Found 649 Learning Lab Collections
This collection provides students the opportunity to dress artist Frida Kahlo in traditional Mexican garb that she favored, the huipil and the quechquemitl.
Frida Kahlo was born in Coyoacan on July 6, 1907. Thoughout her life Frida was a fierce nationalist and a vocal socialist. As a reflection of her beliefs, Frida often wore the indigenous clothing of Mexico. This can be seen both in photographs of her and in her paintings. Frida completed 143 paintings during her lifetime, 55 of which are self-portraits. Many of these self-portaits are among her most famous works.
Most of the costumes Frida wears were hand-woven, as well as hand embroidered and stitched. The colors and many of the symbols used in her work are clearly influenced by Mexican tradition.
She died in 1954.
This collection will examine examples of art as a form of communication between the human and spiritual worlds. These forms of communication may include examples of direct communication — in which an individual or group uses art to speak to and influence the spiritual world — as well as examples that serve to document practices, beliefs, and the place of spiritual practices in society at large.
The form and focus of these communications expressed through art can help to explain the values of particular cultures or individuals, or may serve to question or enforce certain cultural beliefs. This type of art may be the expression of the needs of a social group or culture, such as prehistoric cave paintings that might have functioned in rituals to ensure successful hunts or plentiful game. It may serve to enforce a political agenda such as the Law Code of Hammurabi. Or it may express an individual's personal interpretation and experience of spirituality such as the illustrated poetry of William Blake. However, form does not always imply the expected function: the 19th century English painter and poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti sometimes drew on religious subjects or themes and much of his work has a mysterious and mystical atmosphere. Yet Rossetti, describing his spiritual beliefs, called himself an “art Catholic,” implying that if he engaged in a spiritual dialog through his art, it was with art itself (Faxon, 1989).
This collection will look at examples
from the prehistoric era through the early 20th century. These
examples help to contextualize the inner lives of individuals, and
the collective inner life of the cultures, their environments, wants,
needs, and values, to foster a greater appreciation of and respect
for these peoples and cultures.
Although there is only limited firm evidence of the purpose of cave art found at sites such as Lascaux, Chauvet, and Les Trois-Frères, scholars generally agree that it served some religious purpose. Various theories have been proposed to provide more specific explanations. Cave art, particularly Paleolithic cave art, depicts almost exclusively animals. Hunting was crucial to the survival of early humans, and it is possible that the images were created as part of hunting rituals. Images of animals superimposed over each other many have represented fertility rituals aimed at increasing the amount of game animals. Some images appear to have been deliberately scratched or gouged with spearheads — in some cases blood was painted flowing from these wounds — suggesting that the images may have been intended as a type of sympathetic magic giving hunters power over and protection from large and dangerous animals (Benton & DiYanni, 2012).
Other images are less easy to explain and have given rise to controversial theories such as the bird-faced human figure in the Lascaux Shaft Scene, that combine elements of humans with other animals in a single figure. The Shaft Scene appears to describe a narrative although the exact meaning is not completely clear. A wounded bison stands ready to charge; the animals intestines appear to be pouring out of its abdomen and a spear is shown near its hindquarters. In front of the bison is a stick figure human with a bird's face. The human figure appears to have fallen or been knocked over. Just below this odd figure is a line topped by a bird, perhaps an object belonging to the bird-faced man. This figure and others that combine humans and other animals into one figure such as The Sorcerer in Les Trois-Freres may document early humans' mythology, and could suggest the origins of certain beliefs and practices (Curtis, 2006).
The meaning of the Law Code of Hammurabi is less ambiguous — the spiritual and the legal/political aspects of the culture are united. The stele dates to approximately 1760 BCE and is divided into two sections. The lower section, which takes up the majority of the stele, consists of the code of laws in effect at the time. The relief at the top depicts the Babylonian king Hammurabi receiving the laws from the god Shamash. The implication is clear: the law itself is a religious document and the social rules it describes are the will of the gods — and Hammurabi whose authority is bolstered by the approval of the gods (Benton & DiYanni, 2012).
The spiritual is not always a numinous experience in a cave. Some early laws and social codes were framed as divine communications that enforce social norms and rules — even now, witnesses in courts are generally sworn in by placing their hand on a Bible. Communication with the spiritual in examples such as the Law Code of Hammurabi is aimed at establishing and enforcing order and lending it a weight of legitimacy. It is as critical for the members of an urban culture, such as Babylon, to abide by rules to maintain peace with their neighbors as it was for the Paleolithic peoples to ensure successful hunts. And, kings such as Hammurabi believed it was critical to protect their power. By aligning themselves with gods, they could borrow some of the gods' power in the minds of the people and make rebellion or betrayal a kind of sacrilege. Hammurabi, in fact, was declared a god in his own lifetime (Van De Mieroop, 2005).
