took off from New York on July 9 in the rebuilt Lockheed Sirius, again accompanied by his wife, who would serve as copilot and radio operator. A Sperry artificial horizon and a directional gyro had been added to the instrument panel since the previous flight, and a new Wright Cyclone SR1820-F2 engine of 710 horsepower was installed. Lindbergh's plan was not to set up a particular route but to gather as much information as possible on the area to be covered.

The Jellinge, a Danish ship, was chartered by Pan Am to maintain radio contact with the Lindberghs in the Labrador-Greenland-Iceland area. The ship also delivered advance supplies for them to Halifax, Saint John's, Cartwright, Greenland, and Iceland.

Every possible space in the aircraft was utilized, including the wings and floats, which contained the gasoline tanks. There was plenty of emergency equipment in case the Lindberghs had to make a forced landing in the frozen wilderness.

From New York, the Lindberghs flew up the eastern border of Canada to Hopedale, Labrador. From Hopedale they made the first major overwater hop, 650 miles to Godthaab, Greenland, where the Sirius acquired its name-Tingmissartoq, which in Eskimo means "one who flies like a big bird."

After crisscrossing Greenland to Baffin Island and back, and then on to Iceland, the Lindberghs proceeded to the major cities of Europe and as far east as Moscow, down the west coast of Africa, and across the South Atlantic to South America, where they flew down the Amazon, and then north through Trinidad and Barbados and back to the United States.

They returned to New York on December 19, having traveled 30,000 miles to four continents and twenty-one countries. The information gained from the trip proved invaluable in planning commercial air transport routes for the North and South Atlantic.

The aircraft was in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City until 1955. The Air Force Museum in Dayton, Ohio, then acquired it and transferred it to the Smithsonian in 1959.

Coin, Spain, Alfonso XIII Peseta, Lockheed Sirius "Tingmissartoq", Lindbergh

National Air and Space Museum
Spain, Alfonso XIII Peseta coin, 1900.

One hundred and seventy-one (171) coins collected by Charles and Anne Lindbergh during their flights. Originally there were one hundred and eighty-four (184) but thirteen (13) were used in two (2) separate displays, see catalog number A20030078001 and A20030079033.

Coins are from British West Africa, Canada, China, Denmark, Estonia, France, Great Britain, Greenland, Iceland, Ireland, Morocco, the Netherlands, Newfoundland, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, and the United States.

These are a few of the coins Charles A. Lindbergh and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, collected during their 1931 flight to the Orient and 1933 flights across the North and South Atlantic. Although they collected souvenirs along the way, their two trans-global trips were more than just vacations. They were also significant survey flights which provided information for the planning of commercial air routes. Their 1931 trip to the Orient proved the viability of traveling from the West to the Far East via the Great Circle route to the North. Their 1933 trip across the North and South Atlantic revealed many of the difficulties of transatlantic air travel.

A vacation flight with "no start or finish, no diplomatic or commercial significance, and no records to be sought." So Charles A. Lindbergh described the flight that he and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, were planning to make to the Orient in 1931. Their choice of route, however, showed the feasibility of using the great circle to reach the Far East.

The Lindberghs flew in a Lockheed Sirius low-wing monoplane, powered by a 680-hp Wright Cyclone. The Sirius had been designed in 1929 by John K. Northrop and Gerard Vultee, and this model was specially fitted with Edo floats, since most of the Lindberghs flight was to be over water.

Their route took them from North Haven, Maine, to Ottawa, Moose Factory, Churchill, Baker Lake, and Aklavik, all in Canada; Point Barrow, Shismaref, and Nome, Alaska; Petropavlosk. Siberia; and on over the Kurile Islands to Japan. After receiving an enthusiastic welcome in Tokyo, they flew to China. They landed on Lotus Lake near Nanking on September 19, thus completing the first flight from the West to the East by way of the North.

At Hankow, the Sirius, with the Lindberghs aboard, was being lowered into the Yangtze River from the British aircraft carrier Hermes, when the aircraft accidentally capsized. One of the wings was damaged when it hit a ship's cable, and the aircraft had to be returned to the United States for repairs.

Their next venture in the Sirius came as a result of the five countries' interest in the development of commercial air transport. In 1933 Pan American Airways, Imperial Airways of Great Britain, Lufthansa of Germany, KLM of Holland, and Air France undertook a cooperative study of possible Atlantic routes. Each was assigned the responsibility for one of the following areas: New Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland; Newfoundland via the great circle route to Ireland; Newfoundland southeast to the Azores and Lisbon; Miami, Bermuda, the Azores, and Lisbon; and across the South Atlantic from Natal, Brazil, to Cape Verde, Africa.

Pan American was to survey the Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland route. Ground survey and weather crews in Greenland were already hard at work when Lindbergh, Pan Am's technical advisor, took off from New York on July 9 in the rebuilt Lockheed Sirius, again accompanied by his wife, who would serve as copilot and radio operator. A Sperry artificial horizon and a directional gyro had been added to the instrument panel since the previous flight, and a new Wright Cyclone SR1820-F2 engine of 710 horsepower was installed. Lindbergh's plan was not to set up a particular route but to gather as much information as possible on the area to be covered.

The Jellinge, a Danish ship, was chartered by Pan Am to maintain radio contact with the Lindberghs in the Labrador-Greenland-Iceland area. The ship also delivered advance supplies for them to Halifax, Saint John's, Cartwright, Greenland, and Iceland.

Every possible space in the aircraft was utilized, including the wings and floats, which contained the gasoline tanks. There was plenty of emergency equipment in case the Lindberghs had to make a forced landing in the frozen wilderness.

From New York, the Lindberghs flew up the eastern border of Canada to Hopedale, Labrador. From Hopedale they made the first major overwater hop, 650 miles to Godthaab, Greenland, where the Sirius acquired its name-Tingmissartoq, which in Eskimo means "one who flies like a big bird."

After crisscrossing Greenland to Baffin Island and back, and then on to Iceland, the Lindberghs proceeded to the major cities of Europe and as far east as Moscow, down the west coast of Africa, and across the South Atlantic to South America, where they flew down the Amazon, and then north through Trinidad and Barbados and back to the United States.

They returned to New York on December 19, having traveled 30,000 miles to four continents and twenty-one countries. The information gained from the trip proved invaluable in planning commercial air transport routes for the North and South Atlantic.

The aircraft was in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City until 1955. The Air Force Museum in Dayton, Ohio, then acquired it and transferred it to the Smithsonian in 1959.

Wheel, Lockheed Sirius "Tingmissartoq", C.A. Lindbergh

National Air and Space Museum
Black rubber tire Goodrich Silverstone with red emblem, with gray aluminum hub. Previously part of A19600014010, removed 06/14/2010. For installation in Pioneers of Flight, Gallery 208.

A vacation flight with "no start or finish, no diplomatic or commercial significance, and no records to be sought." So Charles A. Lindbergh described the flight that he and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, were planning to make to the Orient in 1931. Their choice of route, however, showed the feasibility of using the great circle to reach the Far East.

The Lindberghs flew in a Lockheed Sirius low-wing monoplane, powered by a 680-hp Wright Cyclone. The Sirius had been designed in 1929 by John K. Northrop and Gerard Vultee, and this model was specially fitted with Edo floats, since most of the Lindberghs flight was to be over water.

Their route took them from North Haven, Maine, to Ottawa, Moose Factory, Churchill, Baker Lake, and Aklavik, all in Canada; Point Barrow, Shismaref, and Nome, Alaska; Petropavlosk. Siberia; and on over the Kurile Islands to Japan. After receiving an enthusiastic welcome in Tokyo, they flew to China. They landed on Lotus Lake near Nanking on September 19, thus completing the first flight from the West to the East by way of the North.

At Hankow, the Sirius, with the Lindberghs aboard, was being lowered into the Yangtze River from the British aircraft carrier Hermes, when the aircraft accidentally capsized. One of the wings was damaged when it hit a ship’s cable, and the aircraft had to be returned to the United States for repairs.

Their next venture in the Sirius came as a result of the five countries’ interest in the development of commercial air transport. In 1933 Pan American Airways, Imperial Airways of Great Britain, Lufthansa of Germany, KLM of Holland, and Air France undertook a cooperative study of possible Atlantic routes. Each was assigned the responsibility for one of the following areas: New Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland; Newfoundland via the great circle route to Ireland; Newfoundland southeast to the Azores and Lisbon; Miami, Bermuda, the Azores, and Lisbon; and across the South Atlantic from Natal, Brazil, to Cape Verde, Africa.

Pan American was to survey the Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland route. Ground survey and weather crews in Greenland were already hard at work when Lindbergh, Pan Am’s technical advisor, took off from New York on July 9 in the rebuilt Lockheed Sirius, again accompanied by his wife, who would serve as copilot and radio operator. A Sperry artificial horizon and a directional gyro had been added to the instrument panel since the previous flight, and a new Wright Cyclone SR1820-F2 engine of 710 horsepower was installed. Lindbergh’s plan was not to set up a particular route but to gather as much information as possible on the area to be covered.

The Jellinge, a Danish ship, was chartered by Pan Am to maintain radio contact with the Lindberghs in the Labrador-Greenland-Iceland area. The ship also delivered advance supplies for them to Halifax, Saint John’s, Cartwright, Greenland, and Iceland.

Every possible space in the aircraft was utilized, including the wings and floats, which contained the gasoline tanks. There was plenty of emergency equipment in case the Lindberghs had to make a forced landing in the frozen wilderness.

From New York, the Lindberghs flew up the eastern border of Canada to Hopedale, Labrador. From Hopedale they made the first major overwater hop, 650 miles to Godthaab, Greenland, where the Sirius acquired its name—Tingmissartoq, which in Eskimo means "one who flies like a big bird."

After crisscrossing Greenland to Baffin Island and back, and then on to Iceland, the Lindberghs proceeded to the major cities of Europe and as far east as Moscow, down the west coast of Africa, and across the South Atlantic to South America. where they flew down the Amazon, and then north through Trinidad and Barbados and back to the United States.

They returned to New York on December 19, having traveled 30,000 miles to four continents and twenty-one countries. The information gained from the trip proved invaluable in planning commercial air transport routes for the North and South Atlantic.

The aircraft was in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City until 1955. The Air Force Museum in Dayton, Ohio, then acquired it and transferred it to the Smithsonian in 1959.

Coin, Cape Verde, 50 Centavos, Lockheed Sirius "Tingmissartoq", Lindbergh

National Air and Space Museum
50 Centavos coin from Cabo Verde (Cape Verde) and the Portuguese Republic, 1930.

One hundred and seventy-one (171) coins collected by Charles and Anne Lindbergh during their flights. Originally there were one hundred and eighty-four (184) but thirteen (13) were used in two (2) separate displays, see catalog number A20030078001 and A20030079033.

Coins are from British West Africa, Canada, China, Denmark, Estonia, France, Great Britain, Greenland, Iceland, Ireland, Morocco, the Netherlands, Newfoundland, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, and the United States.

These are a few of the coins Charles A. Lindbergh and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, collected during their 1931 flight to the Orient and 1933 flights across the North and South Atlantic. Although they collected souvenirs along the way, their two trans-global trips were more than just vacations. They were also significant survey flights which provided information for the planning of commercial air routes. Their 1931 trip to the Orient proved the viability of traveling from the West to the Far East via the Great Circle route to the North. Their 1933 trip across the North and South Atlantic revealed many of the difficulties of transatlantic air travel.

