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Board of Regents Minutes January 28, 1985

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Board of Regents Minutes May 8, 1989

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Indexes Proceedings of the Board of Regents

Smithsonian Institution Archives

1958 Leather and Oxcart Craftsmanship - Costa Rica

Human Studies Film Archives
Leather and Oxcart Craftsmanship (Costa Rica) (1958): Leather factory and oxcart (carreta) painting -- SILENT FILM CLIP This film clip is from Thayer Soule's travelogue, Rainbow Lands of Central America, archived in the Human Studies Film Archives, Smithsonian Institution. For more information, view the complete catalog record: http://tinyurl.com/HSFAcatalog. For information on Thayer Soule see SIRIS blog post: http://tinyurl.com/qyn6fkd.

This Robotic Hand Stays Cool by Sweating

Smithsonian Magazine

A new robotic hand has a surprisingly humanlike way to cool off: it can sweat. This isn't a traditional all-metal construction bot, in which case oozing water would probably mean something’s going wrong, or pose a threat to the electronics inside. The sweaty robot, described in a new study in Science Robotics, is made of flexible hydrogels.

Hydrogel robots, also called “soft” robots, are useful because they’re less dangerous—say, for example, a factory worker hits their head on one—compared to colliding with something made of metal. But soft robots also come with a different set of engineering challenges.

When a robot does anything that requires energy, it starts to heat up, and if it gets too hot, it will break. Metal can heat up and cool down relatively quickly. But a hydrogel, which is about 50 percent water, is more difficult to cool down once its temperature starts to rise.

Luckily, it’s a problem that had been solved before in nature. Mammals, like humans, are also largely made of water. And in our case, the solution to high temperatures is sweat.

“As is often the case, biology provided an excellent guide for us as engineers,” co-author and materials scientist TJ Wallin, who participated in the research at Cornell but now works at Facebook Reality Labs, said at a press briefing, per the Guardian’s Ian Sample. “It turns out that the ability to perspire is one of the most remarkable features of humans.”

The researchers created hydrogels with multiple layers. A balloon of water that controlled the way each finger bent was placed at the core. Then, the innermost layer was made to shrink above 86 degrees Fahrenheit. The outer layer was full of micron-sized holes that open at the same temperature. When the inner layer shrinks, it rings itself out, and the water leaks out of the micron pores.

At high temperatures, water leaks out of micron-sized pores in the hydrogel. (From “Autonomic Perspiration in 3D-Printed Hydrogel Actuators,” by Anand K. Mishra et al., in Science Robotics, Vol. 5, No. 38; January 29, 2020 via Scientific American)

When set in front of a fan, the sweating robot cooled off six times faster than a robot that didn’t sweat. The cooling was also three times faster than the most efficient sweating mammals: humans and horses, according to a statement.

Perspiration cools us, horses, and robots down because the liquid water in sweat needs some energy in order to evaporate and become gas. The molecules in sweat get their energy from your body heat, and vice versa—when the water evaporates, your skin temperature goes down. The researchers made their robotic skin extra-efficient by making it textured, increasing the amount of surface area that the water can draw energy from. All-in-all, "it's a really great idea," as soft robotics expert Cecilia Laschi of the BioRobotics Institute of Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna in Pisa, Italy, tells Sophie Bushwick at Scientific American.

“I think it’s a really great idea,” says Laschi, who was not involved in the new study. “One of the main contributions of this field is really to make us imagine this kind of robot with lifelike abilities, something that was not possible before, with traditional robotics technology.”

Sweat has two major downfalls for humans, though: it makes our grip slippery, and we need to constantly drink water to not become dehydrated.

The researchers at Cornell confirmed the robots gripping ability with a 3-pronged grabber—more like the claw in an arcade game than a human hand. The claw picked up hot objects and the material reacted to the high temperature by sweating—no extra sensors or electronics required, explains Wallin, per the Guardian. This version of the bot didn’t have a way to take in more water, but the researchers say that a future iteration could. Doing so would provide a natural solution to one of soft robotics' biggest hurdles, says Jonathan Rossiter, head of the soft robotics group at Bristol Robotics Laboratory, who was not invovled in the study.