Music may also function as a form of communication between gods and humans. In pharaonic Egypt, religious festivals appear to have prominently involved music and dance. Music may have been used in religious rituals to communicate with the gods, invoke deities, or as a medium to transmit offerings. Some instruments were associated with specific deities: the sistrum with Hathor and Isis and the tambourine with Bes. Sistrums may have been played during rituals associated with Hathor to invoke her — and to placate her. Although images of deities playing musical instruments are relatively rare in Egyptian art, Bes is frequently depicted dancing and playing a tambourine. Unlike the other gods, Bes used music to communicate with humans. Bes was associated with the home and family — the front rooms of Egyptian homes appear to have contained shrines to Bes — and he remained a popular deity among the people throughout Egypt's history. Bes was believed to protect people, particularly women in childbirth, by playing music to frighten away evil spirits. Amulets of Bes dancing and playing a tambourine appear to have been a common type of protective amulet worn around the neck. It is worth noting that depictions of Bes differ markedly from depictions of most other Egyptian deities: he is represented in lively motion. In contrast to the image of Egyptian religion based primarily on royal tombs and, therefore, focused on death and the elite members of society, Bes was closely tied to life and the lives of common people (Simmance, n.d.).
Composed by the poet Valmiki in India the fifth century BCE, the Rāmāyana relates the deeds and adventures of Rama, an avatar of Vishnu. According to J. L. Brockington, in Indian tradition the Rāmāyana is designated the ādikāvya, which may be translated as “the first poetic work,” and is regularly referred to as being sung as opposed to spoken in contrast to the Mahābhārata. In one version of the framework story introducing the Rāmāyana, Rama is described as the perfect human being. His behavior is therefore worth emulating, and it is likely that as early as the first millennium BCE that was in a sense being done literally through plays and dances reenacting the story (Brockington, 1998). In that sense, the Rāmāyana represents a complex, evolving dialog, a lived experience of both artistic and spiritual expression.
Euripides' tragic drama The Bacchae is another example of theater acting as a complex dialog between the human and the spiritual worlds. The plot of The Bacchae revolves around the arrival of the god Dionysos in the city of Thebes where his ecstatic worship is opposed by Pentheus, the king of Thebes. As Segal writes, the play is morally ambiguous and may have been designed to implicate the audience in the action. Although Dionysos is a disturbance to Thebes, Pentheus' response is heavy-handed and unsympathetic. However, as the drama unfolds, the audience that may have been rooting for Dionysos is confronted with a climax that sees the god orchestra Pentheus' gruesome death. It is important to note that Dionysos was a well-established and liked god in Athens and that Classical Greek drama was written to be performed during annual festivals in Dionysos' honor. As Vellacott writes, during the festival a statue of Dionysos was brought from a shrine to the amphitheater to watch the plays. As Segal notes, it is unlikely that the play is meant to be critical of Dionysos (his actual worship was much more restrained than depicted in the play or the myths it was based on) but its presentation, at a fundamentally religious festival with the god literally in the audience, could not but have sparked another dialog within the audience, a reflection on their relationship to the god and the sometimes overwhelming forces he represents.
The Temple of Isis at Pompeii declares both the strength of her worshipers' belief and the endurance of her cult in the face of repeated official sanctions. The temple was damaged in an earthquake in 62 AD but was rebuilt by the time of the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD; in fact, it was the only civic building in that area of Pompeii that had been completely rebuilt (Hackworth, 2006). The apparent preference for a foreign goddess in a Roman city is all the more significant in light of imperial persecutions and prohibitions against her worship dating back to Augustus and coming to a head in 19 CE when Emperor Tiberius exiled thousands of freedmen who were adherents of the religion (Heyob, 1975). However, the cult of Isis continued to flourish. By the time of Pompeii's destruction, her worship appears to have included individuals from all classes of society, from members of the imperial family and municipal officials to freedmen and slaves (Takacs, 1995). The remains of the temple can still be seen on the original site and at the nearby Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli. Although Egyptian decoration was incorporated in the design of the temple and cult objects, the plan of the building and the style of the frescoes was Roman (Moorman, 2011). The navigium Isidis fresco appears to show a distinctly Egyptian scene, Isis resurrecting her husband-brother Osiris, but in a purely Roman style. The Pompeiian worshipers of Isis were part of Roman culture but may have been seeking an opportunity to engage in personally meaningful spiritual communication outside of the state-sectioned venues and deified emperors (Hackworth, 2006).
Benton, J. R. & DiYanni, R. (2012). Arts and culture: An introduction to the humanities. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Brockington, J. (1998). The Sanskrit epics. Boston: Brill.
Curtis, G. B. (2006). The cave painters: Probing the mysteries of the world's first artists. (2006). New York: Knopf.
Faxon, A. C. (1989). Dante Gabriel Rossetti. New York: Abbeville Press.
Hackworth, P., L. (2006). The freedman in Roman art and art history. Oxford: Cambridge University Press.