A vacation flight with "no start or finish, no diplomatic or commercial significance, and no records to be sought." So Charles A. Lindbergh described the flight that he and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, were planning to make to the Orient in 1931. Their choice of route, however, showed the feasibility of using the great circle to reach the Far East.

The Lindberghs flew in a Lockheed Sirius low-wing monoplane, powered by a 680-hp Wright Cyclone. The Sirius had been designed in 1929 by John K. Northrop and Gerard Vultee, and this model was specially fitted with Edo floats, since most of the Lindberghs flight was to be over water.

Their route took them from North Haven, Maine, to Ottawa, Moose Factory, Churchill, Baker Lake, and Aklavik, all in Canada; Point Barrow, Shismaref, and Nome, Alaska; Petropavlosk. Siberia; and on over the Kurile Islands to Japan. After receiving an enthusiastic welcome in Tokyo, they flew to China. They landed on Lotus Lake near Nanking on September 19, thus completing the first flight from the West to the East by way of the North.

At Hankow, the Sirius, with the Lindberghs aboard, was being lowered into the Yangtze River from the British aircraft carrier Hermes, when the aircraft accidentally capsized. One of the wings was damaged when it hit a ship's cable, and the aircraft had to be returned to the United States for repairs.

Their next venture in the Sirius came as a result of the five countries' interest in the development of commercial air transport. In 1933 Pan American Airways, Imperial Airways of Great Britain, Lufthansa of Germany, KLM of Holland, and Air France undertook a cooperative study of possible Atlantic routes. Each was assigned the responsibility for one of the following areas: New Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland; Newfoundland via the great circle route to Ireland; Newfoundland southeast to the Azores and Lisbon; Miami, Bermuda, the Azores, and Lisbon; and across the South Atlantic from Natal, Brazil, to Cape Verde, Africa.

Pan American was to survey the Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland route. Ground survey and weather crews in Greenland were already hard at work when Lindbergh, Pan Am's technical advisor, took off from New York on July 9 in the rebuilt Lockheed Sirius, again accompanied by his wife, who would serve as copilot and radio operator. A Sperry artificial horizon and a directional gyro had been added to the instrument panel since the previous flight, and a new Wright Cyclone SR1820-F2 engine of 710 horsepower was installed. Lindbergh's plan was not to set up a particular route but to gather as much information as possible on the area to be covered.

The Jellinge, a Danish ship, was chartered by Pan Am to maintain radio contact with the Lindberghs in the Labrador-Greenland-Iceland area. The ship also delivered advance supplies for them to Halifax, Saint John's, Cartwright, Greenland, and Iceland.

Every possible space in the aircraft was utilized, including the wings and floats, which contained the gasoline tanks. There was plenty of emergency equipment in case the Lindberghs had to make a forced landing in the frozen wilderness.

From New York, the Lindberghs flew up the eastern border of Canada to Hopedale, Labrador. From Hopedale they made the first major overwater hop, 650 miles to Godthaab, Greenland, where the Sirius acquired its name-Tingmissartoq, which in Eskimo means "one who flies like a big bird."

After crisscrossing Greenland to Baffin Island and back, and then on to Iceland, the Lindberghs proceeded to the major cities of Europe and as far east as Moscow, down the west coast of Africa, and across the South Atlantic to South America, where they flew down the Amazon, and then north through Trinidad and Barbados and back to the United States.

They returned to New York on December 19, having traveled 30,000 miles to four continents and twenty-one countries. The information gained from the trip proved invaluable in planning commercial air transport routes for the North and South Atlantic.

The aircraft was in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City until 1955. The Air Force Museum in Dayton, Ohio, then acquired it and transferred it to the Smithsonian in 1959.

Coin, Sweden, 10 Ore, Lockheed Sirius "Tingmissartoq", Lindbergh

National Air and Space Museum
10 Ore (Öre) coin from Sweden, 1933.

One hundred and seventy-one (171) coins collected by Charles and Anne Lindbergh during their flights. Originally there were one hundred and eighty-four (184) but thirteen (13) were used in two (2) separate displays, see catalog number A20030078001 and A20030079033.

Coins are from British West Africa, Canada, China, Denmark, Estonia, France, Great Britain, Greenland, Iceland, Ireland, Morocco, the Netherlands, Newfoundland, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, and the United States.

These are a few of the coins Charles A. Lindbergh and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, collected during their 1931 flight to the Orient and 1933 flights across the North and South Atlantic. Although they collected souvenirs along the way, their two trans-global trips were more than just vacations. They were also significant survey flights which provided information for the planning of commercial air routes. Their 1931 trip to the Orient proved the viability of traveling from the West to the Far East via the Great Circle route to the North. Their 1933 trip across the North and South Atlantic revealed many of the difficulties of transatlantic air travel.

A vacation flight with "no start or finish, no diplomatic or commercial significance, and no records to be sought." So Charles A. Lindbergh described the flight that he and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, were planning to make to the Orient in 1931. Their choice of route, however, showed the feasibility of using the great circle to reach the Far East.

The Lindberghs flew in a Lockheed Sirius low-wing monoplane, powered by a 680-hp Wright Cyclone. The Sirius had been designed in 1929 by John K. Northrop and Gerard Vultee, and this model was specially fitted with Edo floats, since most of the Lindberghs flight was to be over water.

Their route took them from North Haven, Maine, to Ottawa, Moose Factory, Churchill, Baker Lake, and Aklavik, all in Canada; Point Barrow, Shismaref, and Nome, Alaska; Petropavlosk. Siberia; and on over the Kurile Islands to Japan. After receiving an enthusiastic welcome in Tokyo, they flew to China. They landed on Lotus Lake near Nanking on September 19, thus completing the first flight from the West to the East by way of the North.

At Hankow, the Sirius, with the Lindberghs aboard, was being lowered into the Yangtze River from the British aircraft carrier Hermes, when the aircraft accidentally capsized. One of the wings was damaged when it hit a ship's cable, and the aircraft had to be returned to the United States for repairs.

Their next venture in the Sirius came as a result of the five countries' interest in the development of commercial air transport. In 1933 Pan American Airways, Imperial Airways of Great Britain, Lufthansa of Germany, KLM of Holland, and Air France undertook a cooperative study of possible Atlantic routes. Each was assigned the responsibility for one of the following areas: New Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland; Newfoundland via the great circle route to Ireland; Newfoundland southeast to the Azores and Lisbon; Miami, Bermuda, the Azores, and Lisbon; and across the South Atlantic from Natal, Brazil, to Cape Verde, Africa.

Pan American was to survey the Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland route. Ground survey and weather crews in Greenland were already hard at work when Lindbergh, Pan Am's technical advisor, took off from New York on July 9 in the rebuilt Lockheed Sirius, again accompanied by his wife, who would serve as copilot and radio operator. A Sperry artificial horizon and a directional gyro had been added to the instrument panel since the previous flight, and a new Wright Cyclone SR1820-F2 engine of 710 horsepower was installed. Lindbergh's plan was not to set up a particular route but to gather as much information as possible on the area to be covered.

The Jellinge, a Danish ship, was chartered by Pan Am to maintain radio contact with the Lindberghs in the Labrador-Greenland-Iceland area. The ship also delivered advance supplies for them to Halifax, Saint John's, Cartwright, Greenland, and Iceland.

Every possible space in the aircraft was utilized, including the wings and floats, which contained the gasoline tanks. There was plenty of emergency equipment in case the Lindberghs had to make a forced landing in the frozen wilderness.

From New York, the Lindberghs flew up the eastern border of Canada to Hopedale, Labrador. From Hopedale they made the first major overwater hop, 650 miles to Godthaab, Greenland, where the Sirius acquired its name-Tingmissartoq, which in Eskimo means "one who flies like a big bird."

After crisscrossing Greenland to Baffin Island and back, and then on to Iceland, the Lindberghs proceeded to the major cities of Europe and as far east as Moscow, down the west coast of Africa, and across the South Atlantic to South America, where they flew down the Amazon, and then north through Trinidad and Barbados and back to the United States.

They returned to New York on December 19, having traveled 30,000 miles to four continents and twenty-one countries. The information gained from the trip proved invaluable in planning commercial air transport routes for the North and South Atlantic.

The aircraft was in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City until 1955. The Air Force Museum in Dayton, Ohio, then acquired it and transferred it to the Smithsonian in 1959.

Coin, Estonia, 25 Senti, Lockheed Sirius "Tingmissartoq", Lindbergh

National Air and Space Museum
25 Senti coin from Estonia, 1928.

One hundred and seventy-one (171) coins collected by Charles and Anne Lindbergh during their flights. Originally there were one hundred and eighty-four (184) but thirteen (13) were used in two (2) separate displays, see catalog number A20030078001 and A20030079033.

Coins are from British West Africa, Canada, China, Denmark, Estonia, France, Great Britain, Greenland, Iceland, Ireland, Morocco, the Netherlands, Newfoundland, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, and the United States.

These are a few of the coins Charles A. Lindbergh and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, collected during their 1931 flight to the Orient and 1933 flights across the North and South Atlantic. Although they collected souvenirs along the way, their two trans-global trips were more than just vacations. They were also significant survey flights which provided information for the planning of commercial air routes. Their 1931 trip to the Orient proved the viability of traveling from the West to the Far East via the Great Circle route to the North. Their 1933 trip across the North and South Atlantic revealed many of the difficulties of transatlantic air travel.

A vacation flight with "no start or finish, no diplomatic or commercial significance, and no records to be sought." So Charles A. Lindbergh described the flight that he and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, were planning to make to the Orient in 1931. Their choice of route, however, showed the feasibility of using the great circle to reach the Far East.

The Lindberghs flew in a Lockheed Sirius low-wing monoplane, powered by a 680-hp Wright Cyclone. The Sirius had been designed in 1929 by John K. Northrop and Gerard Vultee, and this model was specially fitted with Edo floats, since most of the Lindberghs flight was to be over water.

Their route took them from North Haven, Maine, to Ottawa, Moose Factory, Churchill, Baker Lake, and Aklavik, all in Canada; Point Barrow, Shismaref, and Nome, Alaska; Petropavlosk. Siberia; and on over the Kurile Islands to Japan. After receiving an enthusiastic welcome in Tokyo, they flew to China. They landed on Lotus Lake near Nanking on September 19, thus completing the first flight from the West to the East by way of the North.

At Hankow, the Sirius, with the Lindberghs aboard, was being lowered into the Yangtze River from the British aircraft carrier Hermes, when the aircraft accidentally capsized. One of the wings was damaged when it hit a ship's cable, and the aircraft had to be returned to the United States for repairs.

Their next venture in the Sirius came as a result of the five countries' interest in the development of commercial air transport. In 1933 Pan American Airways, Imperial Airways of Great Britain, Lufthansa of Germany, KLM of Holland, and Air France undertook a cooperative study of possible Atlantic routes. Each was assigned the responsibility for one of the following areas: New Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland; Newfoundland via the great circle route to Ireland; Newfoundland southeast to the Azores and Lisbon; Miami, Bermuda, the Azores, and Lisbon; and across the South Atlantic from Natal, Brazil, to Cape Verde, Africa.

Pan American was to survey the Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland route. Ground survey and weather crews in Greenland were already hard at work when Lindbergh, Pan Am's technical advisor, took off from New York on July 9 in the rebuilt Lockheed Sirius, again accompanied by his wife, who would serve as copilot and radio operator. A Sperry artificial horizon and a directional gyro had been added to the instrument panel since the previous flight, and a new Wright Cyclone SR1820-F2 engine of 710 horsepower was installed. Lindbergh's plan was not to set up a particular route but to gather as much information as possible on the area to be covered.

