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Found 299 Collections

 

Communication with the spiritual in ancient to modern art

This collection will examine examples of art as a form of communication between the human and spiritual worlds. These forms of communication may include examples of direct communication — in which an individual or group uses art to speak to and influence the spiritual world — as well as examples that serve to document practices, beliefs, and the place of spiritual practices in society at large.

The form and focus of these communications expressed through art can help to explain the values of particular cultures or individuals, or may serve to question or enforce certain cultural beliefs. This type of art may be the expression of the needs of a social group or culture, such as prehistoric cave paintings that might have functioned in rituals to ensure successful hunts or plentiful game. It may serve to enforce a political agenda such as the Law Code of Hammurabi. Or it may express an individual's personal interpretation and experience of spirituality such as the illustrated poetry of William Blake. However, form does not always imply the expected function: the 19th century English painter and poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti sometimes drew on religious subjects or themes and much of his work has a mysterious and mystical atmosphere. Yet Rossetti, describing his spiritual beliefs, called himself an “art Catholic,” implying that if he engaged in a spiritual dialog through his art, it was with art itself (Faxon, 1989).

This collection will look at examples from the prehistoric era through the early 20th century. These examples help to contextualize the inner lives of individuals, and the collective inner life of the cultures, their environments, wants, needs, and values, to foster a greater appreciation of and respect for these peoples and cultures.

Although there is only limited firm evidence of the purpose of cave art found at sites such as Lascaux, Chauvet, and Les Trois-Frères, scholars generally agree that it served some religious purpose. Various theories have been proposed to provide more specific explanations. Cave art, particularly Paleolithic cave art, depicts almost exclusively animals. Hunting was crucial to the survival of early humans, and it is possible that the images were created as part of hunting rituals. Images of animals superimposed over each other many have represented fertility rituals aimed at increasing the amount of game animals. Some images appear to have been deliberately scratched or gouged with spearheads — in some cases blood was painted flowing from these wounds — suggesting that the images may have been intended as a type of sympathetic magic giving hunters power over and protection from large and dangerous animals (Benton & DiYanni, 2012).

Other images are less easy to explain and have given rise to controversial theories such as the bird-faced human figure in the Lascaux Shaft Scene, that combine elements of humans with other animals in a single figure. The Shaft Scene appears to describe a narrative although the exact meaning is not completely clear. A wounded bison stands ready to charge; the animals intestines appear to be pouring out of its abdomen and a spear is shown near its hindquarters. In front of the bison is a stick figure human with a bird's face. The human figure appears to have fallen or been knocked over. Just below this odd figure is a line topped by a bird, perhaps an object belonging to the bird-faced man. This figure and others that combine humans and other animals into one figure such as The Sorcerer in Les Trois-Freres may document early humans' mythology, and could suggest the origins of certain beliefs and practices (Curtis, 2006).

The meaning of the Law Code of Hammurabi is less ambiguous — the spiritual and the legal/political aspects of the culture are united. The stele dates to approximately 1760 BCE and is divided into two sections. The lower section, which takes up the majority of the stele, consists of the code of laws in effect at the time. The relief at the top depicts the Babylonian king Hammurabi receiving the laws from the god Shamash. The implication is clear: the law itself is a religious document and the social rules it describes are the will of the gods — and Hammurabi whose authority is bolstered by the approval of the gods (Benton & DiYanni, 2012).

The spiritual is not always a numinous experience in a cave. Some early laws and social codes were framed as divine communications that enforce social norms and rules — even now, witnesses in courts are generally sworn in by placing their hand on a Bible. Communication with the spiritual in examples such as the Law Code of Hammurabi is aimed at establishing and enforcing order and lending it a weight of legitimacy. It is as critical for the members of an urban culture, such as Babylon, to abide by rules to maintain peace with their neighbors as it was for the Paleolithic peoples to ensure successful hunts. And, kings such as Hammurabi believed it was critical to protect their power. By aligning themselves with gods, they could borrow some of the gods' power in the minds of the people and make rebellion or betrayal a kind of sacrilege. Hammurabi, in fact, was declared a god in his own lifetime (Van De Mieroop, 2005).