Heyob, S. K. (1975). The cult of Isis among women in the Graeco-Roman world. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
Moorman, E., M. (2011). Divine interiors: Mural paintings in Greek and Roman sanctuaries. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam Press.
Segal, C. (2001). Introduction. In Euripides, Bakkai (3-32). New York: Oxford University Press.
Simmance, E. (n.d.) Communication through music in ancient Egyptian religion. University of Birmingham. Retrieved 2/4/2019 from https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/research/activity/connections/Essays/ESimmance.aspx.
Takacs, S., A. (1995). Isis and Sarapis in the Roman world. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
Van De Mieroop, M. (2005). King Hammurabi of babylon: A biography. Hoboken: Blackwell Publishing.
Vellacott, P. (1959). Introduction. In Aeschylus, The Orestian trilogy (9-40). New York: Penguin.
This collection is intended to be used in a Mythology class. Designed for a 100 level mythology course. The assignments here are classroom specific. They are modifiable to fit any style of classroom, and address a diverse group of learners.
The focus of this collection is Roman architecture. My interest in architecture comes from the time I spent in Italy in 2016. I visited Rome, Florence, and all around Tuscany. As I saw during my stay there, and also what we have learned in class, is that the most important features in Roman architecture were arches and columns. Columns were erected to show victories in wars and arches were pivotal in Rome’s success. Without arches, they wouldn’t have been able to build expansive buildings or roadways from Britain to the Middle East. Aqueducts contain arches which serve as a nice physical feature, as well as hold a strong material in place for many many years. There is so much detail in every piece of architecture and every building tells an individual story. Much of the architecture standing where we are today, tells a story of what we know about Romans.
The second meeting of the third cohort of the SSYAC (2018-2019) will be held at the Smithsonian American Art Museum on November 19, 2018.
We'll meet Stephanie Stebich, Director, SAAM and Renwick Gallery. We'll hear about the history and function of the museum, and think about the role of science in the preservation of art. We'll visit behind-the-scenes at the Lunder Center for Conservation, where Amber Kerr, Chief of Conservation, will share her innovative research using infrared reflectography and ultraviolet-induced luminescence on the paintings of DC-artist Alma Thomas. Ms. Kerr will also talk to the group about the conservation of plastics which make-up the Renwick's Game Fish sculpture.
Our dialogue with the Secretary will focus on:
In today’s world, what are your concerns—both national and at a local community level? How can a cultural institution like the Smithsonian help to address those issues?
SSYAC 2018/2019 Meeting 3 - Smithsonian Institution Libraries - Cullman Natural History (Rare Books)
Leslie Overstreet, Rare Books Curator provides an overview of the Joseph F. Cullman 3rd Library of Natural History—its significance and purpose. We'll view up to ten rare books, and Leslie will provide an overview of their significance, focusing on how art books in this library support scientific research—not just for the natural history museum scientists, but for the entire field of natural history. A discussion with the Secretary follows:
- What role do libraries have today—how has it changed? (SIL mission to save and share our stories for future generations)
- Are public libraries still relevant to teens? What about high school libraries?
- How are libraries adapting themselves to be relevant to youth and teens in a digital world?
Sara Cardello will share examples of youth engagement through the Unstacked Museum in a Box interactive, and Chaptour Guides Program.
In recent years, antisemitism is thought to be a relatively new phenomenon. However, its roots are found much deeper in history: back to Roman times. The collection is based chronologically to follow Antisemitism from its source leading up until the 21st century A.D. My expectation is that these collections will serve as a means to deepen the understanding of Antisemitism found within the Christian culture.
In the first century B.C.E. Cicero (Lawyer, writer and orator) wrote his Pro L. Flacco in defense of his client L. Valerius Flaccus. In defending his client (the governor of Asia), who was accused of embezzlement as well as corruption, Cicero accuses the Jews as the foundations for the conspiracies against his client. Cicero claims that Jews are the "variance" and go directly against the pietas (family, gods and state) Roman culture embraced. Cicero further back up his claim by stating that Roman gods don't even care for them or else the Jews city of Jerusalem would not have been conquered by the Romans and made tribute. In his work Pro L. Flacco he coined the phrase "barbara superstitio." The insult was meant to directly oppose the meaning of pietas; to oppose Rome itself. It wasn't until a century later, when Rome laid siege to Judea, that his anti-Jewish beliefs would take root.
Nearly a hundred years after Cicero first wrote his poisonous anti-Jewish work did Judea rebel against Rome. Emperor Vespasian's son Titus, constructed an army that brutally attacked the city of Jerusalem. There are several explicit records that denote Titus' relentless starvation of Jews, burning of synagogues (while Jews remained inside), outright slaughter of Jews (approximately 600,000 to 1.1 million Jews), and the remainder were sold into slavery. The sacking of Judea was extremely important to the Romans, because it signified their dominance. In celebration of this monumental event, the Arch of Titus was created to depict the sacking of Judea. In the relief, the menorah that Titus took from the Second Temple is displayed as the focus of the sculpture.
