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1958 Banana Plant Research Station - Costa Rica

Human Studies Film Archives
Banana Plant Research Station (Costa Rica) (1958): Coto (crop) Research Station; displays healthy banana plant and a diseased banana plant -- SILENT FILM CLIP This film clip is from Thayer Soule's travelogue, "Rainbow Lands of Central America", archived in the Human Studies Film Archives, Smithsonian Institution. For more information, view the complete catalog record: http://tinyurl.com/HSFAcatalog. For information on Thayer Soule see SIRIS blog post: http://tinyurl.com/qyn6fkd.

The 2010s Were the Hottest Decade on Record. What Happens Next?

Smithsonian Magazine

Another year, another temperature record broken. The decade spanning 2010 to 2019 was the hottest documented since 1880, climate experts say. And 2019 joins the five preceding years at the top of the average annual temperature list, second only to 2016. Fueled by continued greenhouse gas emissions, Earth’s most recent six years have been the most sweltering ones yet, report Henry Fountain and Nadja Popovich for the New York Times.

Arriving on the heels of months of floods, wildfires and melting sea ice, the announcements have unfortunately not come as a surprise. Since late last year, researchers tracking temperature highs around the globe have forecast that warming trends will not only continue, but increase in extremity.

“These announcements might sound like a broken record,” NASA’s Gavin Schmidt tells Damian Carrington at the Guardian. “But what is being heard is the drumbeat of the Anthropocene.”

Climbing global temperatures, one of the best-known symptoms of climate change, spell trouble for the planet and its many residents. Habitats, plant and animal species, and irreplaceable natural resources that support billions of people worldwide are already rapidly disappearing—and should things continue business as usual, such trends are poised to continue.

In a way, these reports represent a sort of planetary health assessment. “We’re seeing that the Earth has a temperature,” NOAA climatologist Ahira Sanchez-Lugo tells Tara Law at Time magazine. “But not only that, we see that there are symptoms.”

A closer look at the numbers

Because dedicated, global-scale temperature monitoring began only in the 1800s, our records don’t capture climate fluctuations from most of Earth’s history. Due in large part to humans’ industrial output in the 20th century, however, the annual rate at which global surface temperatures have been rising has more than doubled since 1981, report Brady Dennis, Andrew Freedman and John Muyskens for the Washington Post. The repercussions of this trend are reflected in statistics at both local and worldwide scales.

Last year also saw the hottest average ocean temperatures yet recorded. Europe and Australia were among the regions that experienced their warmest years in 2019. Zooming in further, Shahdad, Iran, hit its maximum 2019 temperature on July 2, clocking in at a whopping 127.6 degrees Fahrenheit. These numbers aren’t universal, though. In North America, for instance, last year’s temperatures ranked only 14th in the past 140 years, reports Jeff Masters for Scientific American.

Yearly temperature anomalies from 1880 to 2019, with respect to the average from 1951 to 1980. The past decade has been the warmest ever recorded. (NASA GISS/Gavin Schmidt)

On a global scale, however, 2019 temperatures topped those from 2016 by 0.07 degrees Fahrenheit, according to NASA and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration reports published yesterday. It also bested the long-term average from 1901 to 2000 by 1.71 degrees Fahrenheit, and the average from 1951 to 1980 by 1.78 degrees Fahrenheit. In separate publications, the UK Met Office, Berkeley Earth and Europe’s Copernicus Climate Change Service came to similar conclusions.

The year’s near-record-breaking global warmth is especially surprising because, all else equal, 2019 shouldn’t have been that hot of a year. From January to December, the sun was at a particularly low point in its activity, sending less toasty radiation our way than usual. 2019 also wasn’t a year with a strong El Niño, which, in 2016, pumped a ton of ocean heat into the atmosphere, Scientific American reports.

How did we get here?

So what does help explain 2019’s temperature spike? Human activity. As humans continue to fell carbon-storing trees and burn fossil fuels for transportation, electricity and more, the atmosphere ends up full of gas that’s eager to store heat—hence the term greenhouse gas. A lot of that gas ends up funneled into the oceans, driving up temperatures both in and out of the water.

The world’s temperature undergoes natural fluctuations due a bevy of factors, including wobbles in our planet’s orbit, dips and spikes in the sun’s activity, and massive volcanic eruptions. But what’s happened to the globe since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution is unprecedented. Since the mid-20th century, human-driven changes to climate have driven jumps in Earth’s temperature that can no longer be explained by natural processes alone.