Music may also function as a form of communication between gods and humans. In pharaonic Egypt, religious festivals appear to have prominently involved music and dance. Music may have been used in religious rituals to communicate with the gods, invoke deities, or as a medium to transmit offerings. Some instruments were associated with specific deities: the sistrum with Hathor and Isis and the tambourine with Bes. Sistrums may have been played during rituals associated with Hathor to invoke her — and to placate her. Although images of deities playing musical instruments are relatively rare in Egyptian art, Bes is frequently depicted dancing and playing a tambourine. Unlike the other gods, Bes used music to communicate with humans. Bes was associated with the home and family — the front rooms of Egyptian homes appear to have contained shrines to Bes — and he remained a popular deity among the people throughout Egypt's history. Bes was believed to protect people, particularly women in childbirth, by playing music to frighten away evil spirits. Amulets of Bes dancing and playing a tambourine appear to have been a common type of protective amulet worn around the neck. It is worth noting that depictions of Bes differ markedly from depictions of most other Egyptian deities: he is represented in lively motion. In contrast to the image of Egyptian religion based primarily on royal tombs and, therefore, focused on death and the elite members of society, Bes was closely tied to life and the lives of common people (Simmance, n.d.).

Composed by the poet Valmiki in India the fifth century BCE, the Rāmāyana relates the deeds and adventures of Rama, an avatar of Vishnu. According to J. L. Brockington, in Indian tradition the Rāmāyana is designated the ādikāvya, which may be translated as “the first poetic work,” and is regularly referred to as being sung as opposed to spoken in contrast to the Mahābhārata. In one version of the framework story introducing the Rāmāyana, Rama is described as the perfect human being. His behavior is therefore worth emulating, and it is likely that as early as the first millennium BCE that was in a sense being done literally through plays and dances reenacting the story (Brockington, 1998). In that sense, the Rāmāyana represents a complex, evolving dialog, a lived experience of both artistic and spiritual expression.

Euripides' tragic drama The Bacchae is another example of theater acting as a complex dialog between the human and the spiritual worlds. The plot of The Bacchae revolves around the arrival of the god Dionysos in the city of Thebes where his ecstatic worship is opposed by Pentheus, the king of Thebes. As Segal writes, the play is morally ambiguous and may have been designed to implicate the audience in the action. Although Dionysos is a disturbance to Thebes, Pentheus' response is heavy-handed and unsympathetic. However, as the drama unfolds, the audience that may have been rooting for Dionysos is confronted with a climax that sees the god orchestra Pentheus' gruesome death. It is important to note that Dionysos was a well-established and liked god in Athens and that Classical Greek drama was written to be performed during annual festivals in Dionysos' honor. As Vellacott writes, during the festival a statue of Dionysos was brought from a shrine to the amphitheater to watch the plays. As Segal notes, it is unlikely that the play is meant to be critical of Dionysos (his actual worship was much more restrained than depicted in the play or the myths it was based on) but its presentation, at a fundamentally religious festival with the god literally in the audience, could not but have sparked another dialog within the audience, a reflection on their relationship to the god and the sometimes overwhelming forces he represents.

The Temple of Isis at Pompeii declares both the strength of her worshipers' belief and the endurance of her cult in the face of repeated official sanctions. The temple was damaged in an earthquake in 62 AD but was rebuilt by the time of the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD; in fact, it was the only civic building in that area of Pompeii that had been completely rebuilt (Hackworth, 2006). The apparent preference for a foreign goddess in a Roman city is all the more significant in light of imperial persecutions and prohibitions against her worship dating back to Augustus and coming to a head in 19 CE when Emperor Tiberius exiled thousands of freedmen who were adherents of the religion (Heyob, 1975). However, the cult of Isis continued to flourish. By the time of Pompeii's destruction, her worship appears to have included individuals from all classes of society, from members of the imperial family and municipal officials to freedmen and slaves (Takacs, 1995). The remains of the temple can still be seen on the original site and at the nearby Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli. Although Egyptian decoration was incorporated in the design of the temple and cult objects, the plan of the building and the style of the frescoes was Roman (Moorman, 2011). The navigium Isidis fresco appears to show a distinctly Egyptian scene, Isis resurrecting her husband-brother Osiris, but in a purely Roman style. The Pompeiian worshipers of Isis were part of Roman culture but may have been seeking an opportunity to engage in personally meaningful spiritual communication outside of the state-sectioned venues and deified emperors (Hackworth, 2006).