During the time of the rebellion, Tacitus constructed his Historiae (70 C.E.) where he demonized Jews for their sacrilegious views of Roman gods. Tacitus created the four pillars that formed the anti-Semitic beliefs. He stated that Jews were affluent, perverted, "out-breeding," and sacrilegious. The way in which Tacitus illuminated the Jews caused the creation of a "mythology". This anti-Jewish mythology deemed Jews as tempting people from their families, religions, and patriotism (all pietas of Roman culture) as a way of destroying all who were not Jewish.
In addition to the Arch of Titus, commemorative coins were also issued as part of the celebration. The coins depict a Roman soldier hovering over a Jewish woman. The anti-Jewish propaganda (the Arch and the coins, among others) allowed this perpetual violence to become palatable among Romans.
In light of the growing anti-Semitic violence, Titus Flavius Josephus, a Jewish scholar during the 1st century A.D., wrote his work Contra Apionem , where he attempted to combat the anti-Jewish propaganda being spewed by the Romans. Much of Josephus argument was founded on past rebellions by Jews (like that in Egypt) and combating agitated Greek philosophers (regarding the spread of Judaism).
In the following century after the conquest of Rome, Jews revolted to take back Judea. Just as the Romans created commemorative coins, so did the Jews. The rebellion was led by Simon Bar Kokhba. However, the Jews took Roman coins and filled them down before being over-struck with their own rebellious images.
Our journey of Antisemitism during the Medieval period starts with the First Crusade in 1095 through 1099. During the First Crusade Christians attacked the Jew's sacred city, Jerusalem, taking the city as theirs. The First Crusade began to recall (if it ever went away) the Roman pillars against Jews. Until the year 1100 Jews were indistinguishable from Christians in artwork. In the early 1100's Jews were given pointed hats to differentiate them in paintings.
The hatred of Jews began to rise in England with the mutilated dead body of William of Norwich in 1144. The crazy rumors surrounding his mutilation formed the myth known as Blood Libel. The myth of the blood libel was seen as the slaughter of young Christian children, where Jews used their blood for religious rites. Not long after, starting in 1150, Jews were demonized in art as well.
The fear of Jews ran rampant throughout Europe. Christians even began to publicly display their hatred on the churches themselves. In 1240, the construction of Notre Dame included statues of Synogoga and Ecclesia, latin for Synagogue and Church. The two women represented more than just the names, they also represented the Christians view on the Jewish religion. Synogoga is depicted as wearing a helmet that covers her eyes (for her inability to "see" the truth), slouching, holding a broken spear (represent the death of Christ; blaming Jews for Christ's death), and the Torah (which she is barely hanging on to). In contrast, Ecclesia is standing straight with a crown (assuming the Christians are now the ones with the royal blood line), a cross staff, as well as a grail or chalice. The grail or chalice is perhaps in representation of the Holy Grail, the vessel believed to catch the blood of Christ during his Crucifixion.
In 1267 two church councils order Jews to wear the pointed hats (as they did in paintings). Around the same time Jews were beginning to be depicted with abnormally large noses as well as with beards. This change of style is easily noted in the illuminated manuscript produced in 1275, called "Jesus before Caiaphas," Jesus (although a Jew) is not pictured with the Jewish nose as the four other men in the illumination are. Also note the two men in the front with the pointed hats.
Churches continued the theme of degradation of Jews in their facades. However, in 1305 they reached an all time low, the Judensau was born. The Judensau is the depiction of Jews suckling a pig. According to Jewish law, pigs are considered to be unclean (not for consumption) and furthers the insult, comparing Jews to swine and claiming they are dirty and unclean peoples.
As the style of art transitioned into the High Renaissance style, the depictions of Jews became further demonized. A late Renaissance painting by Albrecht Durer called "Christ Among the Doctors" notes this demonetization. The Jews are easily noticeable by their horrid appearance.
The persecution of Jews continued across the continent. In Bildchronik of Diebold Schiling illuminated manuscript page, Jews are wearing the pointy hats as well as yellow identifying badges on their clothing while being burned alive at the stakes. One of the many reasons that this hatred was so easily accessible was the invention of the printing press. In a printing from 1596 we can see the reproduction of Martin Luther's 1543 Judensau article, which he pinned on his church door in Wittenberg, Germany.
Jews were being "attacked" by rumors of blood libel, portrayed as wicked in art, portrayed as blind/dumb and unclean on church facades, as well as literature being spread against them, all over the span of 500 years.
#AHMC2019 #antisemitism #medieval #EcclesiaSynogoga #Judensau #JesusBeforeCaiaphas #ChristAmongDoctors #BildchronikofDieboldSchiling #PrintingpressJudensau #AntisemitismRomans #Cicero #ArchofTitus #BustofJosephus #RomanCommerorativeCoins #Tacitus #Barkokhbacoins
Chinese American designer and artist Maya Lin (b. 1959) achieved national recognition as a Yale University undergraduate student when her design for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial won a national competition.
