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Hawaiian Monarchs

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Cultures +2 Age Levels Primary (5 to 8 years old), Elementary (9 to 12 years old), Middle School (13 to 15 years old), High School (16 to 18 years old), Post-Secondary

This topical collection includes resources related to the eight monarchs of the Kingdom of Hawaii.  In order of succession, the monarchs are: Kamehameha I (r. 1810 - 1819); Kamehameha II (r. 1819 - 1824); Kamehameha III (r. 1825 -  1854); Kamehameha IV (r. 1855 - 1863); Kamehameha V (r. 1863 - 1872); Lunalilo (r. 1873 - 1874); Kalākaua (r. 1874 - 1891); and Liliʻuokalani (r. 1891 - 1893).  

The Kingdom of Hawaii was established as a constitutional monarchy in 1810 by King Kamehameha I.  In 1893, a coup led by American businessmen driven by sugar and pineapple business interests in the Hawaiian islands overthrew Queen Lili'uokalani.  Despite native protests and Lili'uokalani's efforts to reclaim the throne, the United States annexed Hawaii as a territory in 1898.  Hawaii became an American state in 1959.

This collection is not comprehensive but rather provides a launching point for further research and study.

This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Asian Pacific American Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center.

Keywords: Kamamalu, Emma, Kapi'olani, Kapiolani, Kalakaua, Liliuokalani, Hawaiian, royals, royalty

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King Kamehameha I

National Portrait Gallery

Happy King Kamehameha Day!

Smithsonian Magazine

King Kamehameha II

National Portrait Gallery

King Kamehameha II

National Portrait Gallery

King Kamehameha and Queen Kamamalu

National Portrait Gallery

Feather Cloak

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.

13c King Kamehameha III die proof

National Postal Museum

1 Cent, Hawaii, 1847

National Museum of American History

Alexander Liholiho

National Portrait Gallery

Emma Naea

National Portrait Gallery

Lot Kamehameha

National Portrait Gallery

King William Charles Lunalilo

National Portrait Gallery

Kalakaua I

National Portrait Gallery

Kalakaua I

National Portrait Gallery

Kapiolani

National Portrait Gallery

Liliuokalani

National Portrait Gallery

Liliuokalani

National Portrait Gallery

Hawaii - History and Heritage

Smithsonian Magazine