“If future robots could be cooled naturally and automatically then they could perform much better in a much wider range of environments,” Rossiter tells the Guardian. “Humans can survive in the heat of the Sahara and in the freezing conditions of the Antarctic. Future robotics should be able to do the same.”

1946 Travel Bureaucracy -- Nicaragua-Costa Rica

Human Studies Film Archives
Travel Bureaucracy (Nicaragua-Costa Rica) (1946): Travel red tape in Nicaragua, flight from Nicaragua to Costa Rica, aerial views of Costa Rica -- SILENT FILM CLIP This film clip is from Thayer Soule's travelogue, "The Road to Panama", archived in the Human Studies Film Archives, Smithsonian Institution. For more information, view the complete catalog record: http://tinyurl.com/HSFAcatalog. For information on Thayer Soule see SIRIS blog post: http://tinyurl.com/qyn6fkd.

1976 Nagoya, Japan Part 3

Human Studies Film Archives
1976 Nagoya, Japan, part 3: Nogi Family Home: piano, kitchen, TV set—SILENT FILM CLIP This film clip is from Thayer Soule's travelogue, "Japan", archived in the Human Studies Film Archives, Smithsonian Institution. For more information, view the catalog record: http://tinyurl.com/k79h2vw For information on Thayer Soule see SIRIS blog post http://tinyurl.com/qyn6fkd

Lepidonotus sublevis

NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
TRANSCRIPTION DATA - Locality: Chesapeake Bay: 37 Degrees 46' N., 76 Degrees 10' W.; Station: Blank; Depth: 28 meters; When Collected: Blank; Collected by: M. Wass; Received: 23498; From: M. Pettibone; Remarks: Mud.; Identified By: M. Pettibone; Acc. No.: 234313

Lepidonotus squamatus

NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
TRANSCRIPTION DATA - Locality: Narragansett Approaches, R.I.; Station: C 33, 6 B; Depth: Blank; When Collected: 16232; Collected by: Woods Hole Ocean. Inst. Fouling Studies (Lou Hutchins); Received: 23437; From: M. Pettibone; Remarks: Map no. 8 ; Identified By: M. Pettibone; Acc. No.: 234313

Sthenelais picta

NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
TRANSCRIPTION DATA - Locality: Hadley Harbor, Mass.; Station: Blank; Depth: Blank; When Collected: 19898; Collected by: M. Pettibone; Received: 23529; From: M. Pettibone; Remarks: 1977; Identified By: M. Pettibone; Acc. No.: 234313

Ninoe nigripes

NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
TRANSCRIPTION DATA - Locality: Buzzard Bay, Mass.; Station: Blank; Depth: bet. 18-20 meters; When Collected: Blank; Collected by: Howard Sanders; Received: Blank; From: Blank; Remarks: Silty clay, fine sand.; Identified By: M. Pettibone; Acc. No.: 259821

Heteromastus filiformis

NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
TRANSCRIPTION DATA - Locality: Wellfleet Harbor, Massachusetts; Station: Blank; Depth: Blank; When Collected: Aug. 29, 1954; Collected by: M. Pettibone; Received: 23498; From: M. Pettibone; Remarks: Muddy sand.; Identified By: M. Pettibone; Acc. No.: 234313

Pectinaria australis

NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
TRANSCRIPTION DATA - Locality: Auckland, New Zealand; Station: Blank; Depth: Blank; When Collected: Blank; Collected by: Selwyn J. Whitley; Received: Blank; From: Selwyn J. Whitley; Remarks: Typical of sandier mud flats and shell deposits in cone shaped tube.; Identified By: M. Pettibone; Acc. No.: 261883

Hydroides protulicola

NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
TRANSCRIPTION DATA - Locality: 39 Degrees 01.5' N., 72 Degrees 51.5' W.; Station: 3, tow 4; Depth: Blank; When Collected: 22050; Collected by: A. Merrill; Received: Blank; From: Blank; Remarks: Mud, sand & Shell, 47.4 F; Identified By: M. Pettibone; Acc. No.: 247108