The Jellinge, a Danish ship, was chartered by Pan Am to maintain radio contact with the Lindberghs in the Labrador-Greenland-Iceland area. The ship also delivered advance supplies for them to Halifax, Saint John's, Cartwright, Greenland, and Iceland.

Every possible space in the aircraft was utilized, including the wings and floats, which contained the gasoline tanks. There was plenty of emergency equipment in case the Lindberghs had to make a forced landing in the frozen wilderness.

From New York, the Lindberghs flew up the eastern border of Canada to Hopedale, Labrador. From Hopedale they made the first major overwater hop, 650 miles to Godthaab, Greenland, where the Sirius acquired its name-Tingmissartoq, which in Eskimo means "one who flies like a big bird."

After crisscrossing Greenland to Baffin Island and back, and then on to Iceland, the Lindberghs proceeded to the major cities of Europe and as far east as Moscow, down the west coast of Africa, and across the South Atlantic to South America, where they flew down the Amazon, and then north through Trinidad and Barbados and back to the United States.

They returned to New York on December 19, having traveled 30,000 miles to four continents and twenty-one countries. The information gained from the trip proved invaluable in planning commercial air transport routes for the North and South Atlantic.

The aircraft was in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City until 1955. The Air Force Museum in Dayton, Ohio, then acquired it and transferred it to the Smithsonian in 1959.

Parka, Lockheed Sirius "Tingmissartoq", Lindbergh

National Air and Space Museum
Anne Morrow Lindbergh's parka. A white wool parka with a large black stripe across the midsection just below two pockets. The parka is a slip on with a hat that buttons to the back of the collar and can be tied in the front.

Anne Morrow Lindbergh wore this white wool parka as she flew with her husband Charles on survey flights across the North and South Atlantic in 1933. Anne and Charles filled most of their plane's storage space with tools, survival gear, and canned rations, allowing themselves only 18 pounds of personal luggage each, including suitcase. Their clothing thus had to be lightweight, but also warm since they would by flying over some of the coldest places on earth, including Greenland, Iceland, and Scandinavia. This parka and its accompanying hood weighed only 3.4 pounds and its thick wool would have kept Anne warm in the unheated cockpit.

A vacation flight with "no start or finish, no diplomatic or commercial significance, and no records to be sought." So Charles A. Lindbergh described the flight that he and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, were planning to make to the Orient in 1931. Their choice of route, however, showed the feasibility of using the great circle to reach the Far East.

The Lindberghs flew in a Lockheed Sirius low-wing monoplane, powered by a 680-hp Wright Cyclone. The Sirius had been designed in 1929 by John K. Northrop and Gerard Vultee, and this model was specially fitted with Edo floats, since most of the Lindberghs flight was to be over water.

Their route took them from North Haven, Maine, to Ottawa, Moose Factory, Churchill, Baker Lake, and Aklavik, all in Canada; Point Barrow, Shismaref, and Nome, Alaska; Petropavlosk. Siberia; and on over the Kurile Islands to Japan. After receiving an enthusiastic welcome in Tokyo, they flew to China. They landed on Lotus Lake near Nanking on September 19, thus completing the first flight from the West to the East by way of the North.

At Hankow, the Sirius, with the Lindberghs aboard, was being lowered into the Yangtze River from the British aircraft carrier Hermes, when the aircraft accidentally capsized. One of the wings was damaged when it hit a ship's cable, and the aircraft had to be returned to the United States for repairs.

Their next venture in the Sirius came as a result of the five countries' interest in the development of commercial air transport. In 1933 Pan American Airways, Imperial Airways of Great Britain, Lufthansa of Germany, KLM of Holland, and Air France undertook a cooperative study of possible Atlantic routes. Each was assigned the responsibility for one of the following areas: New Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland; Newfoundland via the great circle route to Ireland; Newfoundland southeast to the Azores and Lisbon; Miami, Bermuda, the Azores, and Lisbon; and across the South Atlantic from Natal, Brazil, to Cape Verde, Africa.

Pan American was to survey the Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland route. Ground survey and weather crews in Greenland were already hard at work when Lindbergh, Pan Am's technical advisor, took off from New York on July 9 in the rebuilt Lockheed Sirius, again accompanied by his wife, who would serve as copilot and radio operator. A Sperry artificial horizon and a directional gyro had been added to the instrument panel since the previous flight, and a new Wright Cyclone SR1820-F2 engine of 710 horsepower was installed. Lindbergh's plan was not to set up a particular route but to gather as much information as possible on the area to be covered.

The Jellinge, a Danish ship, was chartered by Pan Am to maintain radio contact with the Lindberghs in the Labrador-Greenland-Iceland area. The ship also delivered advance supplies for them to Halifax, Saint John's, Cartwright, Greenland, and Iceland.

Every possible space in the aircraft was utilized, including the wings and floats, which contained the gasoline tanks. There was plenty of emergency equipment in case the Lindberghs had to make a forced landing in the frozen wilderness.

From New York, the Lindberghs flew up the eastern border of Canada to Hopedale, Labrador. From Hopedale they made the first major overwater hop, 650 miles to Godthaab, Greenland, where the Sirius acquired its name-Tingmissartoq, which in Eskimo means "one who flies like a big bird."

After crisscrossing Greenland to Baffin Island and back, and then on to Iceland, the Lindberghs proceeded to the major cities of Europe and as far east as Moscow, down the west coast of Africa, and across the South Atlantic to South America, where they flew down the Amazon, and then north through Trinidad and Barbados and back to the United States.

They returned to New York on December 19, having traveled 30,000 miles to four continents and twenty-one countries. The information gained from the trip proved invaluable in planning commercial air transport routes for the North and South Atlantic.

The aircraft was in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City until 1955. The Air Force Museum in Dayton, Ohio, then acquired it and transferred it to the Smithsonian in 1959.

Survey Finds White Men Dominate Collections of Major Art Museums

Smithsonian Magazine

It’s been 30 years since the Guerrilla Girls, a feminist collective dedicated to diversifying the art world, famously asked: “Do Women Have To Be Naked To Get Into the Met. Museum?” With this provocative question, the group lambasted the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s lack of female representation—discounting, of course, the overwhelming number of women seen in nude paintings adorning the New York institution’s walls.

A landmark study published in the journal PLoS One suggests little progress has been made in the decades since the Guerrilla Girls' bold statement. An analysis of more than 40,000 works of art detailed in 18 major U.S. museums' online catalogues found that 85 percent of artists featured are white, and 87 percent are men.

According to lead author Chad Topaz of Williams College, the new survey marks the first large-scale investigation of cultural institutions’ artistic diversity. Previously, Topaz and his colleagues write in the study, researchers have focused more on demographic diversity—or lack thereof—among museum staff and visitors. (As Brigit Katz reported for Smithsonian.com earlier this year, a 2018 report revealed museums were making “uneven” strides toward equal employment, with curatorial and education departments hiring more people of color even as conservation and leadership roles remained largely dominated by white non-Hispanic individuals.)

For this latest analysis, a group of mathematicians and art historians created lists of some 10,000 artists represented in the permanent collections of museums including the Met, the Art Institute of Chicago, the National Gallery of Art and the Detroit Institute of Arts. Next, the team recruited workers via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing platform and asked them to identify various artists’ gender and ethnicity. Each set of names went through at least five rounds of classification, and responses were cross-checked in order to reach a consensus.

Overall, the researchers report that white men dominated the sample, making up a staggering 75.7 percent of the final data pool. Trailing behind were white women (10.8 percent), Asian men (7.5 percent) and Hispanic men (2.6 percent). All other groups represented in terms of both gender and ethnicity were recorded in proportions of less than one percent.

Some museums fared relatively better than others: The Guardian notes that African-American artists constitute 10.6 percent of artists in the Atlanta High Museum of Art’s collection, as opposed to just 1.2 percent across all museums studied. Meanwhile, Pacific Standards Tom Jacobs points out, Los Angeles’ Museum of Contemporary Art boasts a percentage of works by Hispanic artists roughly three times the national average. Leaders in the percentage of works by women included LA MOCA at 24.9 percent and New York’s Whitney Museum of American Art at 22 percent, as Eileen Kinsella reports for artnet News.

Still, the MIT Technology Review points out, disparities in representation were especially stark at the National Gallery of Art, where more than 97 percent of artists included in the collection are white, while some 90 percent are male. And, despite focusing on a period in art history that fostered more diversity than ever before, New York City’s Museum of Modern Art counts only 11 percent of female artists among those in its collection.

Although the numbers largely speak for themselves, it's worth noting that there are several limitations to the study. The authors only included artists whose identities could be determined with nearly absolute certainty. As a result, many anonymous creatives from centuries past, including those likely to have been people of color, were omitted.

Interestingly, the team writes in the study, their results showed little correlation between a museum’s stated collection goals and its level of overall diversity.

“We find that museums with similar collection missions can have quite different diversity profiles,” Topaz says in a press release, “suggesting that a museum wishing to increase diversity in its collection might do so without changing its [emphasis] on specific time periods and geographic regions."

Canteen, Lockheed Sirius "Tingmissartoq", Lindbergh

National Air and Space Museum
Round aluminum canteen with removable olive drab cloth covering

This canteen was among the gear Charles Lindbergh and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, took on their 1931 flight to the Orient and 1933 survey flights across the North and South Atlantic. They took multiple large canteens on their trips to stay hydrated during their long flights. On their 1931 trip to the Orient they brought two 2-gallon canteens and one 1-gallon canteen, which weighed a total of 57 pounds when filled with water. By comparison, all of the food the Lindberghs took on their 1931 trip weighed a total of 45 pounds.

The thick cover on this canteen was actually meant to keep the liquids inside cool. After the cover was soaked with water, evaporation would gradually cool the steel canteen and its contents, just as perspiration cools the body.

A vacation flight with "no start or finish, no diplomatic or commercial significance, and no records to be sought." So Charles A. Lindbergh described the flight that he and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, were planning to make to the Orient in 1931. Their choice of route, however, showed the feasibility of using the great circle to reach the Far East.

The Lindberghs flew in a Lockheed Sirius low-wing monoplane, powered by a 680-hp Wright Cyclone. The Sirius had been designed in 1929 by John K. Northrop and Gerard Vultee, and this model was specially fitted with Edo floats, since most of the Lindberghs flight was to be over water.

Their route took them from North Haven, Maine, to Ottawa, Moose Factory, Churchill, Baker Lake, and Aklavik, all in Canada; Point Barrow, Shismaref, and Nome, Alaska; Petropavlosk. Siberia; and on over the Kurile Islands to Japan. After receiving an enthusiastic welcome in Tokyo, they flew to China. They landed on Lotus Lake near Nanking on September 19, thus completing the first flight from the West to the East by way of the North.

At Hankow, the Sirius, with the Lindberghs aboard, was being lowered into the Yangtze River from the British aircraft carrier Hermes, when the aircraft accidentally capsized. One of the wings was damaged when it hit a ship's cable, and the aircraft had to be returned to the United States for repairs.

Their next venture in the Sirius came as a result of the five countries' interest in the development of commercial air transport. In 1933 Pan American Airways, Imperial Airways of Great Britain, Lufthansa of Germany, KLM of Holland, and Air France undertook a cooperative study of possible Atlantic routes. Each was assigned the responsibility for one of the following areas: New Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland; Newfoundland via the great circle route to Ireland; Newfoundland southeast to the Azores and Lisbon; Miami, Bermuda, the Azores, and Lisbon; and across the South Atlantic from Natal, Brazil, to Cape Verde, Africa.