These skyrocketing heat trends have left their mark. As the Guardian reports, data from ice cores suggest today’s temperatures are unprecedented in the last 100,000 years. And atmospheric sampling shows this much carbon dioxide hasn't filled our skies for many millions of years.

Who’s been most affected?

Climate change isn’t picky. The effects of the heat have been diverse and far-reaching, hitting every corner of the globe.

Residents of Alaska experienced their warmest year on record in 2019, the New York Times reports. Across the northerly state, glaciers have melted, ground has thawed, and sea ice-free waters have begun to encroach on shores. The creeping warmth has driven animals like walruses from the region, imperiling the livelihoods of indigenous Alaskans, reported Madeline Fitzgerald for Time magazine last year.

A hop across oceans reveals similarly dire conditions in southern Africa, where the worst drought in decades has triggered crop losses, food shortages and rapidly declining water levels in the region’s life-sustaining rivers.

In Indonesia, the aftermath has already spilled over into 2020, as monsoon rains and floods, fueled by atypically warm ocean water, displace residents by the thousands. Further south, in Australia, wildfires continue to rage across the landscape, sparked by a hot, dry year that parched native vegetation into a carpet of kindling.

No one is immune to these effects, Katharine Hayhoe, an atmospheric scientist at Texas Tech University, tells USA Today's Grace Hauck and Doyle Rice. “Climate change isn’t just a science issue, or an environmental issue,” she says. “It’s a human issue that matters to all of us living on this planet today, whether we know it or not.”

What’s next?

In October 2018, scientists from around the world issued the world a warning: A temperature rise beyond 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels (circa the 1850s) would leave hundreds of millions of people around the world grappling with drought, flooding, extreme heat and increased poverty.

As of January 2020, the globe stands dangerously close to the precipice. The average temperature in 2019 exceeded the average temperature of the latter half of the 19th century by 1.1 degrees Celsius (2 degrees Fahrenheit). And experts grimly project that the next decade could bring much of the same.

But as environmental economist Zeke Hausfather of Berkeley Earth tells the Washington Post, human intervention could still do some good—and perhaps even help stop or reverse these trends. “If we continue emitting [greenhouse gases] at current levels, we will continue warming at about the same rate,” he says. “What happens in the future is really up to us.”

Rivista tecnica di aeronautica e bollettino della Società aeronautica italiana

Smithsonian Libraries
Title from caption.

Also available online.

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The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex / by Charles Darwin ... ; in two volumes ; with illustrations

Smithsonian Libraries
"The word 'evolution' occurs, for the first time in any of Darwin's works, on page 2 of the first volume of the first edition, before its appearance in the sixth edition of The origin of species in the following year" -- Freeman.

Half-title.

"London: Printed by William Clowes and Sons, Limited, Stamford Street and Charing Cross" -- Verso of title page.

Publisher's advertisements on t.p. verso of volume 1 and 16 pages at end of both volumes, dated January 1871.

Errata on verso of title page to volume 2.

Freeman, R.B. Works of Charles Darwin (2nd ed.), no. 937

Garrison, F.H. Medical bibliography (Garrison and Morton) (5th ed.) 170

Osler, W. Bibliotheca Osleriana, 1572

Also available online.

Also issued online.

SCNHRB copy (39088004321303, 39088004321311) has blind-embossed stamp on title page of volume 1: Bureau of American Ethnology Library [acc. no.] 11745. Stamped in red: Bureau of American Ethnology Library 1896. Stamped on verso of title page of volume 2: Smithsonian Institution National Museum Jul 22 [year?] [ms. acc. no.] 227726.

SCNHRB copy bound in original green publisher's cloth, title and gilt ornamental rules on spine.

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Biologische Untersuchungen, von Prof. D:r Gustaf Retzius ... Neue Folge ..

Smithsonian Libraries
Imprint varies: v. 4-5, Stockholm, Samson & Wallin; Berlin, R. Friedländer.--v. 6, Stockholm, Centra-druckerei; Jena, G. Fischer.--v. 7, Jena, G. Fischer.--v. 8-19, Stockholm, Aftonblade's Druckerei; Jena, G. Fischer.

Vol. XIX edited after the author's death by Carl M. Fürst; the author's Swedish manuscript translated by Wilhelm Stach. cf. "Vorwort" to v. 19.

The first series ("Erste folge") was published in Stockholm, 1881-82 (28 cm.)

"Verzeichnis der sämtlichen wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten, von Gustaf Retzius": v. 19, p. [91]-100.

Also available online.

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The crinoids of the Indian Ocean, by Austin Hobart Clark ..