Eunoe oerstedi

NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
TRANSCRIPTION DATA - Locality: Off Henry I., Washington; Station: Blank; Depth: Blank; When Collected: Aug. 10, 1938; Collected by: Blank; Received: 23498; From: M. Pettibone; Remarks: Blank; Identified By: M. Pettibone; Acc. No.: 234313

Harmothoe extenuata

NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
TRANSCRIPTION DATA - Locality: Gulf of Maine, Mt. Desert region; Station: B 32; Depth: 3 ft. UB; When Collected: Aug. 29, 1943; Collected by: Woods Hole Ocean. Inst. Fouling Studies (Lou Hutchins); Received: 23468; From: M. Pettibone; Remarks: Map no. 2; Identified By: M. Pettibone; Acc. No.: 234313

Harmothoe extenuata

NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
TRANSCRIPTION DATA - Locality: Narragansett Approaches, R.I.; Station: C 32; Depth: 95 ft.; When Collected: 16232; Collected by: Woods Hole Ocean. Inst. Fouling Studies (Lou Hutchins); Received: 23468; From: M. Pettibone; Remarks: Map no. 8; Identified By: M. Pettibone; Acc. No.: 234313

Harmothoe extenuata

NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
TRANSCRIPTION DATA - Locality: Gulf of Maine, Mt. Desert region; Station: B 60; Depth: 3 ft. B.; When Collected: Oct. 17, 1944; Collected by: Woods Hole Ocean. Inst. Fouling Studies (Lou Hutchins); Received: 23468; From: M. Pettibone; Remarks: Map no. 2; Identified By: M. Pettibone; Acc. No.: 234313

Harmothoe extenuata

NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
TRANSCRIPTION DATA - Locality: Off E. Vancouver Is., British Columbia; Station: Blank; Depth: 15-30 fms.; When Collected: 12601; Collected by: E. & C. Berkeley; Received: 23498; From: M. Pettibone; Remarks: Blank; Identified By: M. Pettibone; Acc. No.: 234313

Harmothoe extenuata

NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
TRANSCRIPTION DATA - Locality: Narragansett Approaches, R.I.; Station: C 16, 3 B; Depth: Blank; When Collected: Aug. 17, 1943; Collected by: Woods Hole Ocean. Inst. Fouling Studies (Lou Hutchins); Received: 23468; From: M. Pettibone; Remarks: Map no. 8; Identified By: M. Pettibone; Acc. No.: 234313

Potamilla reniformis

NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
TRANSCRIPTION DATA - Locality: 37 Degrees 36.3' N., 74 Degrees 17.1' W.; Station: 5, Tow 5; Depth: 80 fms.; When Collected: 23877; Collected by: A. Merrill; Received: Blank; From: A. Merrill; Remarks: Mud, sand & shell, 51.F.; Identified By: M. Pettibone; Acc. No.: 247108

Marphysa sanguinea

NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
TRANSCRIPTION DATA - Locality: Sippowisset, Massachusetts; Station: Blank; Depth: Blank; When Collected: 19886; Collected by: M. Pettibone; Received: Blank; From: Blank; Remarks: Blank; Identified By: M. Pettibone; Acc. No.: 259821

Marphysa sanguinea

NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
TRANSCRIPTION DATA - Locality: Gallout Point, Beaufort Harbor, N.C.; Station: Blank; Depth: Blank; When Collected: Sept. 14, 1928; Collected by: Schmitt & Shoemaker; Received: Blank; From: Blank; Remarks: Mud Flats; Identified By: M. Pettibone; Acc. No.: 102997

Onuphis eremita

NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
TRANSCRIPTION DATA - Locality: 35 Degrees 22' 50" N., 75 Degrees 25' 00" W.; Station: 2289; Depth: 7 fms.; When Collected: Oct. 20, 1884; Collected by: USFC; Received: Blank; From: Blank; Remarks: Blank; Identified By: M. Pettibone; Acc. No.: Blank
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