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1/2 Sen, Japan, 1876

National Museum of American History
One (1) 1/2 sen coin

Japan, 1876

Obverse Image: Entwined dragon surrounded by a pearled border with Kanji and English text.

Obverse Text: Romanization: MEIJI / KYU / DAI / NIHON / 1/2 / SEN (Translation: Year 9 of Meiji Great Japan 1/2 Sen)

Reverse Image: Chrysanthemum Flower (Coat of Arms & Emperor's Royal Seal), Branches of Paulownia Flower (Heart shaped leaf) and Chrysanthemum Flower on either side of the value.

Reverse Text: Romanization: NI / HYAKU / MAI / ? / ICHI / EN / HAN / SEN (Translation: 200 sheets equal 1 Yen, half Sen).

1/2 Sen, Japan, 1876

National Museum of American History
One (1) 1/2 sen coin

Japan, 1876

Obverse Image: Entwined dragons surrounded by a pearled border with Kanji and English text.

Obverse Text: Romanization: MEIJI / KYU / DAI / NIHON / 1/2 / SEN (Translation: Year 9 of Meiji Great Japan 1/2 Sen)

Reverse Image: Chrysanthemum Flower (Coat of Arms & Emperor's Royal Seal), Branches of Paulownia Flower (Heart shaped leaf) and Chrysanthemum Flower on either side of the value.

Reverse Text: Romanization: NI / HYAKU / MAI / ? / ICHI / EN / HAN / SEN (Translation: 200 sheets equal 1 Yen, half Sen).

1/2 Sen, Japan, 1875

National Museum of American History
One (1) 1/2 sen coin

Japan, 1875

Obverse Image: Entwined dragons surrounded by a pearled border with Kanji and English text.

Obverse Text: Romanization: MEIJI / HACHI / DAI / NIHON / 1/2 / SEN (Translation: Year 8 of Meiji Great Japan 1/2 Sen)

Reverse Image: Chrysanthemum Flower (Coat of Arms & Emperor's Royal Seal), Branches of Paulownia Flower (Heart shaped leaf) and Chrysanthemum Flower on either side of the value.

Reverse Text: Romanization: NI / HYAKU / MAI / ? / ICHI / EN / HAN / SEN (Translation: 200 sheets equal 1 Yen, half Sen).

1/2 Sen, Japan, 1873

National Museum of American History
One (1) 1/2 sen coin, proof

Japan, 1873

Obverse Image: Entwined dragons surrounded by a pearled border with Kanji and English text.

Obverse Text: Romanization: MEIJI / ROKU / DAI / NIHON / 1/2 / SEN (Translation: Year 6 of Meiji Great Japan 1/2 Sen)

Reverse Image: Chrysanthemum Flower (Coat of Arms & Emperor's Royal Seal), Branches of Paulownia Flower (Heart shaped leaf) and Chrysanthemum Flower on either side of the value.

Reverse Text: Romanization: NI / HYAKU / MAI / ? / ICHI / EN / HAN / SEN (Translation: 200 sheets equal 1 Yen, half Sen).

1/2 Sen, Japan, 1873

National Museum of American History
One (1) 1/2 sen coin, proof

Japan, 1873

Obverse Image: Entwined dragons surrounded by a pearled border with Kanji and English text.

Obverse Text: Romanization: MEIJI / ROKU / DAI / NIHON / 1/2 / SEN (Translation: Year 6 of Meiji Great Japan 1/2 Sen)

Reverse Image: Chrysanthemum Flower (Coat of Arms & Emperor's Royal Seal), Branches of Paulownia Flower (Heart shaped leaf) and Chrysanthemum Flower on either side of the value.

Reverse Text: Romanization: NI / HYAKU / MAI / ? / ICHI / EN / HAN / SEN (Translation: 200 sheets equal 1 Yen, half Sen).

1/2 Sen, Japan, 1873

National Museum of American History
One (1) 1/2 sen coin, proof

Japan, 1873

Obverse Image: Entwined dragons surrounded by a pearled border with Kanji and English text.

Obverse Text: Romanization: MEIJI / ROKU / DAI / NIHON / 1/2 / SEN (Translation: Year 6 of Meiji Great Japan 1/2 Sen)

Reverse Image: Chrysanthemum Flower (Coat of Arms & Emperor's Royal Seal), Branches of Paulownia Flower (Heart shaped leaf) and Chrysanthemum Flower on either side of the value.