Pan American was to survey the Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland route. Ground survey and weather crews in Greenland were already hard at work when Lindbergh, Pan Am's technical advisor, took off from New York on July 9 in the rebuilt Lockheed Sirius, again accompanied by his wife, who would serve as copilot and radio operator. A Sperry artificial horizon and a directional gyro had been added to the instrument panel since the previous flight, and a new Wright Cyclone SR1820-F2 engine of 710 horsepower was installed. Lindbergh's plan was not to set up a particular route but to gather as much information as possible on the area to be covered.

The Jellinge, a Danish ship, was chartered by Pan Am to maintain radio contact with the Lindberghs in the Labrador-Greenland-Iceland area. The ship also delivered advance supplies for them to Halifax, Saint John's, Cartwright, Greenland, and Iceland.

Every possible space in the aircraft was utilized, including the wings and floats, which contained the gasoline tanks. There was plenty of emergency equipment in case the Lindberghs had to make a forced landing in the frozen wilderness.

From New York, the Lindberghs flew up the eastern border of Canada to Hopedale, Labrador. From Hopedale they made the first major overwater hop, 650 miles to Godthaab, Greenland, where the Sirius acquired its name-Tingmissartoq, which in Eskimo means "one who flies like a big bird."

After crisscrossing Greenland to Baffin Island and back, and then on to Iceland, the Lindberghs proceeded to the major cities of Europe and as far east as Moscow, down the west coast of Africa, and across the South Atlantic to South America, where they flew down the Amazon, and then north through Trinidad and Barbados and back to the United States.

They returned to New York on December 19, having traveled 30,000 miles to four continents and twenty-one countries. The information gained from the trip proved invaluable in planning commercial air transport routes for the North and South Atlantic.

The aircraft was in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City until 1955. The Air Force Museum in Dayton, Ohio, then acquired it and transferred it to the Smithsonian in 1959.

Stocking Boots, Lockheed Sirius "Tingmissartoq", Lindbergh

National Air and Space Museum
Embroidered heavy white stocking boot

Anne Morrow Lindbergh wore these handmade stocking boots as she flew with her husband Charles on survey flights across the North and South Atlantic in 1933. Anne and Charles filled most of their plane's storage space with tools, survival gear, and canned rations, allowing themselves only 18 pounds of personal luggage each, including suitcase. Their clothing thus had to be lightweight, but also warm since they would by flying over some of the coldest places on earth, including Greenland, Iceland, and Scandinavia. These wool boots weigh only 0.4 pounds each and would have kept Anne's feet warm in the unheated cockpit. She opted for light-weight wool boots instead of shoes because, as she wrote, "shoes are the most weight-expensive item."

A vacation flight with "no start or finish, no diplomatic or commercial significance, and no records to be sought." So Charles A. Lindbergh described the flight that he and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, were planning to make to the Orient in 1931. Their choice of route, however, showed the feasibility of using the great circle to reach the Far East.

The Lindberghs flew in a Lockheed Sirius low-wing monoplane, powered by a 680-hp Wright Cyclone. The Sirius had been designed in 1929 by John K. Northrop and Gerard Vultee, and this model was specially fitted with Edo floats, since most of the Lindberghs flight was to be over water.

Their route took them from North Haven, Maine, to Ottawa, Moose Factory, Churchill, Baker Lake, and Aklavik, all in Canada; Point Barrow, Shismaref, and Nome, Alaska; Petropavlosk. Siberia; and on over the Kurile Islands to Japan. After receiving an enthusiastic welcome in Tokyo, they flew to China. They landed on Lotus Lake near Nanking on September 19, thus completing the first flight from the West to the East by way of the North.

At Hankow, the Sirius, with the Lindberghs aboard, was being lowered into the Yangtze River from the British aircraft carrier Hermes, when the aircraft accidentally capsized. One of the wings was damaged when it hit a ship's cable, and the aircraft had to be returned to the United States for repairs.

Their next venture in the Sirius came as a result of the five countries' interest in the development of commercial air transport. In 1933 Pan American Airways, Imperial Airways of Great Britain, Lufthansa of Germany, KLM of Holland, and Air France undertook a cooperative study of possible Atlantic routes. Each was assigned the responsibility for one of the following areas: New Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland; Newfoundland via the great circle route to Ireland; Newfoundland southeast to the Azores and Lisbon; Miami, Bermuda, the Azores, and Lisbon; and across the South Atlantic from Natal, Brazil, to Cape Verde, Africa.

Pan American was to survey the Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland route. Ground survey and weather crews in Greenland were already hard at work when Lindbergh, Pan Am's technical advisor, took off from New York on July 9 in the rebuilt Lockheed Sirius, again accompanied by his wife, who would serve as copilot and radio operator. A Sperry artificial horizon and a directional gyro had been added to the instrument panel since the previous flight, and a new Wright Cyclone SR1820-F2 engine of 710 horsepower was installed. Lindbergh's plan was not to set up a particular route but to gather as much information as possible on the area to be covered.

The Jellinge, a Danish ship, was chartered by Pan Am to maintain radio contact with the Lindberghs in the Labrador-Greenland-Iceland area. The ship also delivered advance supplies for them to Halifax, Saint John's, Cartwright, Greenland, and Iceland.

Every possible space in the aircraft was utilized, including the wings and floats, which contained the gasoline tanks. There was plenty of emergency equipment in case the Lindberghs had to make a forced landing in the frozen wilderness.

From New York, the Lindberghs flew up the eastern border of Canada to Hopedale, Labrador. From Hopedale they made the first major overwater hop, 650 miles to Godthaab, Greenland, where the Sirius acquired its name-Tingmissartoq, which in Eskimo means "one who flies like a big bird."

After crisscrossing Greenland to Baffin Island and back, and then on to Iceland, the Lindberghs proceeded to the major cities of Europe and as far east as Moscow, down the west coast of Africa, and across the South Atlantic to South America, where they flew down the Amazon, and then north through Trinidad and Barbados and back to the United States.

They returned to New York on December 19, having traveled 30,000 miles to four continents and twenty-one countries. The information gained from the trip proved invaluable in planning commercial air transport routes for the North and South Atlantic.

The aircraft was in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City until 1955. The Air Force Museum in Dayton, Ohio, then acquired it and transferred it to the Smithsonian in 1959.

Uncle Ng and Chinese Muk'yu Music

Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
Uncle Ng Comes to America cover
Uncle Ng Comes to America cover

The China Folklife Festival program team is deep in the process of preparing for this summer’s activities. Our minds (and computers) are full of new information about the artists who will be traveling to Washington from the various regions they represent—from Inner Mongolia to Guizhou Province.

But two weeks ago, we turned our attention closer to home for a moment to celebrate a new publication, Uncle Ng Comes to America, at the Silk Road Cafe on Mott Street in the heart of New York’s Chinatown. This book documents the experiences and art of Ng Sheung-Chi (1910-2010), a masterful singer and prolific composer of muk’yu, a type of narrative song from southern China.

Muk’yu is sung in a Toisan dialect that was spoken by most if not all of the Chinese immigrants to the United States before 1965. The subject matter of the songs is adapted from historical events, folk tales, and personal experiences. It is typically sung without musical accompaniment by one person or a small group, and its rhyming verses are subject to variation and improvisation.

Ng Sheung-Chi (a.k.a. Uncle Ng) grew up in a farming family in Toisan County, in Guangdong Providence. He learned to sing muk-yu as a child, and he continued to sing it from the street corners and parks of New York after he emigrated in 1979. In 1991, the Asian American Arts Centre produced a documentary about Ng called Singing to Remember. In 1992, he was recognized as a National Heritage Fellow by the National Endowment for the Arts.

Eleanor Yung with Uncle Ng’s third son, Tak Ming.
Eleanor Yung with Uncle Ng’s third son, Tak Ming.
Photo by Sojin Kim

Uncle Ng Comes to America: Chinese Narrative Songs of Immigration and Love is co-edited by Eleanor Yung, founder of the Asian American Arts Centre, and Bell Yung, music professor emeritus at the University of Pittsburgh. It includes a DVD of the 1991 documentary and a CD of Ng’s songs.

At the book party in Chinatown, a group of supporters—including some of the Singing to Remember documentary team, local residents, Chinese American press, Asian American artists and activists, as well as Ng’s family—gathered to watch excerpts from the documentary, hear from his daughter about her experiences, and listen to his son Tak Ming Ng sing several verses of muk’yu.

Bob Lee, who initiated this project and produced the video, recalled how Ng performed a new composition, “Song for Receiving the Fellowship in Washington, D.C.,” at the 1992 National Endowment for the Arts Heritage Fellows awards ceremony and received hearty applause for a line directed to the chairman and Congress members. Here is an excerpt of his lyrics translated:


Today I win the American National Heritage Fellowship,

I was so lucky that my name was on the final list.

I competed as a member of the Chinese community,
It is also an honor for all the Chinese.


Today I come to receive the fellowship,

I am singing all the way along.
I grin with delight and boundless joy.


Many thanks to the chairperson and the officials,

I hope you all get promotions.

And I respectfully wish everyone strength and health,

I wish the people wealthy and the country powerful,

And I hope China and America will unite in this world,
Prospering together for ten thousand years.

Audio
Live-Song for Receiving the Fellowship
Bob Lee (left) with Uncle Ng’s second son and daughter, Tak Wing Ng and Soping Ng.
Bob Lee (left) with Uncle Ng’s second son and daughter, Tak Wing Ng and Soping Ng.
Photo by Sojin Kim

“It is a testimony to Uncle Ng not only as a singer of unheralded folk music in its pristine form, but also of the Asian American Arts Centre’s tenacity to its local cultural goals,” Lee said of the book. “Now, in terms of the Chinese facet of the Asian American experience, the transformation from traditional village culture to contemporary art innovations can be glimpsed.”

Today, as the Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage anticipates this summer’s Smithsonian Folklife Festival, we look forward and look back to honor the artists and organizations, both close to home and far afield, who have sustained the ingenuity and relevance of Chinese traditions into the present.

Sojin Kim is a curator at the Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage. She is currently co-developing the China: Tradition and the Art of Living program for the 2014 Smithsonian Folklife Festival.

Audio recorded by Brooks Williams of Harmonic Ranch and used with permission from the Asian American Arts Centre.

Funnel, Lockheed Sirius "Tingmissartoq", Lindbergh

National Air and Space Museum
Conicle shaped object with no cover on top and a pipe like extension at the bottom.

Charles Lindbergh and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, took this aluminum gasoline funnel on their 1933 survey flights across the North and South Atlantic. In December 1933, during the latter part of their trip, the Lindberghs made several unsuccessful takeoff attempts for their flight across the South Atlantic Ocean, from Africa to South America, as calm winds and seas would not allow their heavily loaded plane to rise. This funnel was among the tools and supplies they removed and shipped home from Bathurst, Gambia so they could lighten their load and continue.

A vacation flight with "no start or finish, no diplomatic or commercial significance, and no records to be sought." So Charles A. Lindbergh described the flight that he and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, were planning to make to the Orient in 1931. Their choice of route, however, showed the feasibility of using the great circle to reach the Far East.

The Lindberghs flew in a Lockheed Sirius low-wing monoplane, powered by a 680-hp Wright Cyclone. The Sirius had been designed in 1929 by John K. Northrop and Gerard Vultee, and this model was specially fitted with Edo floats, since most of the Lindberghs flight was to be over water.

Their route took them from North Haven, Maine, to Ottawa, Moose Factory, Churchill, Baker Lake, and Aklavik, all in Canada; Point Barrow, Shismaref, and Nome, Alaska; Petropavlosk. Siberia; and on over the Kurile Islands to Japan. After receiving an enthusiastic welcome in Tokyo, they flew to China. They landed on Lotus Lake near Nanking on September 19, thus completing the first flight from the West to the East by way of the North.