References

Benton, J. R. & DiYanni, R. (2012). Arts and culture: An introduction to the humanities. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Brockington, J. (1998). The Sanskrit epics. Boston: Brill.

Curtis, G. B. (2006). The cave painters: Probing the mysteries of the world's first artists. (2006). New York: Knopf.

Faxon, A. C. (1989). Dante Gabriel Rossetti. New York: Abbeville Press.

Hackworth, P., L. (2006). The freedman in Roman art and art history. Oxford: Cambridge University Press.

Heyob, S. K. (1975). The cult of Isis among women in the Graeco-Roman world. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Moorman, E., M. (2011). Divine interiors: Mural paintings in Greek and Roman sanctuaries. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam Press.

Segal, C. (2001). Introduction. In Euripides, Bakkai (3-32). New York: Oxford University Press.

Simmance, E. (n.d.) Communication through music in ancient Egyptian religion. University of Birmingham. Retrieved 2/4/2019 from https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/research/activity/connections/Essays/ESimmance.aspx.

Takacs, S., A. (1995). Isis and Sarapis in the Roman world. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Van De Mieroop, M. (2005). King Hammurabi of babylon: A biography. Hoboken: Blackwell Publishing.

Vellacott, P. (1959). Introduction. In Aeschylus, The Orestian trilogy (9-40). New York: Penguin.

#AHMC2019

Nicole Votta
8
 

PT 1 Triumph and Tragedy: American Industry

This collection brings together EDSITEment and Smithsonian resources to support the initial research into a project for National History Day 2019, "Triumph and Tragedy in History."

These resources - including photographs, objects, portraits, lesson plans, and articles - explore triumphs and tragedies in American industrialization from the late 18th century through the early 20th century.  Resources highlight influential industrialists called "captains of industry" by some and "robber barons" by others, catastrophes that occurred as a result of rapid industrialization, labor leaders who fought successfully for the rights of laborers dismal conditions, the origins of child labor laws, leading inventors and their inventions, and other important topics. The second tile of this collection contains questions to help with the analysis of photograph, document, artwork, portrait, and object resources. 

By no means is this collection comprehensive; instead, it provides a launching point for further research.

This collection was created in collaboration with EDSITEment, a website for K-12 educators from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

Share your National History Day collections and let us know what you think! Write to us on Twitter: @EDSITEment & @SmithsonianLab, #NHD2019. If you publish a collection on your National History Day topic, be sure to enter #NHD2019 in the description!

Tags: strike, protest, union, andrew carnegie, john d. rockefeller, j.p. morgan, cornelius vanderbilt, henry clay frick, helen frick, andrew w. mellon, newsies, newsboys, child labor reform, thomas alva edison, incandescent lamp, nikola tesla, electric motor, electric power, alexander graham bell, telephone, christopher latham sholes, c. lathan sholes, carlos glidden, samuel soule, typewriter, triangle shirtwaist factory fire, pinkerton national detective agency, matewan massacre, wall street bombing of 1920, boston molassses disaster, asa philip randolph, a. philip randolph, john llewellyn lewis, john l. lewis, frances perkins, samuel gompers i.l.g.w.u, international ladies garment workers union, david dubinsky, company towns, #NHD

Heather Sorrell
25
 

Origins: U.S. Constitution

#SJ2019LP

Matthew Montes
30
 

Pigs!

Some of my favorite pigs, hogs, and boars from across the Smithsonian collection.

Darren Milligan
54
 

Exploring the Amazing World of Lichens

This collection supports the free Smithsonian Science How webcast, Exploring the Amazing World of Lichens featuring Dr. Manuela Dal Forno, scheduled for March 28, 2019. Manu is a scientist at the Smithsonian who studies lichens, a lichenologist. She collects lichens from all over the world, depositing them into the U.S. National Herbarium, which is located at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History. Manu identifies the lichens she collects with observations of how the lichen looks, their DNA data and where they were found.

Lichens are a symbiotic relationship between algae and fungus. They have been on earth for millions of years, living on rocks, trees, and soil in all different habitats on all seven continents. Even though lichens are all around us, scientists are still learning about what they are, where they live, and how many different species of lichens there are.