Reverse Text: Romanization: NI / HYAKU / MAI / ? / ICHI / EN / HAN / SEN (Translation: 200 sheets equal 1 Yen, half Sen).

1/2 Sen, Japan, 1873

National Museum of American History
One (1) 1/2 sen coin

Japan, 1873

Obverse Image: Entwined dragons surrounded by a pearled border with Kanji and English text.

Obverse Text: Romanization: MEIJI / ROKU / NEN / DAI / NIHON / 1/2 / SEN (Translation: Year 6 of Meiji Great Japan 1/2 Sen)

Reverse Image: Chrysanthemum Flower (Coat of Arms & Emperor's Royal Seal), Branches of Paulownia Flower (Heart shaped leaf) and Chrysanthemum Flower on either side of the value.

Reverse Text: Romanization: NI / HYAKU / MAI / ? / ICHI / EN / HAN / SEN (Translation: 200 sheets equal 1 Yen, half Sen).

1/2 Sen, Japan, 1873

National Museum of American History
One (1) 1/2 sen coin, proof

Japan, 1873

Obverse Image: Entwined dragons surrounded by a pearled border with Kanji and English text.

Obverse Text: Romanization: MEIJI / ROKU / DAI / NIHON / 1/2 / SEN (Translation: Year 6 of Meiji Great Japan 1/2 Sen)

Reverse Image: Chrysanthemum Flower (Coat of Arms & Emperor's Royal Seal), Branches of Paulownia Flower (Heart shaped leaf) and Chrysanthemum Flower on either side of the value.

Reverse Text: Romanization: NI / HYAKU / MAI / ? / ICHI / EN / HAN / SEN (Translation: 200 sheets equal 1 Yen, half Sen).

1/2 Poltina, Catherine I, Russia, 1726

National Museum of American History
One (1) 1/2 poltina coin, Catherine I

Russia, 1726

Obverse Image: Four (4) stamped images of the double-headed eagle.

Obverse Text: ПЕНА / НОЛПОЛТІНЬІ / 1726 / ЕКАТЕРІНЬ / БᴕРXЬ

Reverse Image: N/A

Reverse Text: N/A

Square shaped copper plates like this one were issued in Russia from 1725 to 1727. They were a variety of sizes and contained enough copper to be of similar value to the silver coins.

1/2 Mohur, Hindustan, 1558 - 1559

National Museum of American History

1.7-Million-Year-Old Rhino Tooth Provides Oldest DNA Data Ever Studied

Smithsonian Magazine

DNA sequencing has revolutionized the way researchers study evolution and animal taxonomy. But DNA has its limits—it’s a fragile molecule that degrades over time. So far, the oldest DNA sequenced came from a 700,000-year-old horse frozen in permafrost. But a new technique based on the emerging field of proteomics has begun to unlock the deep past, and recently researchers extracted genetic information from the tooth enamel of a rhinoceros that lived 1.7 million years ago.

In traditional DNA sequencing, the molecule is run through a machine that amplifies the genetic material and is able to read off the sequence of nucleotides—adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T)—that make up the DNA strand and encode instructions to make amino acids and proteins. The quality and completeness of a genome depends on how well the DNA is preserved.

The new proteomics approach is essentially reverse engineering. Using a mass spectrometer, researchers look at preserved proteins and are able to determine the amino acids that make them up. Because researchers know what three-letter DNA sequence encodes each amino acid, they can then determine the DNA sequence for the protein.

“It’s reading DNA when you don’t have any DNA to read,” Glendon Parker, a forensic scientist at the University of California, Davis, says in a press release. He and colleagues are developing proteomics techniques that can be used in criminology, evolutionary biology and anthropology. “Protein is much more stable than DNA, and protein detection technology is much better now.”

The most stable protein that we know of is tooth enamel, which can remain intact in fossils for millions of years. Enrico Cappellini of the University of Copenhagen and colleagues focused on this protein in a new study in the journal Nature. The researchers took a miniscule amount of enamel from the tooth of a 1.77-million-year-old Eurasian rhinocerous species called Stephanorhinus, which was dug up in Dmanisi, Georgia. The DNA had long since degraded, but mass spectrometry allowed the team to retrieve genetic data from the enamel, the oldest ever to be recorded, according to another press release.