In this activity, students will analyze a unique artwork-filled room designed by Maya Lin, first using only a still visual with little context, then a hyperlapse video of the artwork's installation, then the artist herself discussing her process, materials used, and vision. Students will make predictions based on visuals, gradually learn about the context of the artwork, and reflect on how their perception of the artwork changed with the addition of new information.
This activity can be used as an entry point into studying Maya Lin's artwork and other artworks inspired by experiences with the natural environment. This activity opens with a Project Zero See-Think-Wonder routine and asks learners to look closely, prior to revealing additional contextual information. To learn more about other Asian Pacific American Artists, visit this collection: https://learninglab.si.edu/collections/asian-pacific-american-artists/bW68eE1p6kHVzsC7#r
This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Asian Pacific American Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center.
Keywords: Chesapeake Bay, Maya Lin, Asian American, marbles, Renwick Gallery, waterways
The focus of this collection is to accurately depict Ancient Greece culture and inform the reader on, the cultural significance of the artwork , architecture, gods, and individuals who lived in Ancient Greece. I have always had a fascination with Ancient Greece and the influence it left on the world. I think they are one of the most beautiful cultures to ever exist and the people from this time left a lasting impact on the world around us.
The first two pieces of my collection include two busts; one of Zeus and one of Aphrodite. They are both vital parts of Greek mythology and were highly respected by the Ancient Greeks at the time. Zeus was the the king of all the gods and was believed to live on top of mount olympus. Aphrodite was the Greek goddess of beauty. An interesting fact about Aphrodite is that in some Greek myths she was known as the mother of Eros (Cupid).
The next two pieces of my collection include sculptures of Alexander the Great and Achilles. Alexander the great was born in Pella where is father was king and controlled Macedonian Army. Due to the success of his father Alexander inherited one of the most powerful Armies of the time which allowed him to expand his empire even further. Achilles is the protagonist of the Iliad a story created by Homer. The significance of Achilles is he was grabbed by the heels and dipped in a river which turns him immortal. However, since his heels did not touch the water and later on he was hit by an arrow in that spot which led to his downfall.
The the last two pieces of my collection contain Ancient Greek architecture. One of the pieces I specifically wanted to focus on the columns since they were such a pivotal part of Ancient Greek architecture. They created three types of columns corinthian, doric and Ionic. The second piece of architecture I include was the Parthenon. This piece of architecture was on the Athenian Acropolis, and was dedicated to Athena, who the people of Athens thought was their patron
1. “Parthenon Facts.” Math, www.softschools.com/facts/ancient_civilizations/parthenon_facts/2231/.
2. “Aphrodite • Facts and Information on Greek Goddess Aphrodite.” Greek Gods & Goddesses, greekgodsandgoddesses.net/goddesses/aphrodite/.
3. Cartwright, Mark. “Column.” Ancient History Encyclopedia, Ancient History Encyclopedia, 11 Feb. 2019, www.ancient.eu/column/.
4. Smithsonian American Art Museum, Smithsonian Institution. “Smithsonian Learning Lab Resource: Psyche.” Smithsonian Learning Lab, Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, 2 Nov. 2015. learninglab.si.edu/q/r/118194. Accessed 12 Feb. 2019.
In this activity, students will examine a painting of individuals participating in the Bracero Program, the largest guest-worker program in US history. Started in 1942 as a temporary war measure to address labor demands in agriculture and railroads, the program allowed Mexican nationals to take temporary agricultural work in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, and 24 other states. By the time the program ended in 1964, over 4.6 million contracts were awarded.
Using a Project Zero Global Thinking Routine - "Step In - Step Out - Step Back" - students will examine the perspectives of those depicted in the painting, consider what it means to take the perspectives of others, and explore avenues and methods to learn more about Braceros. Resources for learning more, including a collection of photographs documenting the Bracero Program, are located at the end of the collection.
Keywords: mexican, immigration, work, migration, migrant workers, agriculture, reform, politics, government, photojournalism, activity, inquiry strategy, global competency, global competence, latino, chicano, 1940s, 40s, 1950s, 50s, 1960s, 60s
A collection of photography and paintings that highlight the beauty of the music and art that took place during the Harlem Renaissance within Harlem, New York. A birthplace to one of the greatest black cultural and artistic explosions known to date.
In this collection I am exploring the themes of art, literature, music, and philosophy of Greek civilization. I think this is interesting topic to explore because I have always enjoyed learning about Greek civilization and how they invented many things in antiquity. Ancient Greece had many different times period starting from Geometric to Archaic then to Classical and ending in the Hellenistic Period. Throughout these periods many types of art was created.