Fungus is any group of spore-producing organisms feeding on organic matter, and include molds, yeast, mushrooms, and toadstools. Algae is a simple, non-flowering plant. Algae contain chlorophyll and produce sugar through photosynthesis, like other plants, but do not have true stems, roots, leaves, or vascular tissue like most other plants. Lichenization is a fungal lifestyle, and therefore the name of lichen is the name of the fungus component.

When you look at a lichen, what you’re looking at is the “house” that the fungus and algae grow together. Scientists call this house a “thallus.” When algae and fungus come together to form this house, we see a lichen. This partnership is called a symbiotic relationship, because it helps both the fungus and algae survive. Research has shown that lichens are not a natural biological group, meaning they do not all come from a single common ancestor, in other words, lichens have many origins. Currently there are almost 20,000 species of lichenized fungi known.

In this symbiotic relationship, the fungus and algae benefit from being associated with each other. The fungus provides the house, its shelter (the thallus). This shelter helps the algae survive in habitats where it would otherwise be exposed to the elements and possibly could not survive. The algae provide food for the fungus, in the form of sugar. The sugar is a byproduct of photosynthesis that occurs within the algae.

Lichens are very important for the environment. They are an important food source for many animals, provide nest materials for birds, and provide habitat and material for biomimicry for insects and other organisms.

Lichens are also important for humans by providing natural dyes, perfumes, litmus paper, and even food. Humans even use lichens as bio-indicators, organisms that help humans monitor the health of the environment. Some species of lichens are sensitive to environmental pollution, so their presence or absence can help us understand more about the health of the environment, like air quality. 

Lichens produce over one thousand different chemical compounds, most of them unique to lichens. These compounds include acids and pigments. Some chemicals may even fluoresce under UV light, making them important components for lichen identification.

Lichens have DNA, which is used to identify lichen and compare relationships amongst and within species. DNA analysis has been an important tool for lichenologists in identifying and understanding the biodiversity of lichens.


Sign up for the Smithsonian Science How webcast to introduce your students to Lichenologist Manuela Dal Forno! The program airs at 11am and 2pm on March 28, 2019. Sign up and view the program here: https://naturalhistory.si.edu/...  

Maggy Benson
22
 

Martin Luther King, Jr.: Highlights Collection

This is a Smithsonian Learning Lab topical collection, which contains images, text, recordings, and other multimedia resources that may complement the Tween Tribune feature, Martin Luther King, Jr. found inspiration in Henry David Thoreau. Use these resources to introduce or augment your study of this topic. If you want to personalize this collection by changing or adding content, click the Sign Up link above to create a free account.  If you are already logged in, click the copy button to initiate your own version. Learn more here

Grace Davis
49
 

Exploring Fossil Ammonoids

This collection can be used as a pre- and post-resource to support the free Smithsonian Science How webcast, Exploring Fossil Ammonoids with Paleobiologist Lucy Chang. During the 30-minute program, your students will have an opportunity to interact with the scientist through live Q&A and polls. 

This collection contains objects from the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History. Many of the specimens in this collection are fossil ammonoids, but other mollusks are included for comparison. Also included in the collection is a companion worksheet for students (with teacher key) to express their newly gained knowledge about ammonoids.  

Ammonoids are an extinct group of marine mollusks that belong to the subclass Ammnoidea and the class Cephalopoda. A popular and well-known subgroup of ammonoids are ammonites. The closest living relatives of ammonoids are also cephalopods like squids, octopods, and cuttlefish, while the modern nautilus is more distantly related.   

Ammonoids had shells made of calcium carbonate just like today’s snails, clams, oysters, and other shelled mollusks. Ammonoid shells varied in shape and size. Some ammonoids had tightly coiled shells (planispiral), while others had uncoiled, irregularly shaped shells (heteromorphs). Regardless of shape or size, the shell provided the ammonoid with protection and possibly camouflage. 


Ammonoid shells had interior walls (septa) that created chambers inside of the shell. These chambers were connected by a narrow tube structure called a siphuncle. The ammonoid could use the siphuncle to control the amount of gas and fluid in each chamber, giving it the ability to achieve neutral buoyancy and move about in the marine environment.  