“For 20 years ancient DNA has been used to address questions about the evolution of extinct species, adaptation and human migration, but it has limitations. Now for the first time we have retrieved ancient genetic information which allows us to reconstruct molecular evolution way beyond the usual time limit of DNA preservation,” Capellini says. “This new analysis of ancient proteins from dental enamel will start an exciting new chapter in the study of molecular evolution.”

The finding has big implications for evolutionary biology. While DNA is scarce, tooth enamel is plentiful. “[Tooth enamel] seems to protect its protein almost like a little time capsule,” co-author and chemist Kirsty Penkman of the University of York tells David Behrens at The Yorkshire Post. “It’s a step forward from Darwin. He was making his predictions based on the shape of bones—we’re now able to get molecular information from the bone and the teeth. The potential for this to be applied to a huge range of different species, including humans, is enormous.”

Scientists already have a massive amount of material for genetic analysis available at their fingertips. “There are tons of these fossils sitting around in museums and in sediments around the world, and we can now get useful evolutionary information from them,” Penkman says.

One of the potential applications of this technique is sorting out the human family tree. Currently, the oldest DNA researchers have from human ancestors is about 400,000 years old, enough to tell us a little bit about Homo sapiens, Neanderthals and Denisovans. But beyond that, reports Phoebe Weston at The Independent, paleoanthropologists have primarily relied on changes in anatomy to decide if an ancient hominin is our direct ancestor. For instance, there is no direct genetic link between modern humans and Homo erectus, which may be a direct ancestor. Some evidence also suggests that early humans interbred with Homo erectus. A genome from that species would help iron out the relationship.

The new technique has already shaken up the family tree of ancient rhinoceroses. According to the paper, the enamel DNA reveals that the Stephanorhinus rhino is not a direct ancestor of the better known woolly rhino, which survived until the Pleistocene about 10,000 years ago, but is a sister lineage and the two likely evolved from a common ancestor. And this probably isn’t the only branch on the tree of life that will be reshaped by proteomics in the near future.

1,500-Year-Old Text Has Been Digitally Resurrected From a Hebrew Scroll

Smithsonian Magazine

More than four decades ago, an archaeologist discovered a scroll in the ruins of an ancient settlement built near the Dead Sea. Found inside a holy ark, the fragile document was so badly burned that the scientist decided not to risk unrolling it, lest it crumble to pieces. Kept safe in storage ever since, the Ein Gedi scroll has held on to its secrets—until now.

This week a computer scientist announced that his team found a way to unroll the scroll virtually. Working off x-ray scans of the artifact, specialized software detected the layers of parchment and digitally unwound them, revealing for the first time Hebrew characters written on the scroll about 1,500 years ago.

“I’ve actually never seen the actual scroll,” says Brent Seales, a professor at the University of Kentucky. “For me, that’s a testament to the power of the digital age.”

His interest in damaged texts began years ago with a cache of old Roman scrolls unearthed at what had once been the resort town of Herculaneum. Buried during the infamous A.D. 79 Vesuvius eruption, the Herculaneum scrolls seemed like little more than cylinders of charcoal. To try and take a deeper look, Seales and his colleagues bombarded the relics with x-rays from a micro-CT scanner—a device similar to the computerized tomography scanners hospitals use to see inside human bodies, but much more powerful.

“It’s a bit expensive and time-consuming to do, but you’re able to see inside an object without destroying it,” says James Miles, a graduate student at the University of Southampton and director of Archaeovision, a company that scans ancient objects. “You can’t do this any other way.”

To suss out the contours of rolled papyri, Seales wrote a computer program. He likens the process to cartography: the density data from a micro-CT scan is a whole world of chaotic shapes and forms, and the turns of the papyri are like edges of continents that his algorithms can sketch. Sadly, his x-rays and algorithms proved blind to the carbon-based ink on the Roman scrolls, which was too similar to the carbonized papyri to be distinguished.

The badly burned Ein Gedi scroll as it looks to the human eye. (Shay Halevi)

Still, word about Seales' software reached the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA). They already had the Ein Gedi scroll scanned with a micro-CT machine but couldn’t make sense of the information. Could Seales help? A meeting was arranged in the U.S., and over lunch, he was handed a hard drive containing terabytes of raw data. Though in much better condition than the Roman scrolls, the Hebrew parchment offered its own challenges. Made of animal skin instead of plant-based papyrus, it had bubbled and blistered over the years. New programming tricks that corrected for those imperfections in the data would be needed.

