Skip to Content

Found 39,412 Resources

Terrestrial

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden

Wilson 13-inch Terrestrial Globe

National Museum of American History
The cartouche reads “WILSON’S / NEW AMERICAN THIRTEEN INCH / TERRESTRIAL GLOBE / Exhibiting with the greatest possible Accuracy, / THE POSITIONS OF THE PRINCIPAL KNOWN / PLACES OF THE EARTH; / WITH the Tracks of various Circumnavigators together with / New Discoveries and Political Alterations down to / THE present PERIOD: 1835 / By CYRUS LANCASTER / 1835 / ALBANY, N.Y. / S. Wood & Sons Agents N. York.” It also reads: “D.W. Wilson dd.” and “Balch, Rawdon & Co. fet.” An allegorical image shows a woman (Columbia) holding dividers and a globe marked “AMERICA,” and an eagle holding a banner marked “E PLURIBUS UNUM.” This globe is supported on a 4-leg wooden base, and provided with a wooden horizon circle and a brass meridian. James Wilson (1763-1855) was America’s first commercial globe maker. He was self-taught in geography and the techniques of engraving, but his globes were accurate, beautiful, and a commercial success. Wilson made his first globes in Vermont around 1810, and established an “artificial globe manufactory” in Albany in 1818. His son, David W. Wilson, drew the maps for these later globes. The firm of Balch, Rawdon & Co. printed the maps. Cyrus Lancaster joined Wilson’s firm in 1826, took charge of the business after the death of Wilson’s sons in 1833, and introduced this version of the 13-inch terrestrial globe soon thereafter. Ref: D. J. Warner, “The Geography of Heaven and Earth,” Rittenhouse 2 (1999): 135-137.

Bardin 18-inch Terrestrial Globe

National Museum of American History
This terrestrial globe is supported on a wooden tri-leg pedestal, surrounded by a wooden horizon circle, and it equipped with a brass meridian and a small brass circle around the north pole. It (and its celestial mate) belonged to the Anglo-American chemist, Joseph Priestley. The cartouche in the Pacific Ocean displays a seated female figure of Britannia, a seated woman holding an astronomical quadrant, and a small portrait of Joseph Banks. The text below reads: “To the Rt Honorable / SIR JOSEPH BANKS, BART K. B. / This New British Terrestrial Globe / containing all the latest Discoveries and Communications, from the most / correct and authentic Observations and surveys, to the year 1798 / by Captn Cook and more recent Navigators, Engraved on / an accurate Drawing by Mr Arrowsmith Geographer / Is respectfully dedicated / by his most obedient hble servants / W. & T. M. Bardin / 230” A text below reads: “Manufactured & Sold Wholesale & Retail by W. & T. M. BARDIN / 16 Salisbury Square Fleet Street London” William Bardin (fl. 1730-1798) was a London artisan who began making globes around 1780. Ten years later, now partnership with his son, Thomas Marriott Bardin (1768-1819), he began trading as W. & T. M. Bardin. The 18-inch globes, their most ambitious, were introduced in 1798, and remained in production, by successor firms, for a half century. Ref: John Millburn and Tör Rossaak, “The Bardin Family, Globe Makers in London” Der Globusfreund (1992). Elly Dekker, Globes at Greenwich (Oxford, 1999), pp. 260-270.

Terrestrial Reflections (Reflets Terrestres)

Smithsonian American Art Museum

Joslin's terrestrial and celestial globes

Smithsonian Libraries
At head of title: How to use a globe.

Cover title: Joslin's hand-book to the terrestrial and celestial globes.

Also available online.

NMAH copy 39088007698129 is 23 cm.

Elecresource

The terrestrial Mollusca of Michigan

Smithsonian Libraries
Also available online.

Elecresource

James Wilson's Terrestrial Globe, 1811

National Museum of American History
This terrestrial globe was created by James Wilson, one of America's earliest globe manufacturers, in 1811. It is printed and tinted on a paper surface. Born March 15, 1863, the son of James and Eleanor Hopkin Wilson, of Londonderry, New Hampshire, James Wilson was a farmer and a blacksmith before he became interested in geography when he saw some globes at Dartmouth College. Self taught is geography, Wilson produced an experimental globe in 1796. He moved to New Haven, Connecticut to study with engraver Amos Doolittle and by 1810, was producing and selling aesthetically pleasing, accurate globes. He was soon a commercial success and established an “artificial globe manufactory” in Albany in 1818.

