Aside from a continuing effort to record the languages of the "Mission Indians of California," John P. Harrington's study of Luiseno and Juaneno sprang from two main roots. The first was his interest in providing a linguistic treatment of Alfred Robinson's 1846 translation of Father Geronimo Boscana's account of the Indians of San Juan Capistrano Mission. The second involved plans for extensive rehearings of Philip Stedman Sparkman's Luiseno vocabulary collected between 1899 and 1906. The Bancroft Library in Berkeley, California, holds this manuscript, the title page of which reads as follows: "The Luiseno Language, Being the language spoken by the San Luis Rey, San Luis, or Luiseno Indians of Southern California. A Shoshonean dialect. Written by P. S. Sparkman, at the Rincon, San Diego County, California, 1899 to 1906." It consists of 713 leaves of typescript, with annotations and revisions by Alfred L. Kroeber.
Harrington began serious and thorough work on the annotations for Boscana's historical account in March of 1932. His interest continued until at least, and probably past, April 1936 and resulted in two publications and extensive notes on a proposed third publication. Harrington was convinced that Boscana's account, probably written between 1820 and 1822, stood alone as an early ethnological document on the Spanish Missionary period in California and was therefore an ideal subject for major ethnographic and linguistic amplifications. The work proceeded in three general phases.
The first phase culminated in the publication early in 1933 of Harrington's book titled Chinigchinich: A Revised and Annotated Version of Alfred Robinson's Translation of Father Geronimo Boscana's Historical Account of the Belief, Usages, Customs and Extravagencies [sic] of the Indians of This Mission of San Juan Capistrano called the Acagchemem Tribe. The linguistic material is chiefly Luiseno.
In 1933 while Chinigchinich ... was still in the printing process, Harrington began a second round of rehearings, this time focusing mainly on the Juaneno language. This period forms the second cohesive phase.
Meanwhile a search initiated in 1932 for Boscana's original manuscript was completed. Abel Doysie wrote from Paris that he had discovered the original document in the Bibliotheque Nationale. M. Doysie photographed the sixty-page manuscript and sent it to Harrington on January 3, 1933. Harrington's translation, A New Original Version of Boscana's Historical Account of the San Juan Capistrano Indians of Southern California, appeared in June 1934. In the introduction, Harrington stated that "it is an 1822 variant of the Historical Account that Robinson translated, each version containing certain important data that the other omits. " The new manuscript contained fifteen chapters; the Robinson translation had sixteen.
On page 3, Harrington mentioned "exhaustive notes" for a later volume of annotations to the translation and although in 1936 he received a $500 grant from the Social Research Council to carry through this plan, the annotations were not published. Phase three, however, centers around this endeavor. In 1935 and 1936, Harrington copied and reorganized hundreds of pages of notes and added new data preparatory to the proposed third publication.
Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. For a comprehensive description of these materials, see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 3, A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Southern California/Basin," edited by Elaine L. Mills and Ann J. Brickfield (1986). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%203.pdf
This subseries of the Southern California/Basin series contains John P. Harrington's research on Luiseno and Juaneno.
The Luiseno linguistic and ethnographic notes consist mainly of notes elicited from Maria Jesusa Omish and Maria Jesusa Soto in 1933 and from Bernardo Cuevas in 1934. The material is a random rehearing of the information which Harrington assembled for Chinigchinich ... with continued refinements of terms from DuBois and Kroeber. Substantial amounts of ethnographic information were recorded. A Gabrielino Indian, Jose Juan Jauro, was credited with an occasional Juaneno and Ventureno term. A group of Sparkman terms was reheard in 1934 with Micaela Calec and with Juan S. Calac, Willie [Calac], and Victor Meza. Jesus Jauro provided a few Gabrielino and Serrano terms.