“This is probably a simpler problem than the Herculaneum scrolls, which are really the worst-case scenario in the field,” says Vito Mocella of the Italian National Research Council, who heads the Italian team that ultimately found a way to read letters on the Roman scrolls using an enhanced scanning technique and a powerful particle accelerator. “But even if it’s simpler, it’s still not so easy.”

Luckily for Seales, the Hebrews added metal to their inks, which showed up clearly as bright white spots in the CT data. As his software virtually unwound a single layer from the middle of the scroll, text revealed itself: “The LORD summoned Moses and spoke to him,” it began. Israeli translators identified the words as the first verse of Leviticus, the book of laws.

“This discovery absolutely astonished us: We were certain it was just a shot in the dark but decided to try and scan the burnt scroll anyway,” Pnina Shor, curator and director of IAA's Dead Sea Scrolls Projects, says in a statement. The IAA unveiled the achievement at a press briefing in Israel on July 20.

For Biblical scholars, discovering another copy of the Book of Leviticus isn’t exactly Earth-shattering. “There's little of surprise in finding a Leviticus scroll,” says James Aitken, a lecturer in Hebrew at the University of Cambridge. “We probably have many more copies of it than any other book, as its Hebrew style is so simple and repetitive that it was used for children's writing exercises.”

What makes the sixth-century text remarkable, says Aitken, is its age. Until 1947, the oldest known Biblical texts dated to the tenth century. Then Bedouin goat herders exploring the Qumran caves discovered the iconic Dead Sea scrolls, which date from between the third century B.C. and the first century A.D. The Ein Gedi scroll is one of only three deciphered documents dated to the long gap between, says Aitken—the other two being a fragment of Genesis thought to be from the sixth century and an Exodus scroll from the seventh or eighth century.

As Seales works to finish decoding the rest of the Ein Gedi scroll, he’s making plans to start on other scrolls found at the same site. And with his growing reputation for resurrecting texts from the dead, other projects have come calling—including a novel from the early 20th century that was torched in a house fire.

“When you have a new technology like this, it moves the line of what is possible,” he says. “People start to think about studying materials they had no way to study before.”

1,000-Year-Old Handprint From "Europe's Lost People" Discovered In Scotland

Smithsonian Magazine

The Knowe of Swandro on the island of Rousay, part of Scotland's Orkney Islands, was a happening place for centuries. Not only did the coastal site host an Iron Age settlement, the Picts and Vikings also built on the large mound sitting directly behind a boulder-strewn beach. Erosion, however, is quickly washing Swandro into the Atlantic, making excavation of the area urgent. For the last decade, archaeologists have investigated the site, unveiling ancient artifacts and structures. Now, reports, Maev Kennedy at The Guardian, they’ve come across something that links the site to an individual who once worked there—they’ve found a 1,000-year-old stone anvil that still has a metalsmith’s handprint on it.

According to a blog post at the Swandro-Orkney Coastal Archaeology Trust, the anvil, really just a large beach stone, was found inside a small circular stone structure that was once underground. It’s believed a Pictish coppersmith worked in the cramped space in near-darkness so he could see the exact color of the metal as he heated it to assess its temperature. The anvil is one of two that were located in the smithy near the hearth, allowing the coppersmith to heat the metal than quickly transfer it to the anvil for shaping.

“We were taking up the two stones that were used as anvils. When they were cleaned, we noticed that one of them had what looked like handprints on,” Julie Bond, co-director of the dig, tells the BBC. At first the researchers believed the print came from one of the excavators as they raised the stone out of the ground, but closer examination showed the black carbon smudge marks had been there a long time and also revealed marks from the coppersmith’s knee. “I have never seen anything like this before. It's unique as far as I know. Knowing that this is a Pictish building, I would guess the prints are somewhere between 1,000 and 1,500 years old.”

Kennedy reports that the smithy has been dated to between the sixth and ninth centuries, but testing of the soot and other materials found in the site may help refine that number. The metal shop is in decent condition, considering its age. It was reached via a curving passageway and included a door jamb, pivot stone (a stone with a depression that acts like a door hinge) and another stone placed to protect the hearth from drafts. The handprint, however, connects the site to the past in a way that other artifacts simply can’t. “We are doing all we can to gather as much information on the site before it is destroyed by the sea,” Bond tells Kennedy. “A handprint is so personal and individual that you can almost feel the presence of the coppersmith and imagine what it must have been like working in there all those years ago.”