Although ammonoid shells are abundant in the fossil record, there is an extremely poor record of their soft parts being preserved or fossilized. Based off of their relationships to mollusks alive today, ammonoids likely had bodies that were soft. The animal would have lived exclusively in the last chamber of its shell with numerous arms extending in a ring around its mouth, eating plankton and detritus, dead or decaying matter. Scientists study the shapes and patterns of ammonoid shells and related species, fossil and modern, to learn about the extinct animal.  


Ammonoids lived around the globe and were present on earth for a very long time, about 350 million years. The entire group went extinct at the end of the Cretaceous, about 66 million years ago, along with the dinosaurs.  


The abundance of ammonoids in the fossil record and their long history on earth make them good fossils to study. Geologists use ammonoid fossils as guide or index fossils, helping to date the rock layers from which the fossils were found. Paleobiologists can use fossil ammonoids to learn about patterns of extinction and glean information about the group's evolutionary history.

Maggy Benson
24
 

The Corona's Cooling Power

The National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC) is the first museum on the National Mall to be recognized as a LEED Gold building due to its construction using renewable energy sources and locally-sourced building materials. LEED or Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certifications are granted to buildings and other structures  that meet global standards in areas such as water use, energy efficiency, and use of sustainable materials. To minimize energy use, the architects and engineers designed the building to allow lots of natural light inside of the museum. The Corona, the ornamental bronze-colored metal lattice that covers the museum like a crown covers a head, helps to keep the museum cool by allowing some sunlight inside, but by blocking the rest. As a result, the museum uses less electricity for lights and air conditioning. 

But how does it work? Have your students complete the following experiment to find out!

NMAAHC Education
14
 

"Explore with Smithsonian Experts" Film Series

This video series, Explore with Smithsonian Experts, connects students and teachers with the skill and technique of Smithsonian experts who describe their work at our nation's museums. In each short film, experts introduce new ways to observe, record, research and share, while using real artifacts and work experiences.

Keywords: entomology, arthropod, insects, beetles, ants, scientific method, verification, President Abraham Lincoln, March on Washington, The Wright Brothers, Orville and Wilbur Wright, flight, astrophotography, cosmos, astronomy, abstract art, El Anatsui, portraits, portraiture, President George Washington, Gertrude Stein, Gordon, Pocahontas, LL Cool J, Kehinde Wiley, Nicholasa Mohr, Dolores Huerta, Puerto Rico, Luis Muñoz Marín, Rudolfo Anaya, urban photography, Shifting States: Iraq, Luis Cruz Azaceta, choreography, dance, Japanese American incarceration (internment) camps, World War II, Queen Kapi'olani, Hawaii, diplomacy

Ashley Naranjo
36
 

Christmas Past and Present for First Grade

How did families celebrate Christmas then and now?

1.H.1.2 Explain the importance of folklore and celebrations and their impact on local communities.


Christina Hawkins
6
 

Industrial Revolution

  • Industrial Revolution, in modern history, the process of change from an agrarian and handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing. This process began in Britain in the 18th century and from there spread to other parts of the world. Although used earlier by French writers, the term Industrial Revolution was first popularized by the English economic historian Arnold Toynbee (1852–83) to describe Britain’s economic development from 1760 to 1840. Since Toynbee’s time the term has been more broadly applied.
Alejandra Diaz
2
 

Historical Chinese Apothecary Exhibit of California Gold Rush Mining Town, at Columbia State Historic Park.

The population of California grew from 14,000 to 223,000 between the years of 1848 to 1852. During the California Gold Rush, people from different cultures migrated from all over the world, all sharing the same hopes of creating better lives for themselves and their families. The rich cultural diversity we find in California today can be traced back to many families from the earliest days of the State of California, through cultural artifacts. Columbia State Historic Park has the largest collection of gold rush brick buildings in California. This collection of 1850s gold rush era brick buildings is a living museum of cultural artifacts dated back to the diverse merchant economy that once thrived in Columbia, CA. During the gold rush, Columbia became one of the fifth largest cities in California, with one hundred and fifty businesses during the peak of Columbia's success. The Chinese population in Columbia owned a variety of different businesses; such as dry goods, boarding houses, laundry services, restaurants, and more. Originally, the Chinese population was located on the Western edge of town. In the late 1850s and 1860s, the Chinese began purchasing buildings from French merchants. The town's history of destructive fires and the rise and fall of the merchant economy shaped the reduction of the architectural landscape visitors find today, at Columbia State Historic Park. Many of the brick buildings survived it all and have been restored for visitors to enjoy today. Visitors of Columbia State Historic Park may view the Chinese Store exhibit through windows that display a large collection of Chinese artifacts. This collection of photos provides a closer look at the inside of the Chinese exhibit. Fong Yue Po, from the Yee Phong Herb Company, Sacramento, CA, donated many artifacts used in this exhibit.