A large section of the Luiseno vocabulary is arranged semantically; the notes were accumulated between 1932 and 1934 with elicitations from more than fifteen informants. Juaneno, Diegueno, Cahuilla, and Gabrielino terms were also recorded. Animals, ceremonies, placenames, and plant names contain the largest amounts of material. Included among the notes are first-hand recollections of events which the informants witnessed or participated in, bits of local biography, and ethnographic miscellany. There is also an earlier vocabulary, possibly from Cecilia Tortes, dated May 17, 1919.
Records of his placename trips cover information recorded in 1925, 1932, 1933, and 1934 from his trips to Corona, Elsinore, Hemet, Mesa Grande, Murietta rancheria, San Jacinto, San Juan Capistrano, Santa Ana, Soboba, Warner Springs, and many smaller sites between these points. He traveled with many Luiseno speakers and interviewed local residents along the way, noting the mileage between sites, and often sketching rough maps of the area. The result is a journal of linguistic, ethnographic, and geographic material, which is unfortunately somewhat difficult to read. Some Cupeno and Diego terms were recorded.
The Luiseno texts contains Chinigchinich songs composed by Jose Luis Albanez in the 1870s and 1880s. A small group of songs sung by Encarnaciona and Juan Calac were recorded for Harrington by Josephine Porter Cook in 1934 and 1935. No corresponding discs have been located in N.A.A. The related notes comprise linguistic annotations and often an English precis of the song text. A typescript titled "Notes for the Use of Miss Roberts" refers to the ethnomusicologist Helen H. Roberts. The document covers topics of an instructive nature such as the linguistics of song, the ethnography of song, musical accompaniment, dances, etc. Three Luiseno texts from Adan Castillo contain interlinear English or Spanish translations. Also present is the beginning of a possible paper titled "Southern California Indian Legends for Children" and dated 1947. Some of the stories are in English only.
The Juaneno vocabulary is limited to plant names elicited from Anastacia de Majel, with a few Luiseno equivalences from Jose Albanez. There are some incidental ethnographic observations.
The Juaneno linguistic and ethnographic notes section contains notes copied from the notebooks of Father St. John O'Sullivan of the Mission San Juan Capistrano. Most of the information is of an ethnographic nature from a number of informants, although some original linguistic data was supplied to O'Sullivan by Jose de la Gracia Cruz, known as Acu. Acu's reliability, unfortunately, was questionable. There is a mixture of anecdotes, reminiscences, stories, folklore, hymns, ethnohistory, and related miscellany. Some stories may be Luiseno rather than Juaneno.The linguistic content was reheard with Anastacia de Majel. Eustaquio Lugo added some Juaneno and Luiseno terms. There are also notes copied from San Juan Capistrano Mission records. A file of fieldwork with de Majel, which probably took place in 1933, resulted in substantial amounts of both linguistic and ethnographic information, with some Luiseno input from Albanez.
The rehearings of Sparkman data section contains Juaneno and Luiseno data. Some of the rehearings were conducted by Harrington's nephew, Arthur E. Harrington, who worked with de Majel.
Among the drafts and notes for Chingchinich are Luiseno annotations of Robinson's 1846 translation of Boscana's account. There are also incomplete, initial drafts of translations of Boscana's account into Catalonian and literary Spanish by E. Vigo Mestres and into Luiseno by Albanez.
Rehearings of notes used for Chinigchinch include information on material culture, names of persons, placenames, and more stories and anecdotes. Vocabulary and especially orthography were accorded detailed attention. Rehearings of terms from DuBois are included and some Luiseno equivalences.
Notes and drafts for Boscana's original manuscript contains the results of his fieldwork among Luiseno and Juaneno speakers in 1934 as part of his plan to publish annotations of the manuscript. Harrington worked with many of the same people, particularly Anastacia de Majel and Jose Olivas Albanez. Adan Castillo gave a number of Luiseno and Cahuilla terms for the phonetic section. Harrington worked from a numbered typescript of the original Spanish manuscript. This triple-spaced material is interfiled with related ethnographic and linguistic handwritten notes. A second complete typed copy of the Spanish manuscript is filed separately.