The Picts, Kennedy of The Guardian says, were famed for their metalworking and stone carving. Beyond that—and the fact that they dominated Scotland from roughly 300 B.C. to around 900 A.D.—not much is known about them. The Picts are often called the “lost people of Europe” since we have no writings from them and only a handful of archaeological sites. Most of what we know about the Picts comes from the people who fought them—they repulsed invasions by the Romans and the Germanic Angles, who left writings about the fierce warrior culture. Their name comes from the Latin word picti, which means "painted," since it’s believed the Picts were either tattooed or painted their bodies for battle.

Alison Campsie at The Scotsman reports that the Orkney Islands were considered part of the Pictish Kingdom and people from Orkney are mentioned as being present in the court of the High King, Bridei, in 565 A.D. However, it’s not clear if the Orkney Islanders were hostages at the court, meant to keep the Islands under control, or if they were fully onboard with the Pictish Kingdom. Hopefully, some of those mysteries can be cleared up before Swandro is completely swept out to sea.

1 Yen, Proof, Japan, 1874

National Museum of American History
One (1) 1 yen, proof

Japan, 1874

Obverse Image: Entwined dragons surrounded by a pearled border with Kanji and English text.

Obverse Text: Romanization: MEIJI / SHICHI / DAI / NIHON / 416 / ONE / YEN / 900 (Translation: Year 7 of Meiji Great Japan 416 1 Yen 900).

Reverse Image: Chrysanthemum Flower (Coat of Arms & Emperor's Royal Seal) Branches of Paulownia Flower (Heart shaped leaf) and Chrysanthemum Flower on either side of the value.

Reverse Text: Romanization: ICHI / EN (Translation: 1 Yen).

1 Yen, Japan, 1914

National Museum of American History
One (1) 1 yen

Japan, 1914

Obverse Image: Circling dragon surrounded by a pearled border with Kanji and English text.

Obverse Text: Romanization: TAISHO / SAN / NEN / DAI / NIHON / 416 / ONE / YEN / 900 (Translation: Taisho year three, Great Japan 416 1 Yen 900).

Reverse Image: Chrysanthemum Flower (Coat of Arms & Emperor's Royal Seal) Branches of Paulownia Flower (Heart shaped leaf) and Chrysanthemum Flower on either side of the value.

Reverse Text: Romanization: ICHI / EN (Translation: 1 Yen).

1 Yen, Japan, 1874

National Museum of American History
One (1) yen

Japan, 1874

Obverse Image: Circling dragon surrounded by a pearled border with Kanji and English text.

Obverse Text: Romanization: MEIJI / SHICHI / DAI / NIHON / 416 / ONE / YEN / 900 (Translation: Year 7 of Meiji Great Japan 416 1 Yen 900).

Reverse Image: Chrysanthemum Flower (Coat of Arms & Emperor's Royal Seal) Branches of Paulownia Flower (Heart shaped leaf) and Chrysanthemum Flower on either side of the value.

Reverse Text: Romanization: ICHI / EN (Translation: 1 Yen).

1 Yen , Japan, 1874

National Museum of American History
One (1) yen, proof

Japan, 1874

Obverse Image: Circling dragon surrounded by a pearled border with Kanji and English text.

Obverse Text: Romanization: MEIJI / SHICHI / DAI / NIHON / 416 / ONE / YEN / 900 (Translation: Year 7 of Meiji Great Japan 416 1 Yen 900).

Reverse Image: Chrysanthemum Flower (Coat of Arms & Emperor's Royal Seal) Branches of Paulownia Flower (Heart shaped leaf) and Chrysanthemum Flower on either side of the value.

Reverse Text: Romanization: ICHI / EN (Translation: 1 Yen).

1 Yen , Japan, 1874

National Museum of American History
One (1) yen, proof

Japan, 1874

Obverse Image: Entwined dragons surrounded by a pearled border with Kanji and English text.

Obverse Text: Romanization: MEIJI / SHICHI / DAI / NIHON / 416 / ONE / YEN / 900 (Translation: Year 7 of Meiji Great Japan 416 1 Yen 900).