At Hankow, the Sirius, with the Lindberghs aboard, was being lowered into the Yangtze River from the British aircraft carrier Hermes, when the aircraft accidentally capsized. One of the wings was damaged when it hit a ship's cable, and the aircraft had to be returned to the United States for repairs.

Their next venture in the Sirius came as a result of the five countries' interest in the development of commercial air transport. In 1933 Pan American Airways, Imperial Airways of Great Britain, Lufthansa of Germany, KLM of Holland, and Air France undertook a cooperative study of possible Atlantic routes. Each was assigned the responsibility for one of the following areas: New Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland; Newfoundland via the great circle route to Ireland; Newfoundland southeast to the Azores and Lisbon; Miami, Bermuda, the Azores, and Lisbon; and across the South Atlantic from Natal, Brazil, to Cape Verde, Africa.

Pan American was to survey the Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland route. Ground survey and weather crews in Greenland were already hard at work when Lindbergh, Pan Am's technical advisor, took off from New York on July 9 in the rebuilt Lockheed Sirius, again accompanied by his wife, who would serve as copilot and radio operator. A Sperry artificial horizon and a directional gyro had been added to the instrument panel since the previous flight, and a new Wright Cyclone SR1820-F2 engine of 710 horsepower was installed. Lindbergh's plan was not to set up a particular route but to gather as much information as possible on the area to be covered.

The Jellinge, a Danish ship, was chartered by Pan Am to maintain radio contact with the Lindberghs in the Labrador-Greenland-Iceland area. The ship also delivered advance supplies for them to Halifax, Saint John's, Cartwright, Greenland, and Iceland.

Every possible space in the aircraft was utilized, including the wings and floats, which contained the gasoline tanks. There was plenty of emergency equipment in case the Lindberghs had to make a forced landing in the frozen wilderness.

From New York, the Lindberghs flew up the eastern border of Canada to Hopedale, Labrador. From Hopedale they made the first major overwater hop, 650 miles to Godthaab, Greenland, where the Sirius acquired its name-Tingmissartoq, which in Eskimo means "one who flies like a big bird."

After crisscrossing Greenland to Baffin Island and back, and then on to Iceland, the Lindberghs proceeded to the major cities of Europe and as far east as Moscow, down the west coast of Africa, and across the South Atlantic to South America, where they flew down the Amazon, and then north through Trinidad and Barbados and back to the United States.

They returned to New York on December 19, having traveled 30,000 miles to four continents and twenty-one countries. The information gained from the trip proved invaluable in planning commercial air transport routes for the North and South Atlantic.

The aircraft was in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City until 1955. The AirForce Museum in Dayton, Ohio, then acquired it and transferred it to the Smithsonian in 1959.

Stunning Photos of Africa's Oldest Trees, Framed by Starlight

Smithsonian Magazine

For the past 15 years, fine arts photographer Beth Moon has taken pictures of really old trees. She has journeyed around the world in search of trees notable for their size, age and history, photographing during the day. Her most recent series, titled "Diamond Nights," however, plays with starlight.

Southern Africa, with its diverse ecosystems, has appealed to Moon for a while. While working on her 2014 book Ancient Trees: Portraits of Time, Moon spent time in Madagascar photographing baobab trees. Captivated by their grandeur, she decided to locate different species of baobab in the region, traveling to South Africa and Botswana. The quiver tree, an iconic aloe plant noteworthy for its height and ability to live hundreds of years in the heat of the African desert, brought her to Namibia.

Silhouetted against the night sky, these ancient trees appear otherworldly. Baobabs can live to be more than 1,000 years old, growing up to 80 feet high and 30 feet in diameter. Carl Taylor, a research associate with the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, describes the tree: "When the leaves are off they have this immense trunk and these little stubbly branches, so it looks like somebody pulled them up from the ground and reversed them and the roots are growing aerially." According to Taylor, while expanding populations and changes in land-use patterns pose a threat to baobabs, for the most part they are revered and allowed to grow quite large. "They're esoteric,” he says.

Moon decided to create her nightime-set tree series after reading about David Milarch in Jim Robbins' The Man Who Planted TreesWith the help of a local guide and tips from travelers, Moon tracked down the sites by day, scoped out a tree's best side, then returned after nightfall. Many times she returned on moonless nights. The darkness helped her to capture the details of ancient trees reacting to starlight that is millions of years old – by extension, capturing a sense of time and nature beyond ours.

“It’s hard to imagine because we have light so close to us in so many areas now," she says. "It’s a darkness like I don’t think I’ve ever experienced."

All of the trees and locations she has visited have been exciting in their own ways, Moon says; however, she found the abundance of stars to be a particularly memorable part of working on "Diamond Nights." “Because these locations were so remote and away from light pollution, the skies were absolutely blazing," she recalls. "I had never seen the Milky Way in its entirety stretched out across the horizon. It was spectacular."

Moon believes that trees are important to many issues faced by the world today and hopes that her photography can place them in the spotlight. “They’re part of our landscape, maybe to the point of kind of taking them for granted,” she says. "So I thought these iconic old trees could start a larger conversation."

While she prefers to keep quite about her upcoming projects, Moon does not believe that she will tire of trees anytime soon. 

To view more of Beth Moon's work, visit her site here.

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Civil Rights Legend John Lewis Won a Prestigious Comic Book Award

Smithsonian Magazine

It’s comics’ most prestigious award—an honor that has gone to the likes of comic legends like Jack Kirby, Bill Watterson, Robert Crumb and Lynda Barry. Now, writes Michael Cavna for The Washington Post, the Will Eisner Comic Industry Awards winners list has a surprising new addition: sitting Congressman and civil rights legend John Lewis.

Lewis won this year’s Best Reality-Based Work award at Comic-Con International in San Diego, reports Cavna—an honor bestowed upon him by his peers in a competition that has been compared to the Academy Awards.

March: Book 2, for which Lewis won the award, is part of a trilogy made in collaboration by the Georgia Representative, his co-writer Andrew Aydin and artist Nate Powell. The story shares Lewis’ own lifelong struggle for civil rights from childhood to the present day, going back to his roots in rural Alabama to his efforts to gain voting rights in the segregated South during the 1960s.

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March: Book Two

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Graphic novels may seem like an odd medium for a man best known as a bastion of the Civil Rights Movement. Lewis chaired the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and was instrumental in organizing the 1963 March on Washington. As the March’s youngest speaker, he gave voice to young people around the country who demanded an end to segregation and racial discrimination. “To those who have said ‘be patient and wait,’” he declared, “we have long said that we cannot be patient. We do not want our freedom gradually, we want to be free now!”

His insistence on speaking out has proved a hallmark of Lewis’ long career in politics—and it has translated easily to 21st-century readers eager for his take on political change. As Visual Arts Journal’s Greg Herbowy reports, March is now on public school curriculums in 29 states and became a No. 1 New York Times best-seller.

Lewis tells Herbowy that he developed an appreciation for art as a student at Fisk University and that the art he discovered there, particularly that of African-American painter and graphic artist Aaron Douglas, “gave us hope to dream for a better day and a better world.”

It's a legacy that the leader, who marched through the Comic-Con exhibit hall on July 23 to promote his book complete with a backpack and trench coat like he wore in Selma, is doing his best to continue. The march may long be over, but Lewis treks on—and thanks to March, his story has new legs. 

Brazilian Mine Disaster Leaves 58 Dead, 200 Missing

Smithsonian Magazine

On Friday, a dam associated with an iron ore mine in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais breached, unleashing a torrent of water and mine waste into the Paraopeba River. So far, 58 people are confirmed dead, with hundreds still missing and large part of the nearby mining town of Brumadinho buried in sludge. The incident is a humanitarian disaster and some worry an environmental crisis as well, reports Diane Jeantet of The Associated Press.

Marcia Reverdosa and Emanuella Grinberg at CNN report that heavy rains led to the dam collapse which occurred on Friday while most of the roughly 300 employees at the Córrego do Feijão mine were on their lunch break. The deluge of iron ore contaminated water and sludge flooded the mine and administrative area at the base of the dam. Continuing rain slowed down search and rescue efforts, and yesterday the search was halted and 3,000 people were advised to evacuate when authorities feared another nearby mining dam might also fail. That dam, however, was found to be secure and rescue efforts were resumed and are ongoing.

The incident is frustrating for locals and conservationists following a similar breach that happened in 2015. In that event, another dam operated by the Brazilian company Vale along with Australian firm BHP Billiton also collapsed in Minas Gerais near the city of Mariana about 75 miles from Brumadinho, the AP reports. That collapse killed 19 people, dislocated hundreds, killed thousands of fish and left 250,000 area residents without drinking water. The 2015 breach released over 2 billion cubic feet of mining waste, which flooded local rivers and flushed into the Atlantic in what was considered Brazil's largest environmental catastrophe.

Firefighters and search dogs continue looking for 200 missing individuals following a mining dam breach on Friday, January 25, 2019. (DOUGLAS MAGNO/AFP/Getty Images )

The AP reports that while Vale claims that the tailings—the name for muddy ore waste from the mines—behind its dams are mainly composed of non-toxic sand, but a report after the 2015 breach found they were contaminated with high levels of toxic heavy metals.

That has environmentalists concerned about the potential effects of this new breach, which could have ecosystem wide effects.

“Even if it was just sand, the volume is gigantic,” Carlos Rittl, a director at the non-profit network Observatorio do Clima tells Jeantet at the AP. “There is a very fine residue (of iron oxide) that will be deposited on the bed of the river.”

That means each time it rains, the iron ore in the riverbed will be stirred up once again, leading to a cycle of contamination. So far, the damage from the latest breach does not appear as widespread as the previous catastrophe. It’s believed the impact may stretch about 160 miles along the river, while the 2015 disaster spread contamination 416 miles of waterways. The other potential complication comes in the form of a hydroelectric dam downstream from the breach. Authorities are watching to see that dam can withstand the surge of red mud that is currently churning down the river.

The disaster brings Brazil’s mining industry under scrutiny. After the 2015 dam breach, despite lip service, little was done to change the regulatory structure at similar dams. Dom Phillips at The Guardian reports that Vale says the Brumadinho dam, part of complex built in 1976, was being decommissioned and had been deemed safe during inspections. However, the National Civil Society Forum for Hydrographic Basins had urged the government to suspend the mine’s license, deeming it unsafe.

A cow trapped in mud on January 27, two days after a dam collapsed that belonged to one of Brazil's largest mining companies. (MAURO PIMENTEL/AFP/Getty Images)

“This tragedy was only a matter of time,” Carlos Eduardo Pinto, an environmental prosecutor who worked on the 2015 Mariana case, says. “Since the Fundão tailings dam, nothing has been done to increase control of this activity.”

The AP reports that 600 other mines in Minas Gerais state alone have been determined to be at risk for rupture. Brazil’s Attorney General Raquel Dodge vowed to investigate the incident. Already, reports Phillips, Brazil has fined Vale about $66 million for the disaster and frozen $1.3 billion in assets to help pay for the cleanup.

Brazil's newly elected president Jair Bolsonaro also tweeted out that the government will do what it takes to “prevent more tragedies.” But many critics and environmental groups have their doubts the breach will change much. Bolsonaro campaigned on a platform of deregulation, including opening off-limits reserves in the Amazon to farming and mining and deregulating the mining industry in order to boost Brazil’s economy. It’s difficult to say if this latest disaster will influence his stance, though after touring the disaster area by air he says he was shaken by the devastation, reports The New York Times.

