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Butterfly genome reveals promiscuous exchange of mimicry adaptations among species

Smithsonian Libraries
The evolutionary importance of hybridization and introgression has long been debated(1). Hybrids are usually rare and unfit, but even infrequent hybridization can aid adaptation by transferring beneficial traits between species. Here we use genomic tools to investigate introgression in Heliconius, a rapidly radiating genus of neotropical butterflies widely used in studies of ecology, behaviour, mimicry and speciation(2-5). We sequenced the genome of Heliconius melpomene and compared it with other taxa to investigate chromosomal evolution in Lepidoptera and gene flow among multiple Heliconius species and races. Among 12,669 predicted genes, biologically important expansions of families of chemosensory and Hox genes are particularly noteworthy. Chromosomal organization has remained broadly conserved since the Cretaceous period, when butterflies split from the Bombyx (silkmoth) lineage. Using genomic resequencing, we show hybrid exchange of genes between three co-mimics, Heliconius melpomene, Heliconius timareta and Heliconius elevatus, especially at two genomic regions that control mimicry pattern. We infer that closely related Heliconius species exchange protective colour-pattern genes promiscuously, implying that hybridization has an important role in adaptive radiation.

Lofty Reclusion Among the Clouds and Springs

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery

100 Yuan, Federal Reserve Bank of China, China, 1941

National Museum of American History
One (1) 100 yuan note

Federal Reserve Bank of China, China, 1941

Obverse Image: Chinese characters at top and bottom, denomination at center, Huang Ti to the right, Wu Ying hall to the left.

Obverse Text: [NEEDS TRANSLATION]

Reverse Image: Denomination to the sides and at center.

Reverse Text: [NEEDS TRANSLATION]

[[Obverse Text]]

100 / 0795003 / 中國聯合準備銀行 / 13 / 100 / 百圓 / 100 / 13 / 副總裁印 / 總裁 / 印 / 0795003 / 100

[[Transliteration]]

ZHONG / GUO / LIAN / HE / ZHUN / BEI / YIN / QING / BAI / YUAN

[[Reverse Text]]

100 / 中國聯合準備銀行 / 100 / 中 / 壹百圓 / 100 / 壹百圓 / 100 / ONE / HUNDRED YUAN / 100 / 華北政務委員會印刷局製 / 71.348.675

[[Transliteration]]

ZHONG / GUO / LIAN / HE / ZHUN / BEI / YIN / QING / ZHONG / YI / BAI / YUAN / YI / BAI / YUAN / HUA / BEI / ZHENG / WU / WEI / YUAN / HUI / YIN / SHUA / JU / ZHI

100 Yuan, Federal Reserve Bank of China, China, 1944

National Museum of American History
One (1) 100 yuan note, specimen Federal Reserve Bank of China, China, 1944 Obverse Image: Chinese characters at top and bottom, denomination at center, Huang Ti to the right, Wu Ying hall to the left. Obverse Text: [NEEDS TRANSLATION] Reverse Image: Denomination to the sides, name of bank at top. Reverse Text: [NEEDS TRANSLATION] [[Obverse Text]] 100 / 000000 / 中國聯合準備銀行 / <0> / 100 / 樣本 / 百圓 / 樣本 / 100 / 0 / [[seal]]副總裁印 / [[seal]]總裁㞢印 / 000000 /100 [[Transliteration]] ZHONG / GUO / LIAN / HE / ZHUN / BEI / YIN / QING / YANG / BEN / BAI / YUAN / YANG / BEN [[Reverse Text]] 中 / 中國聯合準備銀行 / 100 / 100 / 71.348.677 [[Transliteration]] ZHONG / ZHONG / GUO / LIAN / HE / ZHUN / BEI / YIN / QING

100 Yuan, Federal Reserve Bank of China, China, 1944

National Museum of American History
One (1) 100 yuan note

Federal Reserve Bank of China, China, 1944

Obverse Image: Chinese characters at top and bottom, denomination at center, Huang Ti to the right, Wu Ying hall to the left.

Obverse Text: [NEEDS TRANSLATION]

Reverse Image: Denomination to the sides, name of bank at top.