Columbia State Historic Park
16
 

Exploration of Different Gold Mining Tools and Techniques, at Columbia State Historic Park

Historical images of placer gold mining tools and techniques used, in Columbia, CA may be used for learning different placer gold mining techniques. These visual aids may provide a better understanding of how the types of mining tools changed over time, in Columbia, CA. As the California Gold Rush began miners traveled throughout the Sierra Nevada foothills, in search for gold. These miners traveled with very few items; some which included a gold pan, pick and shovel for easier travel. As more gold was discovered, mining parties established mining camps or tent towns; and, the cradle or rocker box was used to wash gold. Further development of mining camps brought in the use of long toms, sluice boxes and water diversions created for mining. The history of Columbia State Historic Park follows this storyline, but evolved into a full-scale mining town. Eighty-Seven Million dollars worth of gold, in the 1860s prices (Twelve to Sixteen dollars per ounce vs. current price of gold is over One Thousand dollars) was extracted from Columbia, CA. The amount of gold not only attracted miners, but business people, as well. In the mid 1850s, brick buildings with iron doors were built to provide more stable structures for the strong merchant economy. Today Columbia State Historic Park is home to the largest collection of gold rush era brick buildings, in California; whereas, structures of other mining camps of the California Gold Rush no longer exist.    

Columbia State Historic Park
7
 

California Gold Rush Era Mining Technique Photos

Mining techniques evolved over time with development of larger mining companies. These photos also show cultural diversity during the California Gold Rush. 

Columbia State Historic Park
11
 

The Smithsonian's Caribbean Indigenous Legacies Project: Celebrating Taíno Culture

This topical collection contains information about the Smithsonian's Caribbean Indigenous Legacies Project: Celebrating Taíno Culture, with links to the Heye Center exhibition, "Taíno : Native Heritage and Identity in the Caribbean," and to a related public program/webcast, "Taíno: A Symposium in Conversation with the Movement," from the National Museum of the American Indian. 

Philippa Rappoport
6
 

California Gold Rush Introduction

A collection complied to assist students and educators with visual aids for educational programs pertaining to the introduction of California Gold Rush History. James Marshall discovered gold in the year of 1848, along the American River, at Sutter's Mill (present day Coloma, California). President Polk, the 11th President of the United States made a landmark announcement to the world of Marshall's discovery. The news from President Polk started one of the largest mass migration of individuals to one place ever in recorded history. Between 1848 and 1852, California's population grew from 14,000 to 223,000. The gold rush was an opportunity for migrants to make a better life for themselves and families. By ship around Cape Horn, by foot through the Isthmus of Panama, or the overland trails by wagon, travels to the Territory of California were long and deadly. Those who survived the journeys fulfilled the dream of Westward migration. These migrations connected cultures from all over the world to develop the diverse population and abundance in opportunity that lives on, in California today.

Columbia State Historic Park
21
 

Island of the Blue Dolphins

Animals, places, people, etc. mentioned in the novel, Island of the Blue Dolphins by Scott O'Dell
channa_HasClass
18
 

The California Gold Rush: A Journey to the Goldfields

The famous discovery of gold in California, forever changed the landscape, economy and culture of California by the hundreds of thousands of people who migrated during California's gold rush. The famous discovery was made by James Marshall, at Sutter's Mill, on January 24th, 1848. Rumors and stories spread throughout the land of the discovery of gold, in California. The discovery was confirmed by President Polk,  11th President of the United States. President Polk made the announcement of the gold discovery, in California and the news spread world wide. Hundreds of thousands of people migrated to California from all around the world during the California Gold Rush of 1849. The journeys were long and dangerous. The three major routes are: around Cape Horn by ship (six to eight months), the Isthmus of Panama (two to three months), and the Overland trail (three to five months). By ship, dangers included: ship wrecks, lack of food and water, seasickness and disease. Ships that survived the long journeys arrived to the ports of San Francisco, where the migrants continued their journeys to the foothills of the Sierra Nevada.