His globes were produced in pairs: terrestrial and celestial, and came in three sizes. The 13” globe sold for $50.00 in Boston in 1813. Willson produced globes in pairs: terrestrial and celestial. They came in three sizesand the smaller 13” globe was knoiwn to have sold for $50.00 in Boston in 1813. In 1827, he displayed his globes before Congress in an effort to obtain an official endorsement. He brought his sons into his business, and son David is known to have drawn maps.Unfortunately his sons preceded his death so in 1833, Cyrus Lancaster, who had joined the firm in 1826, took over Willson's business. James Willson died March 26, 1855 in Bradford, Vermont.

During the late 18th and 19th Centuries globes were a basic geography teaching tool for educational institutions such as universities, good sized secondary academies and were also found in libraries. They would also have been purchased by the wealthy. This globe is hung in brass meridian ring and set in maple stand supported on 4 turned legs joined by cross stretchers. The printed horizon ring displays zodiacal signs, months of the year, and degrees longitude pasted on a circle. The globe was used in Vermont in the 19th Century.

Fitz 12-Inch Terrestrial Globe

National Museum of American History
The cartouche in the North Pacific reads “FITZ GLOBE / Manufactured / BY / GINN & HEATH / BOSTON. / 1879.” The base is marked “FITZ GLOBE. GINN & HEATH, MANFS BOSTON. Patented Jan. 19, 1875.” There are red and blue isothermal lines, and indications of ocean currents. Ellen Eliza Fitz (b. 1836), an American governess working in St. John County, New Brunswick, invented a terrestrial globe mount that illustrated the path of the sun and the various durations of day, night, and twilight around the globe and throughout the year. She obtained a patent (#158,581) in 1875, published a Handbook, and showed an example at the Centennial Exhibition held at Philadelphia in 1876. In 1882, now living in Somerville, Mass., Fitz obtained another patent (#263,886) for mounting globes that indicated the positions of stars above any horizon at any time of the year. Ginn & Heath, an educational publishing house in Boston, was in business from 1876 to 1886. Ref: Ellen E. Fitz, Handbook of the Terrestrial Globe; or, Guide to Fitz’s New Method of Mounting and Operating Globes (Boston, 1876, and later). D. J. Warner, “The Geography of Heaven and Earth,” Rittenhouse 2 (1988): 62.

Cary 12-Inch Terrestrial Globe

National Museum of American History
The cartouche in the north Pacific reads “CARY’S / NEW / TERRESTRIAL GLOBE, / Drawn from the most recent / GEOGRAPHICAL WORKS / shewing the whole of the New Discoveries / with the / TRACKS of the PRINCIPAL NAVIGATORS / and every improvement in Geography / to the present Time. / LONDON: / London Published by G. & J. Cary, St James’s St Jan. 7th 1838” A water mark on the map gores reads “C WILMOT / 1837” The globe is held in a 4-legged wooden stand, with a wooden horizon circle and a brass meridian. John Cary was a globe maker in London who began in business in 1791. He introduced his new 12-inch terrestrial globe, and the celestial mate, in 1798. This example is dated 1838. The signature refers to John Cary’s sons, George and John Jr., who worked together from around 1820 to 1852. Ref: Herbert George Fordham, John Cary: Engraver, Map, Chart and Print-Seller and Globe-Maker, 1754 to 1835 (Cambridge, 1925)

John Betts Collapsible Terrestrial Globe

National Museum of American History
The New Portable Terrestrial Globe, is a collapsible globe of innovative design. It was compiled from "the latest authorities" by John Betts of 115 Strand in London. John Betts (fl. 1844-1875) was a British publisher, globe, map maker, and engraver. He worked at 7 Compton Street Brunswick Sq. from 1839-1846, and at 115 Strand after 1846 and produced educational materials. Betts was noted for patenting cloth collapsible globes that open like an umbrella. After his death in London his globes were published by George Philip & Son, Ltd until the 1920’s. They were sold in the U.S. by the Boston School Supply Co. 15 Broomfield St, Boston.

This globe was published after 1863 by George Philip & Son, Ltd. Eight coloured lithographed sections are printed on linen and stitched over a black japanned umbrella-type frame with brass coloured caps. This type of globe would have been more economical for shipping and was a space saver from the more traditional stationery globe.