Reverse Text: [NEEDS TRANSLATION]

[[Obverse Text]]

100 / 457455 / 行銀備准合聨国中 / 1 / 100 / 百圓 / 100 / 1 / 457455 / 100

[[Transliteration]]

QING / YIN / BEI / ZHUN / HE / LIAN / GUO / ZHONG / BAI / YUAN

[[Reverse Text]]

中 / 行銀備准合聨国中 / 100 / 100 / 71.348.681

[[Transliteration]]

ZHONG / QING / YIN / ZHUN / BEI / HE / LIAN / GUO / ZHONG

100 Yuan, Federal Reserve Bank of China, China, 1944

National Museum of American History
One (1) 100 yuan note

Federal Reserve Bank of China, China, 1944

Obverse Image: Chinese characters at top and bottom, denomination at center, Huang Ti to the right, Wu Ying hall to the left.

Obverse Text: [NEEDS TRANSLATION]

Reverse Image: Denomination to the sides, name of bank at top.

Reverse Text: [NEEDS TRANSLATION]

[[Obverse Text]]

100 / 457457 / 中國聯合準備銀行 / 1 / 100 / 百圓

[[Transliteration]]

ZHONG / GUO / LIAN / HE / ZHUN / BEI / YIN / QING / BAI / YUAN

[[Reverse Text]]

中 / 中國聯合準備銀行 / 100 / 100 / 71.348.682

[[Transliteration]]

ZHONG / ZHONG / GUO / LIAN / HE / ZHUN / BEI / YIN / QING

100 Yuan, Federal Reserve Bank of China, China, 1941

National Museum of American History
One (1) 100 yuan note

Federal Reserve Bank of China, China, 1941

Obverse Image: Chinese characters at top and bottom, denomination at center, Huang Ti to the right, Wu Ying hall to the left.

Obverse Text: [NEEDS TRANSLATION]

Reverse Image: Denomination to the sides and at center.

Reverse Text: [NEEDS TRANSLATION]

[[Obverse Text]]

100 / 0795048 / 中國聯合準備銀行 / 13 / 100 / 百圓 / 100 / 13 / 0795048 / 100

[[Transliteration]]

QING / YIN / BEI / ZHUN / HE / LIAN / GUO / ZHONG / BAI / YUAN

[[Reverse Text]]

100 / 中國聯合準備銀行 / 100 / 中 / 壹百圓 / 100 / 壹百圓 / 100 / ONE / HUNDRED YUAN / 100 / 華北政務委員會印刷局製 / 71.348.676

[[Transliteration]]

QING / YIN / ZHUN / BEI / HE / LIAN / GUO / ZHONG / ZHONG / YI / BAI / YUAN / YI / BAI / YUAN

1 Dollar, Chihli Provincial Treasury Circulating Note, Chihli, China, 1926

National Museum of American History
One (1) dollar note

Chihli Provincial Treasury Circulating Note, Chihli, China, 1926

[[Obverse Text]]

壹[[four corners]] / 直隸省庫定期流通券 / 三月期滿憑票兌現 /直字第0181907號 / 壹圓 / 中華民國十五年三月 日發行 / 完糧納稅一律通用 / 山東官印刷局製

[[Transliteration]]

YI / YI / QUAN / TONG / TONG / QI / DING / KU / SHENG / LI / ZHI / XIAN / DUI / PIAO / PING / MAN / QI / YUE / SAN / [[down the side]] ZHONG / HUA / MIN / GUO / SHI / WU / NIAN / SAN / YUE / RI / ZHI / ZI / DI / HAO / FA / HANG / YONG / TONG / LV / YI / SHUI / NA / LIANG / WAN / YI / YI / ZHI / JU / SHUA / YIN / GUAN / CHU

[[Reverse Text]]

1[[four corners]] / 定期流通券條例列左 / 一此項統通券分為為五元一元二角一角四種 / 一自發行之日起三個月期滿由省庫即行兑現 / 一凡完糧納税及買賣抵押等項均照現洋一律通用 / 一券面如有塗改等情概作無效 / 一如有拒绝行使任意低折等情按照擾亂金融從重懲罰 / 75.3.32

