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20 Senti, Tanzania, 1966

National Museum of American History

Musical Labor Performed in Northwest Tanzania

SI Center for Learning and Digital Access
The farmers of the Banunguli farming group from Kisessa village near Mwanza, Tanzania, build tie ridges—raised earthen mounds into which the cotton seeds are planted. The accompanying kadete (one-string fiddle) player regulates the pace of the workers and spurs them on with his sung words of encouragement.

Musical Labor Performed in Northwest Tanzania

SI Center for Learning and Digital Access
Summer/Fall 2014: Labor

Musical Labor Performed in Northwest Tanzania

Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
"Musical Labor Performed in Northwest Tanzania" from Smithsonian Folkways Magazine available here: http://goo.gl/WyizJs The farmers of the Banunguli farming group from Kisessa village near Mwanza, Tanzania, build tie ridges—raised earthen mounds into which the cotton seeds are planted. The accompanying kadete (one-string fiddle) player regulates the pace of the workers and spurs them on with his sung words of encouragement. Recorded in January 1995 by Frank Gunderson. The content and comments posted here are subject to the Smithsonian Institution copyright and privacy policy (/www.si.edu/copyright/). Smithsonian reserves the right in its sole discretion to remove any content at any time.

Screenwriter Robert Ardrey, Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for American Broadcasting Company and traveled to Africa from June 1966 to August 1966.

Lioness Spotted Nursing a Leopard Cub in Tanzania

Smithsonian Magazine

Nothing warms the heart quite like unlikely friendships between members of two different species—just look at all these adorable animal buddies. Now, there may be one more to add to the list.

A very unusual instance of interspecies mingling was captured at the Ngorongoro conservation area in Tanzania. As Damian Carrington reports for the Guardian, a lioness was spotted nursing a leopard cub—creatures usually at odds with one another. It is the first time that a wild cat has been observed  “adopting” the infant of a another species.

Photos of the unprecedented interaction, which were snapped by a guest at the Ndutu Lodge in Ngorongoro, show the cub nuzzling up against the lioness as it drinks its fill. Known as Nosikitok, the five-year-old lioness is being monitored by the conservation group KopeLion, which seeks to prevent locals from hunting Ngorongoro’s lions. The cub is believed to be about three weeks old.

Just why these two creatures came together remains unclear. Nosikitok is known to have several cubs of her own similar in age to the leopard; Luke Hunter, president of the big cat conservation group Panthera, tells Carrington that the lioness is likely “awash with a ferocious maternal drive.” It is possible, he theorized, that Nosikitok’s babies died and she “found the leopard cub in her bereaved state.” The whereabouts of the leopard’s mother are not known.

While the cub lucked out with its new and willing supplier of nosh, its chances of survival are low, Jason Bittle reports for National Geographic. If Nosikitok’s maternal instincts override her natural impulse to kill the leopard, she will have to bring it back to her den—where her hungry cubs, if they are still alive, will be waiting. Even without little lions competeing for a drink, the leopord cub will have to contend with hyenas, wildfires, and other threats during the denning period. Only 40 percent of cubs in the Serengeti area survive their first year, according to Christopher Torchia of the Associated Press.

Then there is the matter of Nosikitok’s pride. “Lions have very rich, complicated social relationships in which they recognize individuals—by sight and by roars—and so they are very well equipped to distinguish their cubs from others,” Hunter told Carrington. “If the rest of the pride finds the cub, it is likely it would be killed.”

According to Torchia, Nosikitok was spotted one day after the photographs were taken, unaccompanied by cubs of any kind. Of course, everyone would like to believe that a happy ending awaits Nosikitok and the little leopard, which may have found one another in their hour of need. But alas, nature is a cruel, cruel mistress.

Lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and chemostratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous sediments from southern Tanzania: Tanzania Drilling Project Sites 21 to 26