This collection is meant to showcase the different kinds of beauty in the Ancient world, specifically from Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Greece. The collection demonstrates that some beauty ideals from fashion to make-up adapted to fit each culture and are still present today. #AHMC2019
The focus of this collection is gender and how it was portrayed in Ancient Greek art. We're going to be exploring the role that women served back in the time period of Ancient Greece compared to men. We'll be looking at different statuary and comparing how women appear in them compared to men, as well. From viewing different pieces in this collection, you will be able to notice how in nude statues, the women were mildly nude because they couldn't bare it all, while men could. It shows how society had no issue with the nude male body, but when it came to the female nude body, it couldn't be fully exposed. It was appropriate to be a little exposed, but any more than that and it would be distasteful. This collection will also explore how men were known to have such brute strength, while the role of women was that of seductresses and causing trouble for men by tempting them.
This collection is great for people who are interested in the subject of gender portrayals and how men and women are perceived differently. It is an interesting learning aid, because people may only believe that women and men were just treated differently in society, and perhaps didn't know that the divide between male and female was also seen in pieces of art work and in writings.
This collection will explore the subdivided phases of the history and culture of Greece. Around 1000 B.C.E the Greeks mainland began to forge a new civilization that would culminate in the fifth century in the achievements of Classical Athens. Greece in the intervening centuries was subdivided into several phases: the Geometric period, the Orientalizing period, a period of Greek colonization and contact with the East, and the Archaic period. Greek culture was finally able to flourish and that cultural, artistic, and political foundations of modern western civilization were laid.
Tiles in this collection will show different aspects of each historic phase of Greece. Greek mythology played an enormous role in much of their art, culture and music. Many cultural traditions come from this such as Greek myths that served as the basis for religious cults, which created a sense of community among disparate groups that comprised the Greek populace. Oral tradition of lyric poetry was well known before the first verse was written down. Lyric poetry was originally sung, accompanied by the stringed instrument and the lyre. The art in Greece was constantly showcasing their beliefs and culture throughout all forms of art.
This collection is meant to be a helpful tool for anyone who is interested in learning about how the Greeks saw the beauty in all things. For anyone that reads it they will hopefully see the creative ways they showcased many different aspects of their culture.
This collection of art, music, philosophy and literature explores the culture of Ancient Greece, but specifically the Classical and Hellenistic periods of Ancient Greek culture. The purpose of this particular collection is to show an audience how special and influential the Ancient Greek culture was when it existed and also to show how influential their culture was to our values in the world today. The intended audience for this collection is anybody who truly appreciates the arts. This collection shows one of the most influential cultures every known for art, music, literature and philosophy, therefore anybody study art or anybody who just simply enjoys art should be intrigued by these selections.
Sculpture was so important to Ancient Greek artwork, therefore, this collection contains a healthy portfolio of sculptures that does not only show off the art form itself, but also shows one extremely significant figure of the time period, Plato. Plato was and still is (though obviously deceased) one of the most philosophical and influential figures of the world. One sculpture is a bowl made with that face of maenad. Maenad is a term learned to mean female followers Dionysus, who is the greek god of grape-harvest. This particular piece was quite interesting because it differed from the rest of the sculptures in the way that it does not portray a head or body, but yet the practical significance of the piece still exists. The Boy with Thorn was profound to me because it's symbolistic of something simpler than the rest. The sculpture portrays a young boy that it trying to remove a large thorn from the sole of his foot. Perhaps the unknown artist of this ancient piece was trying to reach a much deeper meaning for their audience or perhaps the artist was reminiscing on childhood memories, but either way, I find the piece to be quite impressive in it's uniqueness.
The final two pieces of this particular collection differ from the other four in that they are not sculptures, but instead paintings. These paintings give us a bit of insight into classical and hellenistic greek society, specifically literary and musical aspects. The first is portraying Greek musicians playing what is called a hydraulis. The hydraulis was similar to what we now know as an organ piano. The instrument would have been extremely loud and is thought to have been used primarily for outdoor entertainment. The final piece of this Classical and Hellenistic Greek collection is a painting that is portraying the Ancient Library of Alexandria. In the painting one can see men carrying and reading scrolls throughout the room while one man, perhaps a librarian, is up on a ladder either removing a scroll from the shelf or putting scrolls away. I believe this painting is quite important to understanding Ancient Greek society because it shows how important literature was to noble people who had the resources to learn the arts of reading and writing. Intelligence, literature and philosophy had come along way since then but this ancient society had an impressive amount of influence on the way the world has developed today.
Britannica, T. E. (2016, March 10). Hydraulis. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/art...
Classical Greek society. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/hu...
El-Abbadi, M. (2018, September 27). Library of Alexandria. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/top...
Ferguson, J. (2016, October 07). Hellenistic age. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/eve...
Mark, J. J. (2019, February 08). Plato. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/plato/
Sakoulas, T. (n.d.). History of Ancient Greece: Classical Greece. Retrieved from https://www.ancient-greece.org...
Sakoulas, T. (n.d.). History of Greece: Hellenistic. Retrieved from https://www.ancient-greece.org...