Smithsonian Libraries
Also available online.

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Key West extension, Florida East Coast Railway, opened January 22, 1912

Smithsonian Libraries
Also available online.

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A synonymic catalogue of Orthoptera. By W.F. Kirby ..

Smithsonian Libraries
Also available online.

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The Warbler

Smithsonian Libraries
Description based on: 2nd ser., v. 1, no. 4 (4th quarter 1905); title from cover.

Also available online.

Official organ of the Long Island Natural History Club, 1904; bulletin of the Childs Museum of North Am. Ornithology, 1907-1913.

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Allgemeine Naturgeschichte für alle Stände von Professor Oken

Smithsonian Libraries
Issued in parts

Pagination of each volume: Band 1. viii, xxiii, [1], 860 pages; Band 2. [2], iv, [2], 386 pages; Band 3, Abtheilung. 1. [2], xxx, 702 pages; Band 3, Abtheilung 2. [2], [703]-1448; Band 3, Abtheilung 3. [2], [1449]-2135, [1], 44 pages, 1 leaf; Band 4. [2], 617 pages; Band 5, Abtheilung 1. [2], xiv, 538 pages; Band 5, Abtheilung 2. [2] [539]-1050; Band 5, Abtheilung 3. [2], [1051]-1445, [1] pages; Band 6. [2], v, [1], 698 pages; Band 7, Abtheilung 1. [2], iv, 685, [1] pages; Band 7, Abtheilung 2. [2], viii, [689]-1432 pages; Band 7, Abtheilung 3. [2], [1433]-1872 pages; Universal-Register: [4], 468 pages; Abbildungen [atlas]. [50], 22, [76], 26, [4] pages, 5 leaves, 164 leaves of plates)

The plates are signed by various illustrators, engravers and lithographers. Among the illustrators are Conr. Kull; Ad. Schleich; the engravers include C. Löffler; C. Meier / Maier [that is, Mayer]; the lithographers include I. Rees; St. Schillinger; C. Schach; Th. Soltükow; drawing, engraving and printing of plates by C. Susemihl and Sohn

Atlas text is printed in double columns

Atlas volume has separate title page: Abbildungen zu Oken's allgemeiner Naturgeschichte für alle Stände. Stuttgart : Hoffmann'sche Verlags-Buchhandlung, 1843

Atlas volume has added illustrated title page (not present in the Cullman Library copy)

Anatomical plates have separate title page: "Oken's anatomischer Atlas in Stahlstich", 1840 (not present in the Cullman Library copy)

Anker, J. Bird books and bird art, 375

Nissen, C. Zoologische Buchillustration, 306

Stafleu, F.A. Taxonomic literature (2nd edition), 7047-7048

Also available online.

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SCNHRB has two copies of the text volumes, and one copy of the atlas volume

SCNHRB copy 1 of the text has Band 1 through Band 7, Abtheilung 3, with stamp: Smithsonian Institution National Museum, Stejneger Collection (some volumes include Stejneger's autograph); the autograph of a former owner [M. Matt. Michelin?] appears on the front free endpapers. These volumes have later half-leather bindings with marbled paper boards and blue edges. Copy 1 of the Universal-Register has stamp: Smithsonian Institution National Museum; accession number 185754; with a later brown buckram library binding with gilt-lettered spine and marbled edges

SCNHRB copy 1 of the Atlas lacks the 32 leaves of plates apparently issued as a supplement and present in some copies. Other imperfections in the Atlas copy: Botanik plate VII has damaged edges and is mounted on a blank leaf; Vögel plate 76 has had image 12 cut out and repaired with blank paper; "Infusions-Thierchen" text description pages 19-20 stained along the gutter, slightly affecting text; plates 6-10 are misnumbered as 19-23 and were corrected by hand in pencil

SCNHRB copy 1 of the Atlas is shelved in the folio section in two parts: a volume bound in brown buckram with gilt-lettered spine (39088002916617; 35 cm) and a paperboard portfolio containing three loose plates apparently removed previously from the bound volume: plates XIV, XV and XVI of the "Infusions-Thierchen" section (barcode 39088019929769; 31 x 37 cm)

SCNHRB copy 1 of the bound atlas volume has stamp on the verso of the title page: Smithsonian Institution National Museum, Feb. 6, 1903; accession number 185754

SCNHRB copy 2 of the text has Band 4 through Band 7, Abtheilung 1, with stamps: 1. S.F. Baird; 2. Dr. A.D. Lippe; 3. U.S. National Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Feb. 14, 1882; accession numbers 124539 through 124543; with later brown buckram library bindings with gilt-lettered spines

Le cerveau organe de la pensée chez l'homme et chez les animaux

Smithsonian Libraries
Translation of Brain as an organ of mind.