Traveling 2,000 miles across an entire nation, on the Overland Trail by foot and wagons, exposed travelers other dangers, such as: misinformed trails, lack of food and water, and exposed them to inclimate weather while crossing deadly rivers, deserts, and high mountain passes. Only the very basic necessities were taken for these long journeys on the Overland trail; such as: food, water, wagons, stock, hunting tools, blacksmithing tools, clothing, blankets, sewing kits, medical supplies, etc.

On the Overland Trail, many miners joined companies. These companies were made up of people with various skills; such as, carpentry, medicine, navigation, hunting, blacksmithing and wheelwrights. The likelihood of surviving these long and dangerous journeys increased, significantly for those individuals who joined companies. If a company survived the journey to California on the Overland Trail, the company also had a higher likelihood of success in gold mining. Individuals within the company could stake multiple gold mining claims and the gold would then be divided among the people of the company. During the gold rush, individuals were only allowed to own one claim.  


Columbia State Historic Park
15
 

California Gold Rush History: Columbia California's Culture Expressed Through Historic Photos

The culture of Columbia expressed through a collection of historic photos.

Columbia State Historic Park
19
 

Destination Moon Crew Guide: Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Buzz Aldrin

This topical collection explores the life of Lunar Module Pilot  Buzz Aldrin; it includes images, artifact images, video and websites. Through browsing this collection, students will learn about Aldrin's life, in order to appreciate how his work as a pilot and astronaut impacted his personal and private affairs.

This collection is inspired by the Unveiling Stories thinking strategy introduced by Harvard's Project Zero, which invites students to reveal multiple layers of meaning in stories: 

  • What is the story?
  • What is the human story?
  • What is the world story?
  • What is the new story?
  • What is the untold story?

Have students look at each image, video or resource, and read its descriptions. Ask students to think about or respond to any quiz questions included.

Tags: moon, moon landing, Apollo 11, Apollo XI, Aldrin, space, space race, astronaut



Christina Ferwerda
6
 

Latin American Artists

Latin American works from the Permanent Collection at The Patricia & Phillip Frost Art Museum at Florida International University. The works represent a timeline that spans thousands of years from pre colombian to present day.

#LatinoHAC

miriam machado
28
 

Destination Moon Crew Guide: Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins

This topical collection explores the life of Command Module Pilot Michael Collins; it includes images, artifact images, and websites. Through browsing this collection, students will learn about Collins' life, in order to appreciate how his work as a pilot and astronaut impacted his personal and private affairs.

This collection is inspired by the Unveiling Stories thinking strategy introduced by Harvard's Project Zero, which invites students to reveal multiple layers of meaning in stories: 

  • What is the story?
  • What is the human story?
  • What is the world story?
  • What is the new story?
  • What is the untold story?

Have students look at each image, video or resource, and read its descriptions. Ask students to think about or respond to any quiz questions included. 

Tags: moon, moon landing, Apollo 11, Apollo XI, Aldrin, space, space race, astronaut

Christina Ferwerda
8
 

Destination Moon Crew Guide: Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong

This topical collection explores the life of Mission Commander Neil A. Armstrong; it includes images, artifact images, video and websites. Through browsing this collection, students will learn influential aspects of Armstrong's life, in order to appreciate how his work as a pilot and astronaut impacted his personal and private affairs.

This collection is inspired by the Unveiling Stories thinking strategy introduced by Harvard's Project Zero, which invites students to reveal multiple layers of meaning in stories: 

  • What is the story?
  • What is the human story?
  • What is the world story?
  • What is the new story?
  • What is the untold story?

Have students look at each image, video or resource, and read its descriptions. Ask students to think about or respond to any quiz questions included.

Tags: moon, moon landing, Apollo 11, Apollo XI, Armstrong, space, space race, astronaut


Christina Ferwerda
11
 

The Race to Space: Understanding the Cold War Context of the Apollo 11 Mission

By using this collection, learners will . . .

  • Use primary sources to understand a range of perspectives on the Space Race.
  • Understand why the United States was concerned about the Soviet space program.
  • Be able to analyze the Cold War era context of the Space Race and draw their own conclusions about the success of the Space Race.
HeinzHistoryCenterEducation
22
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