Reverse Image: Chrysanthemum Flower (Coat of Arms & Emperor's Royal Seal) Branches of Paulownia Flower (Heart shaped leaf) and Chrysanthemum Flower on either side of the value.

Reverse Text: Romanization: ICHI / EN (Translation: 1 Yen).

1 Tael Weight, Japan, 18th century

National Museum of American History
One (1) tael weight

Japan, 18th century

Obverse Image: Violin shaped, line of Kanji text inscribed.

Obverse Text: [NEEDS TRANSLATION]

Reverse Image: Line of Kanji characters inscribed.

Reverse Text: [NEEDS TRANSLATION]

Rim: Many stamps with a blossom

1 Pair Quilled Moccasins

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
From card: "Black painted skin; 6 piece pattern - (1) bottom of foot and lower sides, puckered to (2) long U-shaped tongue insert; (3 and 4) narrow, four sided pieces, one each side between base piece and (5 and 6) ankle flaps. Quillwork in elaborate floral designs on U-insert and ankle flaps. Colors - natural, orange and blue. Red cloth edging. Dr. Wm. Fenton, BAE, said this type moccasin probably Huron or Mohawk from vicinity of Catholic Missions near Montreal, late 18th or early 19th century. The floral decoration may reflect French influence - Feb. 17, 1948."

Decoration includes floral quillwork or moose hair work.

Decoration is floral moose hair embroidery, per Richard Zane Smith, Wyandot, 6-14-2013

1 Pair Moccasins

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
From card: "Black painted or dyed skin; 6 piece pattern - (1) foot and lower sides, puckered to (2) long U-shaped inserted tongue; (3 and 4) narrow piece each side of ankle between lower piece and (5 and 6) ankle flaps. Decoration: geometric border and elaborate floral centers both U insert and ankle flaps, in quillwork, fine, short stitches. Quill colors - orange, blue and natural. Ankle flaps edged in purple silk. Dr. Wm. Fenton, BAE, said this type probably late 18th Century or early 19th Century Huron or Mohawk from vicinity of Catholic Missions. The floral designs may reflect French influence. - Feb. 17, 1948."

Decoration includes floral quillwork or moose hair work.

Decoration is floral moose hair embroidery, per Richard Zane Smith, Wyandot, 6-14-2013

1 Pair Moccasins

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
From card: "Black painted or dyed skin. 6 piece pattern: (1) base and lower sides puckered to (2) long U*shaped tongue insert; (3 & 4) narrow strips each side ankle between base piece and (5 and 6) ankle flaps. Decoration - quillwork in one U-shaped outer band on tongue (orange) and in small, wrapped stitch floral designs on U-insert and ankle flaps. Orange, green and natural colored quills. Ankle flaps edgings of purple cloth. Dr. [William] Fenton, BAE, stated this type of moccasin probably Huron or Mohawk from vicinity of Catholic Missions near Montreal. The floral designs probably reflect French influence. Probably late 18th or early 19th century. - Feb. 17, 1948. 9-12-1985 Lent to NMAH Life in America exhibit. Loan returned: Sept. 1989."

Decoration includes moose hair embroidery, as well as some porcupine quillwork.

1 Pair Child's Shoes

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
Source of the information below: Inuvialuit Pitqusiit Inuuniarutait: Inuvialuit Living History, The MacFarlane Collection website, by the Inuvialuit Cultural Resource Centre (ICRC), Inuvik, N.W.T., Canada (website credits here http://www.inuvialuitlivinghistory.ca/posts/12 ), entry on this artifact http://www.inuvialuitlivinghistory.ca/items/141 , retrieved 1-3-2020: A pair of child’s ankle high shoes made from seal hide .... The soles are joined to the foot and ankle sections without an intervening vamp. The sole is loosely pleated around the fore part of the foot. More information here: http://www.inuvialuitlivinghistory.ca/item_types/23: Warm, dry footwear is essential for survival in the Arctic. The MacFarlane Collection includes examples of knee-length boots known as kamaks, and ankle high moccasin-type footwear. These garments have been skillfully made, and often were decorated by piecing together contrasting pieces of skin. The soles are crimped along the front edges to make the shape conform to the foot.

1 Oil Cake Moulds

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
31681-31704 of 31,936 Resources