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What is an American?

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Language Arts And English +7 Age Level High School (16 to 18 years old)

Context:  A lesson for a U.S. History/American Literature humanities class.  This lesson will come towards the end of our study of the Revolutionary period.

 Essential Question:  What does it mean to be an American in 1782?

Questions:

  • How does Crevecoeur define an American here?  How accurate is his definition for that time period?
  • To whom is Crevecouer making this appeal?  What sort of person would be motivated by these passages?
  • Who is included in Crevecoeur's appeal?  Who is left out?
  • How is "this new man" different?
  • How does Crevecoeur help build the ideals and myths of America?
  • How does this letter build on the idea of American Exceptionalism?  America as the land of "new and improved"?

Activities:

Students will have read Letter III before class.

Using the Smithsonian Learning Lab and the text excerpts below (or the entire text of Letter III), students will identify three key quotes or words  and find artwork that connects to chosen text.  Three total text excerpts and three works of art.  The works of art can support, refute, or simply connect to some aspect of the quote and the idea of what it means to be an American.

Students will share their chosen artworks and quotes via the class Google classroom. 

We will use the images as the basis for a class discussion on what it means to be an American.

After the class discussion, students will write a short paper on "What is an American?" 

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Student instructions:

1.. Using the Smithsonian Learning Lab and the text excerpts below (or the entire text of Letter III),  identify three key quotes or words  and find artwork that connects to chosen text.  You can use the images below as a starting point, but don't feel limited to these.  The Smithsonian has an amazing and extensive collection.  Take time to use the search function and explore the collection.  You have all period to do so.  Be original.

2.  By class tomorrow, post on the google classroom your text excerpts and accompanying three works of art.  The text can be a whole sentence or just a few key words.  The works of art can support, refute, or simply connect to some aspect of the text and the idea of what it means to be an American.  Be sure to include the title, artist, and date for each artwork.  Your artwork doesn't have to come from the Revolutionary time period.  The important thing is that you use your critical reading and thinking skills to make a connection between the text and the art work.

3.  Tomorrow we will have a class discussion based on the images and excerpts.  Be prepared to share your thinking on your choices with the class.


Tips:

As always, remember to consider speaker, audience, and purpose.  Who is speaking? To whom is he appealing? Why? 

Not sure where to start?  Find what you think are the ten most important words in the passage.  Narrow it down to the top three.

Based on our studies so far, what  are the different groups, ethnicities, races, religious affiliations make up the population at this time?  Which of these does Crevecouer include?  Leave out? 

How did these people come to be in America?   Does that matter in Crevecouer's writing?




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"Letters From An American Farmer"

by J. Hector St. John De Crevecoeur

"What then is the American, this new man?...He is an American, who, leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced, the new government he obeys, and the new rank he holds. He has become an American by being received in the broad lap of our great Alma Mater. Here individuals of all races are melted into a new race of man, whose labors and posterity will one day cause great changes in the world. Americans are the western pilgrims...

"After a foreigner from any part of Europe is arrived, and become a citizen; let him devoutly listen to the voice of our great parent, which says to him, "Welcome to my shores, distressed European; bless the hour in which thou didst see my verdant fields, my fair navigable rivers, and my green mountains!--If thou wilt work, I have bread for thee; if thou wilt be honest, sober, and industrious, I have greater rewards to confer on thee--ease and independence. I will give thee fields to feed and clothe thee; a comfortable fireside to sit by, and tell thy children by what means thou hast prospered; and a decent bed to repose on. I shall endow thee beside with the immunities of a freeman. If thou wilt carefully educate thy children, teach them gratitude to God, and reverence to that government, that philanthropic government, which has collected here so many men and made them happy. I will also provide for thy progeny; and to every good man this ought to be the most holy, the most powerful, the most earnest wish he can possibly form, as well as the most consolatory prospect when he dies. Go thou and work and till; thou shalt prosper, provided thou be just, grateful, and industrious"  (Letter III, 1782).


The Last Race, Mandan O-kee-pa Ceremony

Smithsonian American Art Museum

Po-ca-hon-tas

National Portrait Gallery

Wichita Lodge, Thatched with Prairie Grass

Smithsonian American Art Museum

Pioneers Sketch

Smithsonian American Art Museum

Embarkation of the Pilgrims

Smithsonian American Art Museum

Pilgrims Going to Church, [photomechanical print]

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum

Young Moravian Girl

Smithsonian American Art Museum

Gordon

National Portrait Gallery

American Farm Scenes. no. 1.

Smithsonian American Art Museum

The Pioneers [sculpture] / (photographed by De Witt Ward)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum

Phillis Wheatley

National Portrait Gallery

Mrs. James Smith and Grandson

Smithsonian American Art Museum

Robert Hooper

Smithsonian American Art Museum

Independence (Squire Jack Porter)

Smithsonian American Art Museum

Declaration of Independence

National Portrait Gallery

Landscape with Farm and Mountains

Smithsonian American Art Museum

Cabin from Point of Pines Plantation in Charleston County, South Carolina

National Museum of African American History and Culture

Jar Made by "Dave"

National Museum of American History

Liberty

Smithsonian American Art Museum