Study Looks at Why We All Spew So Much BS

Smithsonian Magazine

Human beings, no matter how much we say we’re dedicated to virtues like reason, logic and above all truth, produce an endless stream of what is academically called “bullshit.” Why is every area of public and private life full of these half-truths, misstatements and outright falsehoods? That’s what a recent experiment aimed to find out, reports Poynter's Daniel Funke.

According to John V. Petrocelli of Wake Forest University, the author of a new paper in The Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, the technical definition of bullshitting is “a pervasive social behavior involving communication with little to no concern for evidence and/or established semantic, logical, systemic, or empirical knowledge.” Bullshitting is not lying per se—Petrocelli says a liar is someone who is actually concerned with the truth and is actively trying to divert their audience from the truth. Bullshitters, on the other hand, don’t really care if what they are saying is true or not, they’re just putting their opinion out there. As philosopher Harry Frankfurt wrote in his 2005 treatise On Bullshit, “It is impossible for someone to lie unless he thinks he knows the truth. Producing bullshit requires no such conviction.”

To study the phenomenon, Petrocelli ran two experiments. In the first, he looked at answers from 594 participants to a questionnaire posted on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk platform. According to the paper, half the participants were given facts about a target individual and the other half learned about an unrelated person. They were then told about the behavior of the target individual and asked to explain why they engaged in that behavior. Half the participants were told their answer would be reviewed by people who knew that individual well and the other half were told that the reviewers did not know the person. And most importantly, half were told they must write answers about the person and half were told they did not have to.

In the second experiment Petrocelli asked 234 undergraduates enrolled in an introductory psychology course to provide four opinions. In one of the opinions they were just instructed to answer with complete candor. For the other three, they were told their opinions would be assessed by experts and they would have justify their answers in a recorded discussion.

The surveys from the two experiments were then assessed for how much bullshit was spilled. Results from the studies revealed two major factors that might cause someone to engage in BS. First, if a person is expected or forced to have an opinion on a topic, even though they may not have the knowledge or experience to have an informed opinion, the social pressure will cause them to spout off. Second, if there is no accountability for bullshit, a person is more likely to let it roll. For instance, having a few drinks with friends who simply nod their heads at everything you say might lead to more bullshitting, whereas having a conversation with a co-worker who questions every detail of your story might make you think twice before riffing.

While Petrocelli acknowledges there is plenty more work to do on the science of bullshit, he says his results do suggest a tactic for battling it: simply calling people out on their bullshit will usually put a stop to it. “Whether they be claims or expressions of opinions about the effects of vaccinations, the causes of success and failure, or political ideation, doing so with little to no concern for evidence or truth is wrong. With their reliance on empirical evidence, it is estimated that social scientists are well positioned to “call bullshit” (i.e., identify it) when they see it,” he writes in the paper.

But calling people out is not a panacea, and shutting down bullshit may get you bad rap as a killjoy at the bar. “Common experience suggests that asking bullshitters to consider evidence in support of their claims can be a serious conversation killer. Doing so may stop the bullshitting, but it may not necessarily enhance evidence-based communication," he writes. "Future research will do well to respond to such questions empirically and determine effective ways of enhancing the concern for evidence and truth.”

While Petrocelli is looking at why people tend to bullshit, other scientists have looked into why some people accept all the bullshit others spew forth. In a 2015 paper, Gord Pennycook at the University of Waterloo found that some people with a heightened response bias are more disposed to accept corresponding ideas and pseudo-facts they come across. He also found they have lower responses in a part of the frontal lobe called the anterior cingulate cortex, which includes the brain’s built-in bullshit detector. For some people, this region simply doesn’t sound the alarm in the presence of bullshit.

According to his study, certain people assigned higher “profundity” ratings to Deepak Chopra-style pseudo-profound bullshit that, at least syntactically makes sense but logically does not, like “Hidden meaning transforms unparalleled abstract beauty.”

Pennycook and his co-authors found that those people most susceptible to BS were less analytic, less intelligent, higher in religious belief and more prone to “ontological confusion,” like believing the mind can control the physical world via ESP. Also, we heard the other day that if you slept on the left side of the bed as a child you’d grow up to be more gullible, so that probably has something to do with it as well.

Richer Homes Are Also Richer in Biodiversity

Smithsonian Magazine

You might think that homes in wealthier neighborhoods—with newer and better-maintained houses—would be better at keeping out bugs and pests. But scientists are finding that affluent areas actually sport a larger diversity of critters, including spiders, ants, beetles, flies and other creepy crawlies.

"There's this mindset in America that only poor folk have pest problems—they’ve got all the bad guy bugs," says Vernard Lewis, an entomologist at the University of California at Berkeley. “The creatures are just out there. And depending on where you're at, what's going on outside is going to influence the inside."

A new paper published in the Royal Society's journal Biology Letters illustrates how interconnected humans are with their environment, regardless of fences and walls. The research expands on a previous census of arthropods found in 50 homes around Raleigh, North Carolina. That study, published in January, revealed an astounding array of indoor critters—most of which are hidden and harmless.

But the researchers were curious about what factors determined the diversity of these bugs. Other scientists have found that more affluent neighborhoods harbor a wider range of plants and animals, such as birds, lizards and bats. That made sense, because people in richer areas can afford more landscaping and plants, which provide more habitats for animals. Did this so-called luxury effect also exist for indoor bugs?

"It presented this paradox," says Misha Leong, an entomologist at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco and lead author of the new research. "You have this luxury effect known to happen outdoors and this public perception that low-income neighborhoods have major arthropod problems."

But that perception is based solely on our own prejudices, she says. Until now, researchers have largely neglected to study the prevalence of indoor arthropods. Most research only focused on bugs traditionally considered pests, like cockroaches and bed bugs, and none studied the effects of income.

A ground beetle (Matthew Bertone)

Hard data didn't exist until the researchers began crawling around houses in Raleigh themselves to painstakingly document hundreds of bugs. Because of the sheer numbers of arthropod species, the researchers only counted taxonomic families, which themselves ranged in number from 25 to 125.

In the new study, Leong and her colleagues combined those Raleigh results with publicly available data such as the mean income of a census block, the square footage of the house and the amount of vegetation on the property—the three most influential factors that they found affected the diversity of arthropods. (Others included canopy cover, vegetation diversity and the age of the house.)

The most significant factor was the size of the house, a statistical analysis revealed. As you might expect, the bigger the house, the more corners, crevices, and habitats there are. But size wasn’t the only thing that mattered. Their analysis found that mean income was also a key factor.

"I had read a lot about the luxury effect beforehand, but really seeing it applied to our dataset, particularly because our dataset was indoors, was—wow," Leong says. According to the study, income played a major role in predicting arthropod diversity. The likely reason, she explains, is that wealth usually means more green space, which provides habitats for bugs that can then wander indoors.

The effect extends beyond your property line. When houses are surrounded by lots of greenery, the researchers found, they're all just as diverse. But when you compare houses with little or moderate amounts of vegetation, the wealthier ones still had greater diversity.

So if you, too, want to attract a menagerie of insects but don't have your own verdant yard, trends suggest that you’ll still be a bug magnet as long as you're in a richer area. That’s because you're probably closer to a park or a neighbor who does have a leafy garden. Such proximity is enough to boost your house's bug diversity, making you popular by association. "Choices made at the neighborhood scale by your neighbors or your local government can have an effect on what's going on in your kitchen floor," as Leong puts it.

The camel cricket (Matthew Bertone)

There are certainly exceptions to this pattern. For example, you can't compare a high-income apartment in Manhattan with a low-income house in rural Mississippi, since the Mississippi home would be surrounded by plants, and thus bugs. The study was also limited to freestanding houses (as opposed to units in apartment buildings), which tended to be in middle and high-income neighborhoods.

The scientists have since taken their bug counting across the globe. They’ve done similar investigations in houses in the San Francisco Bay Area, the Peruvian Amazon and Sweden, and plan to add Australia, China, and Madagascar to the list. So far, despite the range of locales, the houses seem to be equally biodiverse, Leong says.

This underscores the fact that bugs are everywhere in your house, and it's okay. "Biodiversity is something that we need to stress more in America," Lewis says, adding that farmers like his own grandparents understood that critters live among us, and knew that there are no good or bad bugs. "As people moved into the city and got jobs, they lost some of that institutional memory," he says. "Maybe we need to relearn that, and not freak out whenever we see some creature."

Why Birdwatchers Flock to Ecuador

Smithsonian Magazine

“Maria! Maria!” yells Ángel Paz, who stands at my shoulder in a thick Ecuadorian cloud forest holding a can of worms. “Venga, venga, venga!” (Come, come, come!) he shrieks.

At my other shoulder is Edison Buenano, an enthusiastic, 30-something bird-watcher from Quito who suggested we visit Paz’s farm in northwestern Ecuador’s Tandayapa Valley. The three of us stare into the forest’s dark, lush undergrowth and wait.

“Maria!” shouts Paz again, this time tossing a worm into a tiny clearing. Thirty seconds later a strange, beautiful creature hops out of the shadows. It’s Maria—standing about six inches tall and upright on long legs, with burnt-sienna feathers, black pen-and-ink scallop chest marks and a big dark eyeball. Whoa! There is no mistaking this giant antpitta, one of Ecuador’s rarest and most seldom-seen birds. My heart pounds as if I’d spotted a unicorn.

Giant antpittas are statuesque and picturesque, yet humans don’t usually see them because of the species’ shy and elusive nature. But these opportunistic birds have been known to follow large mammals in the forest to scavenge stirred-up bugs, so Paz’s hand-feeding strategy makes some biological sense.

I snap this one’s photograph, standing so close that I might reach out and touch it. My quiet fist pump has Paz and Buenano exchanging big grins.

This giant antpitta is a “lifer” for me—lingo for a species that a birder sees in its wild natural habitat for the first time. And this year, every bird counts. My quest to see 5,000 species of birds (about half the world’s total) in 2015 will take me across all seven continents and through 35 countries. If successful, I will set a new world record, breaking a British couple’s count of 4,341 species in 2008. More important, I hope my tally inspires a new generation of citizen scientists worldwide.

I have seen bird-watching expand globally over the past ten years as birders from China to Cameroon, Indonesia to India, Ethiopia to Ecuador have taken advantage of an explosion of field guides, advances in binocular optics and new smartphone apps to see what’s flitting around. And for the first time, birders can find like-minded souls all over the world through the Internet. I couldn’t accomplish my goal without this international network of locals willing to share their “backyards” with me.

Ángel Paz could be the poster child of local-scale birding. Paz used to log trees on his cloud forest property but realized eight years ago that he could earn more through ecotourism and farming blackberries. When he discovered that visiting birders went crazy over seeing a giant antpitta, he gradually befriended a pair of the birds, naming the female Maria. That led to him becoming obsessed, and soon knowledgeable, about other bird species in the forest.

After Maria disappears into the thicket, we continue down the muddy path, Paz happily pointing out a lyre-tailed nightjar, a couple of bizarre, bright-red Andean cocks-of-the-rock and a family of dark-backed wood-quail.

Lyre-tailed nightjars like these typically roost all day, and the male is unmistakable, flaunting impressive pale-tipped tail streamers that can measure two feet long or more. The flashy Andean cock-of-the-rock may be the most recognized bird in the Andes cloud forest, and one of the most bizarre: During the height of mating season, the males gather in groups and energetically jump up and down on branches and make low, croaking noises. I was pleased to see the wood-quail too, which Paz is teaching to eat bananas; these forest-loving birds, with their loud, rollicking chorus, inhabit a very small and fragmented range—less than 2,500 square miles.