Also available online.

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Dialogo di Galileo Galilei Linceo matematico sopraordinario dello studio di Pisa. E filosofo, e matematico primario del serenissimo gr. duca di Toscana. Doue ne i congressi di quattro giornate si discorre sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo tolemaico, e copernicano; : proponendo indeterminatamente le ragioni filosofiche, e naturali tanto per l'vna, quanto per l'altra parte

Smithsonian Libraries
Added engraved title page (signed: Stefan Della Bella f): Dialogo di Galileo Galilei Linceo al ser.mo Ferd. II. gran. duca di Toscana..

Suppressed by the Inquisition in 1633.

Collation: 4to: pi⁴ A-2E⁸ 2F⁶ 2G-2K⁴ [$4 (-2F4, 2GHIK3,4) signed; missigning 2B3,4 as 2B2,3]; 250 leaves, pp. [8 unn.] 1-458 [459-460] [32 unn.] + engraved title. Agrees with register, which refers to the unsigned preliminary gathering as [dagger].

Signature register and colophon (same as title page): leaf 2K3v.

Cancel slip: p. 92 (to add a side note).

Printer's device, head- and tail-pieces; initials; side-notes; woodcut diagrams.

Errata: p. [459]-[460].

Includes index.

Final leaf is blank.

Horblit, H.D. Grolier 100 science books, 18c

Dibner Library. Heralds of science (1980 ed.), 8

Carli & Favaro. Bib. galileiana, 128

Cinti, D. Bib. galileiana, 89

Grassi, G. Union cat. of European astronomical observatories, p. 273

Hook & Norman. Haskell F. Norman Lib., 858

Lalande, J.J. Le F. de. Bib. astronomique, p. 198

Osler, W. Bib. Osleriana, 919

Riccardi, P. Bib. matematica, I, col. 511

Sallander, H. Bib. Walleriana, 12043

BL Italian, 17th cent., p. 372

Yale. Cushing Collection, G67

Also available online.

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SCDIRB copy 39088015628373 has p. 389-390 and 393-394 misbound. Page order from 388 is: 388, 391, 392, 389, 390, 395, 396, 393, 394, 397 (and continues in the usual order from there).

SCDIRB copy has the errata leaf, and also the cancel slip pasted on p. 92.

SCDIRB copy has bookplate: Burndy Library ..., gift of Bern Dibner.

SCDIRB copy has an old light green paste-paperboard binding with red gilt-tooled spine labels (wax seal on spine wanting?); re-backed. Housed in a modern gray paperboard portfolio with marbled paper spine, printed spine label, and fabric ties.

SCDIRB copy has bookplate: Smithsonian Institution Libraries. Adopt-a-Book. Gift of Gail Enfiajian in honor of the Enfiajian family grandchildren.

An essay towards a natural history of serpents : in two parts ... : illustrated with copper-plates, engraved by the best hands : the whole intermix'd with variety of entertaining digressions, philosophical and historical / by Charles Owen ..

Smithsonian Libraries
Woodcut head- and tail-pieces, initials.

Signatures: A⁴ a-b⁴ B-2I⁴ 2K².

Errata: p. [viii].

ESTC T99397

Also available online.

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SCNHRB copy (39088015706922) quarter bound in recent teal cloth and calf, title in gilt within darker brown spine label.

Geology of the North American cordillera at the forty-ninth parallel, by Reginald Aldworth Daly. In three parts ..

Smithsonian Libraries
Also published in Canada. Dept. of the Interior. Report of the chief astronomer for 1909/10, v. 2-3.

Also available online.

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Contributions to avian palaeontology from the Pacific coast of North America, by Loye Holmes Miller

Smithsonian Libraries
Cover-title.

Thesis (PH. D.)--University of California, 1912.

Also available online.

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Signed by the author.

A preliminary catalog of the birds of Missouri / Otto Widmann

Smithsonian Libraries
Also available online.

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Text-book of geology. By Sir Archibald Geikie

Smithsonian Libraries
Also available online.

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List of the specimens of dipterous insects in the collection of the British museum

Smithsonian Libraries
Pts. 1-4 paged continuously (1172 p.)

Pts. 5-7 are supplements 1-3; paged continuously (774, [1] p.)

By Francis Walker, edited by John Edward Gray.

Also available online.

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1-24 of 322,892 Resources