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Grayscale postcard of two skeletons of horned dinosaurs on exhibit at the United States National Museum, now the National Museum of Natural History. The larger one is a Triceratops skeleton, and the smaller one is a Brachyceratops skeleton. The postcard is unused, but the message side has a printed note about the dinosaurs: "These skeletons of two extinct reptiles known as Horned Dinosaurs were discovered in the Cretaceous rocks of the West. Triceratops, the larger of the two specimens, shown, named for the three horns on its head, was about 20 feet long. With a head 6 feet in length it had the largest skull of any known reptile. The other skeleton, Brachyceratops, less in size than the skull of the Triceratops, is the smallest of North American horned dinosaurs. Both of these animals were plant eaters, living in the swamps of the western plains. They became extinct over 100,000,000 years ago."
James Marshall was superintending the construction of a sawmill for Col. John Sutter on the morning of January 24, 1848, on the South Fork of the American River at Coloma, California, when he saw something glittering in the water of the mill's tailrace. According to Sutter's diary, Marshall stooped down to pick it up and "found that it was a thin scale of what appeared to be pure gold." Marshall bit the metal as a test for gold.
In June of 1848, Colonel Sutter presented Marshall's first-find scale of gold to Capt. Joseph L. Folsom, U.S. Army Assistant Quartermaster at Monterey. Folsom had journeyed to Northern California to verify the gold claim for the U.S. Government.
The gold samples then traveled with U.S. Army Lt. Lucien Loeser by ship to Panama, across the isthmus by horseback, by ship to New Orleans, and overland to Washington. A letter of transmittal from Folsom that accompanied the packet lists Specimen #1 as "the first piece of gold ever discovered in this Northern part of Upper California found by J. W. Marshall at the Saw Mill of John A. Sutter."
By August of 1848, as evidence of the find, this piece and other samples of California gold had arrived in Washington, D.C., for delivery to President James K. Polk and for preservation at the National Institute. Within weeks, President Polk formally declared to Congress that gold had been discovered in California.
In 1861, the National Institute and its geological specimens, including this gold and the letter, entered the collections of the Smithsonian Institution. The Marshall Nugget remains in the collections as evidence of the discovery of gold in California.
To locate tiny Howland Island, Earhart and Fred Noonan expected to communicate with the Itasca, a United States Coast Guard cutter that President Roosevelt agreed to locate near the island for assistance. Although the cutter received messages, at first faint but then clearer and stronger, communication ultimately failed. Upon learning that the pair had not arrived, Roosevelt ordered a massive sea and air search that went on for more than two weeks. When that search was terminated, George Putnam underwrote his own search that lasted until October. Newspapers around the globe covered the search on a nearly daily basis. Yet as time elapsed, hope for their safe recovery faded. In 1939, a probate court in Los Angeles declared Earhart legally dead. Neither the plane nor the bodies of the two pilots have ever been recovered.