[[Transliteration]]

DING / QI / TONG / TONG / QUAN / TIAO / LI / LIE / ZUO / YI / BI / XIANG / TONG / TONG / GUAN / FEN / ER / WU / YUAN / YI / YUAN / ER / YONG / YI / YONG / SI / ZHONG / YI / ZI / FA / XING / ZHI / RI / QI / SAN / TI / YUE / YI / MAN / YOU / SHENG / KU / YIN / XING / DUI / XIAN / YI / FAN / WAN / LIANG / NA / SHUI / JI / MAI / MAI / YA / DENG / XIANG / XIAN / YANG / YI / LV / TONG / YONG / YI / QUAN / HUI / RU / YOU / TU / WEN / SI / QING / GAI / ZUO / WU / XIAO / YI / RU / YOU / GUI / JUE / XING / SHI / REN / YI / YI / ZHE / DENG / QING / AN / ZHAO / YOU / LUAN / YIN / RONG / CONG / ZHONG / CHENG / FA

5 Cash, China, 1901

National Museum of American History
One (1) 5 cash coin, Kuang-hsu (Ch'ing/Qing)

China, Kiangsu Province, 1901

Obverse Image: Orthodox script read top, bottom, right, left; with Manchu inscription for Kiangsu read center.

Obverse Text: Romanization: KUANG / HSU / YUAN / PAO / NAN / CHIANG / SHENG / TSAO / MEI / YUAN / TANG / CHIH / CH'IEN / WU / WEN

Reverse Image: Center, front facing dragon.

Reverse Text: KIANG- / SOO / FIVE / CASH

5 Cash, China, 1901

National Museum of American History
One (1) 5 cash coin, Kuang-hsu (Ch'ing/Qing)

China, Kiangsu Province, 1901

Obverse Image: Orthodox script read top, bottom, right, left; with Manchu inscription for Kiangsu read center.

Obverse Text: Romanization: KUANG / HSU / YUAN / PAO / NAN / CHIANG / SHENG / TSAO / MEI / YUAN / TANG / CHIH / CH'IEN / WU / WEN

Reverse Image: Center, front facing dragon.

Reverse Text: KIANG- / SOO / FIVE / CASH

5 Cash, China, 1901

National Museum of American History
One (1) 5 cash coin, Kuang-hsu (Ch'ing/Qing)

China, Kiangsu Province, 1901

Obverse Image: Orthodox script read top, bottom, right, left; with Manchu inscription for Kiangsu read center.

Obverse Text: Romanization: KUANG / HSU / YUAN / PAO / NAN / CHIANG / SHENG / TSAO / MEI / YUAN / TANG / CHIH / CH'IEN / WU / WEN

Reverse Image: Center, front facing dragon.

Reverse Text: KIANG- / SOO / FIVE / CASH

5 Cash, China, 1901

National Museum of American History
One (1) 5 cash coin, Kuang-hsu (Ch'ing/Qing)

China, Kiangsu Province, 1901

Obverse Image: Orthodox script read top, bottom, right, left; with Manchu inscription for Kiangsu read center.

Obverse Text: Romanization: KUANG / HSU / YUAN / PAO / NAN / CHIANG / SHENG / TSAO / MEI / YUAN / TANG / CHIH / CH'IEN / WU / WEN

Reverse Image: Center, front facing dragon.

Reverse Text: KIANG- / SOO / FIVE / CASH

5 Cash, China, 1901

National Museum of American History
One (1) 5 cash coin, Kuang-hsu (Ch'ing/Qing)

China, Kiangsu Province, 1901

Obverse Image: Orthodox script read top, bottom, right, left; with Manchu inscription for Kiangsu read center.

Obverse Text: Romanization: KUANG / HSU / YUAN / PAO / NAN / CHIANG / SHENG / TSAO / MEI / YUAN / TANG / CHIH / CH'IEN / WU / WEN

Reverse Image: Center, front facing dragon.

Reverse Text: KIANG- / SOO / FIVE / CASH