Copley 16-Inch Terrestrial Globe

National Museum of American History
There is no cartouche on this globe, but the texts on the horizon circle read: “IMPROVED GLOBE BOSTON” and “REFERENCES / Flamstead 46. Hevelius 24. Piazzi 180. LaCaille 1661. Nebulae. W. Herschell, J. Herschell, & J. Dunlop.” and “MANUFACTURED FOR H. B. NIMS & CO. / TROY N.Y.” and “THE EQUATION OF TIME” and “Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1852 by Charles Copley, in / the Clerks office, of the District Court, of the Southern District, of New York” and “MAGNITUDES / First Magnitude. . . Ninth Nebulae” and “EXPLANATION. / Ancient Constellations . . . Modern . . .” This globe has a short 4-leg wooden base, a wooden horizon circle and a brass meridian. The astronomical information on the horizon circle suggests that this element could be used for celestial as well as terrestrial globes. Charles Copley (b. 1800) was a cartographer and engraver from England who became an American citizen in 1844 and lived in Brooklyn. He is best known for the pair of 16-inch globes that he introduced in 1852. Despite being extremely detailed, even to the point of obscurity, these globes won a gold medal at the 1852 fair of the American Institute in New York, and a first premium at the 1853 fair of the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia. Copley’s globes would be revised from time to time, and marketed by other firms. This example of Copley’s terrestrial globe contains revisions that would have been of particular interest to Americans: Alaska (1867) is shown, but Lake Victoria (1858) and Mt. Kilimanjaro (1848) are not. Other additions include isothermal lines, the Atlantic Cable, and various deep sea soundings which, as advertised, “are not laid down on any other globe.” H. B. Nims & Co., the firm that marketed this example, was in business in Troy, N.Y., from 1869 to 1885 and again from 1890 to 1896, publishing and selling books and other school supplies. The globe was probably made by Gilman Joslin in Boston. Ref: D. J. Warner, “The Geography of Heaven and Earth,” Rittenhouse 2 (1999): 54-55, 63-64, and 88-89.

Franklin 10-Inch Terrestrial Globe

National Museum of American History
The cartouche reads “THE FRANKLIN / TERRESTRIAL / 10 INCHES IN DIAMETER CONTAINING ALL THE / Geographical Divisions / & POLITICAL BOUNDARIES / to the present date / carefully compiled from the best Authorities / NIMS & KNIGHT / TROY, N.Y.” The first Franklin terrestrial globe was issued in the mid-1850s by Merriam & Moore, booksellers in Troy, N.Y. That firm and its successors would issue several new editions over the course of the next half century. This example carries the signature of Nims & Knight, as the firm was known from 1886 to 1889, but it shows some geographical information from a year or two later. This includes such states as North and South Dakota (1889), Wyoming and Idaho (1890), and the panhandle (1890) of the “Indian Territor” later known as Oklahoma. The globe is mounted on an inclined axis on a simple pillar stand. The circular cast iron base is covered with lithographed tinplate. Ref: D. J. Warner, “The Geography of Heaven and Earth,” Rittenhouse 2 (1988): 63-64.

Murdock 5-Inch Terrestrial Globe

National Museum of American History
The globe is a solid wooden sphere atop a simple brass base with 3 cabriole legs. The curious brass structure mounted on the globe has not been identified. The cartouche in the north Pacific reads: “MADE / BY / D.C. MURDOCK / WEST BOYLSTON / MASS.” There are very few geographical names or boundaries on this globe. But “Oasis at Taudeny” is shown in West Africa, as is the “Great Desert.” Australia (a name adopted by the United Kingdom in 1824) is here labeled “NEW HOLLAND.” David C. Murdock (1805-1880) made inexpensive school apparatus from the 1830s until his small factory was destroyed by fire in 1868. Ref: D. J. Warner, “The Geography of Heaven and Earth,” Rittenhouse 2 (1988): 116-117.

Wilson 9-Inch Terrestrial Globe

National Museum of American History
The signature in the Pacific reads “THE / AMERICAN NINE INCH / TERRESTRIAL GLOBE, / EXHIBITING / with the greatest possible Accuracy / POSITIONS of THE PRINCIPAL / PLACES OF THE EARTH / with New Discoveries & Political Alterations / down to the present / PERIOD; / 1819. / BY J. WILSON & Co. / Albany.” This globe shows no political boundaries within the United States, but does identify Maine and Florida. Longitude is shown from London and from Washington. The globe has a four-leg mahogany stand, a wooden horizon circle, and a brass meridian. James Wilson (1763-1855) was America’s first commercial globe maker. He was self-taught in geography and the techniques of engraving, but his globes were accurate, beautiful, and a commercial success. Wilson made his first globes in Vermont around 1810. Working with his sons he established an “artificial globe manufactory” in Albany in 1818. Ref: D. J. Warner, “The Geography of Heaven and Earth,” Rittenhouse 2 (1988): 135-137.