Three hours pass before we return to the farmhouse for platefuls of steaming arroz y frijoles, cooked by Paz’s wife (as it turns out, also called Maria). An albino booted racket-tail, a feisty, long-tailed hummingbird, one of about 132 hummer species found in Ecuador, briefly appears at Paz’s feeder as we eat. It’s the feather in the cap of a morning to remember. The 27 new species I’ve seen today bring my working total to 1,621.

There’s no need to be a hard-core birder—or even to be very good at it—to enjoy the treasure hunt of spotting our feathered friends. And Ecuador, with its good infrastructure, strong ecotourism history and more than 1,600 bird species—the highest density of bird species per acre on Earth—is one of the world’s best places to get beak to eye. The country’s extreme biodiversity arises from a varied geography and tropical climate: Within a couple hours’ drive of Ecuador’s capital of Quito, a traveler can reach the Pacific Ocean, a 19,000-foot volcano, a misty cloud forest, the high Andean valleys and the Amazon jungle.

If you’re visiting Ecuador, I recommend the Tandayapa Valley area, a few hours’ drive northwest of Quito, for maximum bird and terrain exposure. Several excellent lodges cater to nature lovers. Don’t forget a stop at Ángel Paz’s nearby property.

Consider birding with a local rep wherever you travel. You’ll see far more birds and learn a whole lot more about them with a knowledgeable guide. Among the best websites to connect to a fellow bird brain is Birding Pal. Birders can add themselves to BirdingPal’s international directory organized by country and region. The site features maps and associated lists of possible host birders. The usual guest rules apply, of course: Be polite, be appreciative and don’t freeload.

Follow Strycker's quest to see 5,000 bird species this year.

When the Empire State Building Was Just an Architect's Sketch

Smithsonian Magazine

Oblivious to the impending Great Crash of the stock market, a group of industrialists connected to General Motors banded together in 1929 behind the idea of erecting the world's tallest building in Manhattan to eclipse the nearby Chrysler Building owned by their competitor. The site at Fifth Avenue between 33rd and 34th Streets had previously been occupied by the exclusive Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, until they tore it down for their new symbol of sky-high American corporate power—the Empire State Building.

The architecture firm Shreve, Lamb and Harmon Associates was chosen to design the colossus. William F. Lamb produced the drawings in only two weeks, selecting an art-deco style that looked like a pencil. Lamb used earlier designs for the Reynolds Building in Winston-Salem and the Carew Tower in Cincinnati as inspiration. His design later won several awards, including the gold medal from the Architectural League in 1931.

From a broad, five-story base covering two acres, the structure would tower 102 stories, rising 1,454 feet to the top of the antenna spire, making it the world’s tallest skyscraper. Another distinctive feature would include windows that were flush instead of recessed, and the tone of the exterior would appear blonde.

The general contractor was Starrett Brothers & Eken, the recognized leader in skyscraper construction. Indeed, one of the brothers, William A. Starrett, had recently authored the book, Skyscrapers and the Men Who Build Them, in which he wrote: "Building skyscrapers is the nearest peacetime equivalent of war… . The analogy of war is the strife against the elements." In 1930 and 1931, the firm compiled a notebook on the project, entitled Notes on Construction of the Empire State Building, consisting of 77 pages of text typed on blue-lined graph paper and put in a three-ring binder. The presentation also included black-and-white photographs mounted with black corners on 32 sheets of brown pressboard. Both the text and the photos provided a detailed, step-by-step account of the building process for the historic skyscraper.

Commenced in the early years of the Great Depression, the project employed as many as 3,400 construction workers on any single day, many of them immigrants from Europe, as well as hundreds of fearless Mohawk Indian iron workers. At least five workers died during the frenetic building.

The whole project took an amazing twenty months from the signing of the first architectural contract in September 1929 to the formal opening on May 1, 1931. The construction was completed in an astonishing 410 days. The final cost was $40,948,900, equivalent to $635,021,563 in 2015. As of 2007, it was still the second largest single office complex in the U.S. after the Pentagon. Immortalized in innumerable books and movies, it was most famously scaled by King Kong, who fended off attacking planes from its celestial spire, in 1933.

This article is excerpted from Scott Christianson's "100 Documents That Changed The World," available November 10.

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100 Documents That Changed the World: From the Magna Carta to Wikileaks

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Coin, Cape Verde, 50 Centavos, Lockheed Sirius "Tingmissartoq", Lindbergh

National Air and Space Museum
50 centavos coin from Cabo Verde (Cape Verde) and the Portuguese Republic, 1930.

One hundred and seventy-one (171) coins collected by Charles and Anne Lindbergh during their flights. Originally there were one hundred and eighty-four (184) but thirteen (13) were used in two (2) separate displays, see catalog number A20030078001 and A20030079033.

Coins are from British West Africa, Canada, China, Denmark, Estonia, France, Great Britain, Greenland, Iceland, Ireland, Morocco, the Netherlands, Newfoundland, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, and the United States.

These are a few of the coins Charles A. Lindbergh and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, collected during their 1931 flight to the Orient and 1933 flights across the North and South Atlantic. Although they collected souvenirs along the way, their two trans-global trips were more than just vacations. They were also significant survey flights which provided information for the planning of commercial air routes. Their 1931 trip to the Orient proved the viability of traveling from the West to the Far East via the Great Circle route to the North. Their 1933 trip across the North and South Atlantic revealed many of the difficulties of transatlantic air travel.

A vacation flight with "no start or finish, no diplomatic or commercial significance, and no records to be sought." So Charles A. Lindbergh described the flight that he and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, were planning to make to the Orient in 1931. Their choice of route, however, showed the feasibility of using the great circle to reach the Far East.

The Lindberghs flew in a Lockheed Sirius low-wing monoplane, powered by a 680-hp Wright Cyclone. The Sirius had been designed in 1929 by John K. Northrop and Gerard Vultee, and this model was specially fitted with Edo floats, since most of the Lindberghs flight was to be over water.

Their route took them from North Haven, Maine, to Ottawa, Moose Factory, Churchill, Baker Lake, and Aklavik, all in Canada; Point Barrow, Shismaref, and Nome, Alaska; Petropavlosk. Siberia; and on over the Kurile Islands to Japan. After receiving an enthusiastic welcome in Tokyo, they flew to China. They landed on Lotus Lake near Nanking on September 19, thus completing the first flight from the West to the East by way of the North.

At Hankow, the Sirius, with the Lindberghs aboard, was being lowered into the Yangtze River from the British aircraft carrier Hermes, when the aircraft accidentally capsized. One of the wings was damaged when it hit a ship's cable, and the aircraft had to be returned to the United States for repairs.

Their next venture in the Sirius came as a result of the five countries' interest in the development of commercial air transport. In 1933 Pan American Airways, Imperial Airways of Great Britain, Lufthansa of Germany, KLM of Holland, and Air France undertook a cooperative study of possible Atlantic routes. Each was assigned the responsibility for one of the following areas: New Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland; Newfoundland via the great circle route to Ireland; Newfoundland southeast to the Azores and Lisbon; Miami, Bermuda, the Azores, and Lisbon; and across the South Atlantic from Natal, Brazil, to Cape Verde, Africa.

Pan American was to survey the Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland route. Ground survey and weather crews in Greenland were already hard at work when Lindbergh, Pan Am's technical advisor, took off from New York on July 9 in the rebuilt Lockheed Sirius, again accompanied by his wife, who would serve as copilot and radio operator. A Sperry artificial horizon and a directional gyro had been added to the instrument panel since the previous flight, and a new Wright Cyclone SR1820-F2 engine of 710 horsepower was installed. Lindbergh's plan was not to set up a particular route but to gather as much information as possible on the area to be covered.

The Jellinge, a Danish ship, was chartered by Pan Am to maintain radio contact with the Lindberghs in the Labrador-Greenland-Iceland area. The ship also delivered advance supplies for them to Halifax, Saint John's, Cartwright, Greenland, and Iceland.

Every possible space in the aircraft was utilized, including the wings and floats, which contained the gasoline tanks. There was plenty of emergency equipment in case the Lindberghs had to make a forced landing in the frozen wilderness.

From New York, the Lindberghs flew up the eastern border of Canada to Hopedale, Labrador. From Hopedale they made the first major overwater hop, 650 miles to Godthaab, Greenland, where the Sirius acquired its name-Tingmissartoq, which in Eskimo means "one who flies like a big bird."

After crisscrossing Greenland to Baffin Island and back, and then on to Iceland, the Lindberghs proceeded to the major cities of Europe and as far east as Moscow, down the west coast of Africa, and across the South Atlantic to South America, where they flew down the Amazon, and then north through Trinidad and Barbados and back to the United States.

They returned to New York on December 19, having traveled 30,000 miles to four continents and twenty-one countries. The information gained from the trip proved invaluable in planning commercial air transport routes for the North and South Atlantic.

The aircraft was in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City until 1955. The Air Force Museum in Dayton, Ohio, then acquired it and transferred it to the Smithsonian in 1959.

Coin, United Kingdom, Half Penny, Lockheed Sirius "Tingmissartoq", Lindbergh

National Air and Space Museum
Half penny coin from United Kingdom, 1933.

One hundred and seventy-one (171) coins collected by Charles and Anne Lindbergh during their flights. Originally there were one hundred and eighty-four (184) but thirteen (13) were used in two (2) separate displays, see catalog number A20030078001 and A20030079033.

Coins are from British West Africa, Canada, China, Denmark, Estonia, France, Great Britain, Greenland, Iceland, Ireland, Morocco, the Netherlands, Newfoundland, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, and the United States.

These are a few of the coins Charles A. Lindbergh and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, collected during their 1931 flight to the Orient and 1933 flights across the North and South Atlantic. Although they collected souvenirs along the way, their two trans-global trips were more than just vacations. They were also significant survey flights which provided information for the planning of commercial air routes. Their 1931 trip to the Orient proved the viability of traveling from the West to the Far East via the Great Circle route to the North. Their 1933 trip across the North and South Atlantic revealed many of the difficulties of transatlantic air travel.

A vacation flight with "no start or finish, no diplomatic or commercial significance, and no records to be sought." So Charles A. Lindbergh described the flight that he and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, were planning to make to the Orient in 1931. Their choice of route, however, showed the feasibility of using the great circle to reach the Far East.

The Lindberghs flew in a Lockheed Sirius low-wing monoplane, powered by a 680-hp Wright Cyclone. The Sirius had been designed in 1929 by John K. Northrop and Gerard Vultee, and this model was specially fitted with Edo floats, since most of the Lindberghs flight was to be over water.

Their route took them from North Haven, Maine, to Ottawa, Moose Factory, Churchill, Baker Lake, and Aklavik, all in Canada; Point Barrow, Shismaref, and Nome, Alaska; Petropavlosk. Siberia; and on over the Kurile Islands to Japan. After receiving an enthusiastic welcome in Tokyo, they flew to China. They landed on Lotus Lake near Nanking on September 19, thus completing the first flight from the West to the East by way of the North.

At Hankow, the Sirius, with the Lindberghs aboard, was being lowered into the Yangtze River from the British aircraft carrier Hermes, when the aircraft accidentally capsized. One of the wings was damaged when it hit a ship's cable, and the aircraft had to be returned to the United States for repairs.