This collection is meant to showcase and demonstrate the importance and impact of performance arts throughout history. Music will be the focus but any type of performance may be used to establish the value of performance arts.
I come from a family of very strong and independent women, and I was raised in a feminist household and was taught that there is power in femininity. When I began at UMASS online, I immediately chose Gender Studies as one of my concentrations as I am fascinated with woman’s evolution through time. While we are only just now on the brink of true equality, there are some examples from specific cultures in history that show the power of women. I chose to look closely at Egypt from its earliest cultures through the New Kingdom. My hope is that this collection will exemplify the power that was evident in a woman in this time period. My main sources of study were Arts and Culture: An Introduction to the Humanities, and the Smithsonian Lab.
Visual art can be an influential force. I feel that it is a direct and tangible example of how the artist sees it’s subject (person, place, object, thought or idea), and that perception is molded by culture, values, lessons, and history. Reactions to visual art can spark debate, deeper thought, an emotional response, or even desire to learn more about the culture or time period it was created. I hope what I have put together here will spark one of those things in my viewers. I really hope that it will put our view of women into perspective. We have evolved so much since this time in our thoughts of equality, worth, capability, representation and I hope to show that in following collections with examples from different cultures and time periods.
In Arts and Culture: An Introduction to the Humanities there is a section in Chapter 1 about Queen Hatshepsut and how she was viewed as a powerful and important ruling figure in a male dominated world. I think this is important to note as we don’t read very much about women figureheads during this time. She was respected, trusted, and listened to. She was valued by her people which is exemplified in her tomb. It is described in the text as, “constructed of repeated elements- colonnaded terraces with columnar porticoes…halls, and private chambers. The three terraces are connected by ramps to the cliff…These chambers are chapels to the god Amen; to the cow-headed goddess Hathor, who protects the dead; and to the queen herself…sculpture was used lavishly; there were perhaps two hundred statues in Hatshepsut’s funerary temple” (Benton 27). It bears noting the love and respect for one woman in 1458 B.C.E. Women were also praised in the form of goddesses, ruling over things such as truth, justice, order, hunt, etc.
What I have put together in this collection represents the significance of women at this point in history.
Benton, Janetta Rebold, and Robert DiYanni. Arts and Culture: an Introduction to the Humanities. Pearson, 2014.
From the beginning of mankind, since our lives began on this earth, humankind has preserved its norm of following a system of faith and worshipping something, whether it be some deity or something materialistic existing in the world with us with hopes of some kind of personal gains. Religion has certainly evolved massively from the beginning of our existence in this universe, and art has had and still has a significant impact on our relationship with religion and it helps us make connections between the belief in some kind of God, atheism, and all other forms of beliefs. It helps to understand religion in ancient times versus modern ways of following religion. This collection will be looking at the evolution of religion through the perception of art in various forms, throughout the different ages of mankind and the way religion has developed over the course of time.
The Romans conquered the world in the middle of the third century B.C. and gained the sovereignty over the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea.The Roman Empire is militarily successful, but compared with the remarkable achievements in politics and literature, its achievements in visual art seem to lack an independent and complete feature.The main reason is that the Romans highly admire and carefully imitate Greek art. They not only import a large number of works from Greece, but also imitate them. Even in their own works, the sign of Greek art can still be seen clearly.
On the other hand, because the Romans greatly emphasize the practicality of art rather than creativity, Roman art, whether in architecture, sculpture, or painting, is often copied from Greek works or takes what is good and puts it to its own use. The only ones that can be said to have Roman style are the portraits of people after the late republican period. Different from the aestheticism and elegance of Greek portraits, these Roman portraits resemble real people and are mainly used for memorial purposes. Although they have no profound aesthetic expression, they have left a vivid look of contemporary Roman celebrities.
In the early Rome, the country was founded on agriculture, so the whole society advocated such virtues as diligence, endurance, frugality, etc. However, it constantly invaded the outside world in the republican era,so the discipline of the army derived the requirement for obedience and law-abiding. Among which, the emphasis on the law and the achievements of the rule of law had a great contribution to the civilization of later generations.
Such a character is a practical spirit shown in life, thought, and art.Therefore, among the works of art left over from the Roman period, it is its public works that are best known, such as the roads, water supply pipes, public bathhouses, coliseums and so on.These huge and magnificent buildings were all built for practical purposes, and have all kinds of ingenious architectural techniques. Even in today, their ruins still make people amazing.
This collection explores the importance and significance of pyramids in the Egyptian culture. Throughout this collection, not only will we learn about the pyramids, but we will also realize the connection that runs between religion, music and art that can be found in relation to the early Egyptian pyramids. My collection explores the Early Egyptian culture and the important aspects of the culture that stem from the significance of pyramids. It contains the structure of the pyramids (exterior and interior), religious texts found in the pyramids, the funeral procession and what that entails (music, prayer/priests and dancing) and the different types of pyramids. (I added a few extra pics just for reference).