Schedler 6-Inch Terrestrial Globe

National Museum of American History
The cartouche in the South Pacific reads “J. SCHEDLER’S / TERRESTRIAL / GLOBE / 6 inches diameter / Patented November 24 1868 / Prize Medal Paris Expos / E. STEIGER N.Y. / 1872.” The western border reads “Entered according to Act of Congress / in the Year 1869 by Jos. Schedler in the.” The eastern border reads “Clerks Office of the District Court/ of the Southern District of New York.” The explanations below the cartouche refer to steamship routes and telegraph lines. While earlier globes tended to be printed in black on white and then colored by hand, Schedler’s were printed in color, probably by lithography. In this example, the boundaries and texts are black, the land masses are yellow and red, and the water is blue (largely faded to dark yellow). Broken black lines indicate lines of regular steam communication around the world, both from Europe and to Europe. There are also lines indicating the Atlantic telegraph cables of 1865 and 1866, as well as the French cable of 1869. The globe sits on a decorative cast-iron pedestal, with metal horizon circle and metal meridian circle. Joseph Schedler was a German immigrant who worked in New York and New Jersey, publishing books and globes. His globes won medals at several local and international exhibitions and were widely used in the public schools of several American cities. The referenced patent on this globe was #84,398 issued to Edward Weissenborn, and described an “Improvement in the Construction of School Globes.” Ref: Jos. Schedler, Schedler’s Illustrated Manual for the Use of the Terrestrial and Celestial Globes (New York and Jersey City: H. Schedler, 1889). D. J. Warner, “The Geography of Heaven and Earth,” Rittenhouse 2 (1988): 125-127.

Cornell 9-Inch Terrestrial Globe

National Museum of American History
The cartouche, pasted onto the globe in the North Pacific, reads “SILAS CORNELL’S / PATENT/ Terrestrial Globe / Made and sold by / S. CORNELL AND / E. DARROW & BROTHER / ROCHESTER / N.Y. / G. JOSLIN BOSTON.” Silas Cornell (1789-1864) was a Quaker from Long Island who studied at the New York Academy of Fine Arts, and then worked as a surveyor, civil engineer and educator. He began producing globes in the early 1840s. In 1845 he received a patent (#4,098) for a globe mount designed to illustrate “several geographical and astronomical phenomena connected with the motions of the earth.” Globes with this patented mount were advertised as Cornell’s “Improved Terrestrial Globe,” and available in two sizes. The 5-inch sold for $3.50. The 9-inch sold for $10. The most unusual feature of this example is a set of irregular contour lines indicating the northern and southern limits of wood, grain, the vine, and bananas. These lines are essentially isothermals, and represent the first use of such geophysical information on an American globe. The globe has a three-footed metal bases and a metal meridian circle. This example is not dated, but internal evidence suggests that the map gores were engraved at the time Cornell obtained his patent. As Texas is shown as a republic, the engraving must have been begun before Texas was admitted as a state in the Union (1845). The northwest corner of the United States extends as far north as 54° 40’, indicating that the engraving predates the Oregon Treaty (1846) which established the northwest boundary of the U.S. at 49°. Mexico extends up into what is now Colorado, as it did before the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848). The map is engraved in black on white, and hand colored. In this example, the colors were added after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) but before the Gadsden Purchase (1853). The cartouche dates from the period 1855-1866 when Erasmus Darrow & Brother were in business as booksellers and publishers, and advertising as “Manufacturers of Cornell’s Improved Globes.” Ref: D. J. Warner, “The Geography of Heaven and Earth,” Rittenhouse 2 (1988): 55-57.

Ferguson 3-Inch Terrestrial Globe

National Museum of American History
This pocket globe has a cartouche in the North Pacific that reads “A New / GLOBE of the / Earth / by James Ferguson.” A broken line shows the route taken by George Anson during his 1740-1744 global circumnavigation. The Antipodes to London is shown, as are the Chinese Wall and monsoons in the Indian Sea. California appears as a peninsula. The globe is provided with a case made of dogfish skin, with an inverted celestial globe on the inside. James Ferguson was an astronomical and philosophical lecturer and instrument maker who hailed from Scotland and settled in London. He introduced this globe in around 1756, and transferred his globe business to Benjamin Martin the following year. Ref: John R. Millburn, Wheelwright of the Heavens. The Life and Work of James Ferguson (London, 1988). Elly Dekker, Globes at Greenwich (Oxford, 1999), pp. 332-333.

"Newton's New and Improved Terrestrial Globe"

National Museum of American History
1-24 of 39,412 Resources