Their next venture in the Sirius came as a result of the five countries' interest in the development of commercial air transport. In 1933 Pan American Airways, Imperial Airways of Great Britain, Lufthansa of Germany, KLM of Holland, and Air France undertook a cooperative study of possible Atlantic routes. Each was assigned the responsibility for one of the following areas: New Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland; Newfoundland via the great circle route to Ireland; Newfoundland southeast to the Azores and Lisbon; Miami, Bermuda, the Azores, and Lisbon; and across the South Atlantic from Natal, Brazil, to Cape Verde, Africa.

Pan American was to survey the Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland route. Ground survey and weather crews in Greenland were already hard at work when Lindbergh, Pan Am's technical advisor, took off from New York on July 9 in the rebuilt Lockheed Sirius, again accompanied by his wife, who would serve as copilot and radio operator. A Sperry artificial horizon and a directional gyro had been added to the instrument panel since the previous flight, and a new Wright Cyclone SR1820-F2 engine of 710 horsepower was installed. Lindbergh's plan was not to set up a particular route but to gather as much information as possible on the area to be covered.

The Jellinge, a Danish ship, was chartered by Pan Am to maintain radio contact with the Lindberghs in the Labrador-Greenland-Iceland area. The ship also delivered advance supplies for them to Halifax, Saint John's, Cartwright, Greenland, and Iceland.

Every possible space in the aircraft was utilized, including the wings and floats, which contained the gasoline tanks. There was plenty of emergency equipment in case the Lindberghs had to make a forced landing in the frozen wilderness.

From New York, the Lindberghs flew up the eastern border of Canada to Hopedale, Labrador. From Hopedale they made the first major overwater hop, 650 miles to Godthaab, Greenland, where the Sirius acquired its name-Tingmissartoq, which in Eskimo means "one who flies like a big bird."

After crisscrossing Greenland to Baffin Island and back, and then on to Iceland, the Lindberghs proceeded to the major cities of Europe and as far east as Moscow, down the west coast of Africa, and across the South Atlantic to South America, where they flew down the Amazon, and then north through Trinidad and Barbados and back to the United States.

They returned to New York on December 19, having traveled 30,000 miles to four continents and twenty-one countries. The information gained from the trip proved invaluable in planning commercial air transport routes for the North and South Atlantic.

The aircraft was in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City until 1955. The Air Force Museum in Dayton, Ohio, then acquired it and transferred it to the Smithsonian in 1959.

Coin, Chinese Empire, 1 Cent, Lockheed Sirius "Tingmissartoq", Lindbergh

National Air and Space Museum
1 cent coin from the Chinese Empire, no western date visible.

One hundred and seventy-one (171) coins collected by Charles and Anne Lindbergh during their flights. Originally there were one hundred and eighty-four (184) but thirteen (13) were used in two (2) separate displays, see catalog number A20030078001 and A20030079033.

Coins are from British West Africa, Canada, China, Denmark, Estonia, France, Great Britain, Greenland, Iceland, Ireland, Morocco, the Netherlands, Newfoundland, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, and the United States.

These are a few of the coins Charles A. Lindbergh and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, collected during their 1931 flight to the Orient and 1933 flights across the North and South Atlantic. Although they collected souvenirs along the way, their two trans-global trips were more than just vacations. They were also significant survey flights which provided information for the planning of commercial air routes. Their 1931 trip to the Orient proved the viability of traveling from the West to the Far East via the Great Circle route to the North. Their 1933 trip across the North and South Atlantic revealed many of the difficulties of transatlantic air travel.

A vacation flight with "no start or finish, no diplomatic or commercial significance, and no records to be sought." So Charles A. Lindbergh described the flight that he and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, were planning to make to the Orient in 1931. Their choice of route, however, showed the feasibility of using the great circle to reach the Far East.

The Lindberghs flew in a Lockheed Sirius low-wing monoplane, powered by a 680-hp Wright Cyclone. The Sirius had been designed in 1929 by John K. Northrop and Gerard Vultee, and this model was specially fitted with Edo floats, since most of the Lindberghs flight was to be over water.

Their route took them from North Haven, Maine, to Ottawa, Moose Factory, Churchill, Baker Lake, and Aklavik, all in Canada; Point Barrow, Shismaref, and Nome, Alaska; Petropavlosk. Siberia; and on over the Kurile Islands to Japan. After receiving an enthusiastic welcome in Tokyo, they flew to China. They landed on Lotus Lake near Nanking on September 19, thus completing the first flight from the West to the East by way of the North.

At Hankow, the Sirius, with the Lindberghs aboard, was being lowered into the Yangtze River from the British aircraft carrier Hermes, when the aircraft accidentally capsized. One of the wings was damaged when it hit a ship's cable, and the aircraft had to be returned to the United States for repairs.

Their next venture in the Sirius came as a result of the five countries' interest in the development of commercial air transport. In 1933 Pan American Airways, Imperial Airways of Great Britain, Lufthansa of Germany, KLM of Holland, and Air France undertook a cooperative study of possible Atlantic routes. Each was assigned the responsibility for one of the following areas: New Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland; Newfoundland via the great circle route to Ireland; Newfoundland southeast to the Azores and Lisbon; Miami, Bermuda, the Azores, and Lisbon; and across the South Atlantic from Natal, Brazil, to Cape Verde, Africa.

Pan American was to survey the Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland route. Ground survey and weather crews in Greenland were already hard at work when Lindbergh, Pan Am's technical advisor, took off from New York on July 9 in the rebuilt Lockheed Sirius, again accompanied by his wife, who would serve as copilot and radio operator. A Sperry artificial horizon and a directional gyro had been added to the instrument panel since the previous flight, and a new Wright Cyclone SR1820-F2 engine of 710 horsepower was installed. Lindbergh's plan was not to set up a particular route but to gather as much information as possible on the area to be covered.

The Jellinge, a Danish ship, was chartered by Pan Am to maintain radio contact with the Lindberghs in the Labrador-Greenland-Iceland area. The ship also delivered advance supplies for them to Halifax, Saint John's, Cartwright, Greenland, and Iceland.

Every possible space in the aircraft was utilized, including the wings and floats, which contained the gasoline tanks. There was plenty of emergency equipment in case the Lindberghs had to make a forced landing in the frozen wilderness.

From New York, the Lindberghs flew up the eastern border of Canada to Hopedale, Labrador. From Hopedale they made the first major overwater hop, 650 miles to Godthaab, Greenland, where the Sirius acquired its name-Tingmissartoq, which in Eskimo means "one who flies like a big bird."

After crisscrossing Greenland to Baffin Island and back, and then on to Iceland, the Lindberghs proceeded to the major cities of Europe and as far east as Moscow, down the west coast of Africa, and across the South Atlantic to South America, where they flew down the Amazon, and then north through Trinidad and Barbados and back to the United States.

They returned to New York on December 19, having traveled 30,000 miles to four continents and twenty-one countries. The information gained from the trip proved invaluable in planning commercial air transport routes for the North and South Atlantic.

The aircraft was in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City until 1955. The Air Force Museum in Dayton, Ohio, then acquired it and transferred it to the Smithsonian in 1959.

Coin, China, HuPeh Province, Ten Cash, Lockheed "Tingmissartoq", Lindbergh

National Air and Space Museum
China, HuPeh Province, Ten Cash coin.

One hundred and seventy-one (171) coins collected by Charles and Anne Lindbergh during their flights. Originally there were one hundred and eighty-four (184) but thirteen (13) were used in two (2) separate displays, see catalog number A20030078001 and A20030079033.

Coins are from British West Africa, Canada, China, Denmark, Estonia, France, Great Britain, Greenland, Iceland, Ireland, Morocco, the Netherlands, Newfoundland, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, and the United States.

These are a few of the coins Charles A. Lindbergh and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, collected during their 1931 flight to the Orient and 1933 flights across the North and South Atlantic. Although they collected souvenirs along the way, their two trans-global trips were more than just vacations. They were also significant survey flights which provided information for the planning of commercial air routes. Their 1931 trip to the Orient proved the viability of traveling from the West to the Far East via the Great Circle route to the North. Their 1933 trip across the North and South Atlantic revealed many of the difficulties of transatlantic air travel.

A vacation flight with "no start or finish, no diplomatic or commercial significance, and no records to be sought." So Charles A. Lindbergh described the flight that he and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, were planning to make to the Orient in 1931. Their choice of route, however, showed the feasibility of using the great circle to reach the Far East.

The Lindberghs flew in a Lockheed Sirius low-wing monoplane, powered by a 680-hp Wright Cyclone. The Sirius had been designed in 1929 by John K. Northrop and Gerard Vultee, and this model was specially fitted with Edo floats, since most of the Lindberghs flight was to be over water.

Their route took them from North Haven, Maine, to Ottawa, Moose Factory, Churchill, Baker Lake, and Aklavik, all in Canada; Point Barrow, Shismaref, and Nome, Alaska; Petropavlosk. Siberia; and on over the Kurile Islands to Japan. After receiving an enthusiastic welcome in Tokyo, they flew to China. They landed on Lotus Lake near Nanking on September 19, thus completing the first flight from the West to the East by way of the North.

At Hankow, the Sirius, with the Lindberghs aboard, was being lowered into the Yangtze River from the British aircraft carrier Hermes, when the aircraft accidentally capsized. One of the wings was damaged when it hit a ship's cable, and the aircraft had to be returned to the United States for repairs.

Their next venture in the Sirius came as a result of the five countries' interest in the development of commercial air transport. In 1933 Pan American Airways, Imperial Airways of Great Britain, Lufthansa of Germany, KLM of Holland, and Air France undertook a cooperative study of possible Atlantic routes. Each was assigned the responsibility for one of the following areas: New Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland; Newfoundland via the great circle route to Ireland; Newfoundland southeast to the Azores and Lisbon; Miami, Bermuda, the Azores, and Lisbon; and across the South Atlantic from Natal, Brazil, to Cape Verde, Africa.

Pan American was to survey the Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland route. Ground survey and weather crews in Greenland were already hard at work when Lindbergh, Pan Am's technical advisor, took off from New York on July 9 in the rebuilt Lockheed Sirius, again accompanied by his wife, who would serve as copilot and radio operator. A Sperry artificial horizon and a directional gyro had been added to the instrument panel since the previous flight, and a new Wright Cyclone SR1820-F2 engine of 710 horsepower was installed. Lindbergh's plan was not to set up a particular route but to gather as much information as possible on the area to be covered.

The Jellinge, a Danish ship, was chartered by Pan Am to maintain radio contact with the Lindberghs in the Labrador-Greenland-Iceland area. The ship also delivered advance supplies for them to Halifax, Saint John's, Cartwright, Greenland, and Iceland.

Every possible space in the aircraft was utilized, including the wings and floats, which contained the gasoline tanks. There was plenty of emergency equipment in case the Lindberghs had to make a forced landing in the frozen wilderness.

From New York, the Lindberghs flew up the eastern border of Canada to Hopedale, Labrador. From Hopedale they made the first major overwater hop, 650 miles to Godthaab, Greenland, where the Sirius acquired its name-Tingmissartoq, which in Eskimo means "one who flies like a big bird."

After crisscrossing Greenland to Baffin Island and back, and then on to Iceland, the Lindberghs proceeded to the major cities of Europe and as far east as Moscow, down the west coast of Africa, and across the South Atlantic to South America, where they flew down the Amazon, and then north through Trinidad and Barbados and back to the United States.

They returned to New York on December 19, having traveled 30,000 miles to four continents and twenty-one countries. The information gained from the trip proved invaluable in planning commercial air transport routes for the North and South Atlantic.

The aircraft was in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City until 1955. The Air Force Museum in Dayton, Ohio, then acquired it and transferred it to the Smithsonian in 1959.
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