Smithsonian Libraries
The 2007 drilling season by the Tanzania Drilling Project (TDP) reveals a much more expanded Upper Cretaceous sequence than was recognized previously in the Lindi region of southern Tanzania. This TDP expedition targeted recovery of excellently preserved microfossils (foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils) for Late Cretaceous paleoclimatic, paleoceanographic and biostratigraphic studies. A total of 501.17 m of core was drilled at six Upper Cretaceous sites (TDP Sites 21, 22, 23, 24, 24B and 26) and a thin Miocene-Pleistocene section (TDP Site 25). Microfossil preservation at all these sites is good to excellent, with foraminifera often showing glassy shells and consistently good preservation of small and delicate nannofossil taxa. In addition to adding to our knowledge of the subsurface geology, new surface exposures were mapped and the geological map of the region is revised herein. TDP Sites 24, 24B and 26 collectively span the upper Albian to lower-middle Turonian (planktonic foraminiferal Planomalina buxtorfi to Whiteinella archaeocretacea Zones and calcareous nannofossil zones UC0a to UC8a). The bottom of TDP Site 21 is barren, but the rest of the section represents the uppermost Cenomanian to Coniacian (W. archaeocretacea to Dicarinella concavata Zones and nannofossil zones UC5c to UC10). Bulk organic [delta] 13C data suggest recovery of part of Ocean Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) from these four sites. In the upper part of this interval, the lower Turonian nannofossil zones UC6a-7 are characterized by a low-diversity nannoflora that may be related to OAE2 surface-water conditions. TDP Site 22 presents a 122-m-thick, lower-middle Turonian (W. archaeocretacea to H. helvetica Zones) sequence that includes the nannofossil zones UC6a(-7?), but invariable isotopic curves. Further, a lower to upper Campanian (Globotruncana ventricosa to Radotruncana calcarata Zones and nannofossil subzones UC15bTP to UC15dTP) succession was drilled at TDP Site 23. Lithologies of the new sites include thin units of gray, medium to coarse sandstones, separating much thicker intervals of dark claystones with organic-rich laminated parts, irregular silty to fine sandstone partings, and rare inoceramid and ammonite debris. These lithofacies are interpreted to have been deposited in outer shelf and upper slope settings and indicate relatively stable sedimentary conditions during most of the Late Cretaceous on the Tanzanian margin.

Tanzanian guide with mountain climbing equipment, Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

During his trip to Tanzania, Eliot Elisofon and his crew ascended Mount Kilimanjaro. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for American Broadcasting Company and traveled to Africa from June 1966 to August 1966.

Overnight camp on the mountain slopes, Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

During his trip to Tanzania, Eliot Elisofon and his crew ascended Mount Kilimanjaro. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for American Broadcasting Company and traveled to Africa from June 1966 to August 1966.

Tanzanian guides on the mountain slopes, Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

During his trip to Tanzania, Eliot Elisofon and his crew ascended Mount Kilimanjaro. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for American Broadcasting Company and traveled to Africa from June 1966 to August 1966.

Tanzanian guide with mountain climbing equipment, Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

During his trip to Tanzania, Eliot Elisofon and his crew ascended Mount Kilimanjaro. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for American Broadcasting Company and traveled to Africa from June 1966 to August 1966.

Tanzanian guide with mountain climbing equipment, Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

During his trip to Tanzania, Eliot Elisofon and his crew ascended Mount Kilimanjaro. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for American Broadcasting Company and traveled to Africa from June 1966 to August 1966.

Tanzanian guides on the mountain slopes, Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

During his trip to Tanzania, Eliot Elisofon and his crew ascended Mount Kilimanjaro. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for American Broadcasting Company and traveled to Africa from June 1966 to August 1966.

Overnight camp on the mountain slopes, Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

During his trip to Tanzania, Eliot Elisofon and his crew ascended Mount Kilimanjaro. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for American Broadcasting Company and traveled to Africa from June 1966 to August 1966.

Overnight camp on the mountain slopes, Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

During his trip to Tanzania, Eliot Elisofon and his crew ascended Mount Kilimanjaro. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for American Broadcasting Company and traveled to Africa from June 1966 to August 1966.

Overnight camp on the mountain slopes, Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

During his trip to Tanzania, Eliot Elisofon and his crew ascended Mount Kilimanjaro. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for American Broadcasting Company and traveled to Africa from June 1966 to August 1966.

Overnight camp on the mountain slopes, Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

During his trip to Tanzania, Eliot Elisofon and his crew ascended Mount Kilimanjaro. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for American Broadcasting Company and traveled to Africa from June 1966 to August 1966.

Overnight camp on the mountain slopes, Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

During his trip to Tanzania, Eliot Elisofon and his crew ascended Mount Kilimanjaro. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for American Broadcasting Company and traveled to Africa from June 1966 to August 1966.

Overnight camp on the mountain slopes, Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, [slide]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.

During his trip to Tanzania, Eliot Elisofon and his crew ascended Mount Kilimanjaro. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for American Broadcasting Company and traveled to Africa from June 1966 to August 1966.
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