This collection explores the roles of art, architecture, music, literature and philosophy in the polytheistic cultures of the Ancient World. It contains examples of the influence of polytheism throughout the Ancient world and is targeted towards those with a curiosity towards this concept.
Societies as early as the Sumerian and Mesopotamian cultures express ideas of polytheism. Sculpture from these early cultures depicts anthropomorphic versions of their gods, and ruins of ziggurats, or early Sumerian temples, also provide evidence of polytheistic values. The Sumerian people constructed individual temples to worship their gods with each one housing a statue of the honored god.
The idea of architecture and sculpture as homages to the gods continues throughout antiquity. The Ancient Greeks erected the Erichthonius Temple, with its exquisitely carved caryatid support sculptures, on the Acropolis in Athens Greece to honor the Goddess Athena and the magnificent Roman Pantheon initially served as a place of worship of the gods by the Roman people.
Literature and music also depict themes of polytheism in the Ancient World. Evidence found on ancient vessels, ruins and artwork suggests that music was performed as part of religious ceremonies in Ancient Egypt. The Greeks utilized music in their theatrical performances and religious rites going so far as to develop various modes of music still employed today. Various musical modes would be performed to reinforce themes of theatrical performances or religious ceremonies. The emergence of early Greek drama helped to reinforce polytheistic ideals with performances intended to celebrate and appease the gods. Earliest examples of Greek drama are plays that were performed in celebration of Dionysus, the god of wine and fertility and other Gods.
“Polytheism.” AllAboutHistory.org, www.allabouthistory.org/polytheism.htm. Accessed 2 Feb. 2019.
“An Introduction to... Ancient Greek Theatre.” An Introduction to... Ancient Greek Theatre | APGRD, www.apgrd.ox.ac.uk/learning/an-introduction-to/an-introduction-to-ancient-greek-theatre. Accessed 2 Feb. 2019.
“An Introduction to... Ancient Greek Theatre.” An Introduction to... Ancient Greek Theatre | APGRD, www.apgrd.ox.ac.uk/learning/an-introduction-to/an-introduction-to-ancient-greek-theatre. Accessed 3 Feb. 2019.
Benton, Janetta Rebold, and Robert DiYanni. Arts and Culture: an Introduction to the Humanities: Combined Volume. 4th ed., Prentice Hall, 2012.
Black, J. A. Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 119, no. 4, 1999, pp. 698–698. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/604860. Accessed 2 Feb. 2019
Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Erechtheum.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2 May 2016, www.britannica.com/topic/Erechtheum. Accessed 2 Feb. 2019.
Cartwright, Mark. “Caryatid.” Ancient History Encyclopedia, Ancient History Encyclopedia, 9 Feb. 2019, www.ancient.eu/Caryatid/.
Lloyd, Ellen. “Mysterious Sumerian Statues With Big Blue Eyes - A Sign From The Gods.” Ancient Pages, Ancient Pages, 6 Jan. 2019, www.ancientpages.com/2017/02/23/mysterious-sumerian-statues-big-blue-eyes-sign-gods/. Accessed 3 Feb. 2019.
Nasios, Angelo, and Angelo Nasios. “The Hearth of Hellenism: Did the Philosophers Believe in God?” Patheos, Patheos, 2 Oct. 2017, www.patheos.com/blogs/agora/2017/10/hearth-hellenism-2-2/. Accessed 3 Feb. 2019.
Stele (Wood; painted; ht. 12").. Artstor, https://corvette.salemstate.ed...
Statue (gypsum, shell, lapis lazuli, bitumen; ht. 36 1/4").. Early Dynastic IIIb; 2500-2400 B.C.. Artstor, https://corvette.salemstate.ed...
Vessel (krater; red-figure).. ca. 420-400 B.C.. Artstor, https://corvette.salemstate.ed...
Maerten van Heemskerck. Frontal View of the Pantheon [Ansicht des Pantheons von vorn]. ca. 1532-36. Artstor, https://corvette.salemstate.ed...
Ronny Siegel [CC BY 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], from Wikimedia Commons, 2/10/19 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
Music and dance have probably always been an integral part of life. They serve to unite and harmonize people, and inspire our lives. There are many types of music and dance, some of which are highlighted in this collection. It starts with Ancient Egyptians and works its way up. There are many purposes and reasons why people dance, with each type of dance either exhibiting a message, or simply imparting inspiration and happiness. Visual images such as these, have given us knowledge that dancing has probably existed for all of human existence.
Established in the mid-19th century, several of the earliest additions to the NNC were artifacts from Japan, Korea, and China, including coins and medals gifted to President Ulysses S. Grant from Japanese Emperor Meiji (received in 1881) and the 2,025 East Asian coins, amulets, and notes from George Bunker Glover’s private collection (received in 1897). These donations were the foundation of the NNC’s East Asian holdings, which continues to grow with new acquisitions, such as the Howard F. Bowker collection in 2017.