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“Lost” 18th-Century Garden Found at Scottish Castle

Smithsonian Magazine

Culzean Castle, one of the grandest estates in Scotland, is best known for its sumptuous landscapes and structures, designed by famed architect Robert Adam in the late 18th century. There is a sweeping swan pond, a collection of foliage-filled greenhouses, and a towering, turreted castle situated dramatically on a cliff. But as Martin Hannan reports for The National, archaeologists recently uncovered an earlier feature of the sprawling property at Culzean: the remains of a walled garden that survived Adams’ renovations.

The stone walls of the garden were unearthed during a construction project to improve the drainage at Fountain Court, a manicured expanse of lawn set below the castle. Stretching for almost 200 feet across the landscape, the walls are “thought to result from work undertaken by Sir John Kennedy of Culzean, 2nd Baronet, in 1733,” the National Trust for Scotland (NTS) said in a statement. John Kennedy’s ancestors acquired the property in the late 16th century, according to Historic Environment Scotland.

The 1733 renovation extended the walls of the garden along the east side of the castle. Lined with a row of fruit trees, the space likely functioned as an enclosed kitchen garden. A 1755 map of the estate did in fact mark the kitchen garden with sketches of plant beds, but archaeologists did not realize that remains of the structure still stood beneath Culzean's grounds.

“[W]e never knew that any of it survived below the immaculate turf of the Fountain Court,” said Derek Alexander, Head of Archaeological Services for the NTS, according to the aforementioned statement.“This work has given us the perfect opportunity to explore a hidden aspect of Culzean’s past.”

In the late 18th century, Culzean was inherited by David Kennedy, “a man who was keen to impress with his wealth and status,” according to the NTS website. Looking to upgrade the estate, Kennedy commissioned Adam to lead a series of opulent building projects at Culzean. The kitchen garden was dismantled—though not completely—during the renovations and moved further afield, thereby improving the view from the castle, according to the BBC.

The site where the kitchen garden once stood continued to evolve over the course of the next century. In the mid 1800s, the area was used as a bowling green. In 1876, a large fountain was installed on the turf. Today, the aptly-named "Fountain Court" is popular amongst tourists and wedding parties, who have trod across the land, not knowing that a secret garden lay beneath their feet.

(National Trust for Scotland)

ʻAe Kai: A Culture Lab on Convergence

Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Program
A weekend-long creative experience featuring 50+ artists, scholars and cultural practitioners from Hawaiʻi, the Pacific Islands and beyond 🏄🏾 Details: http://smithsonianapa.org/aekai The Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center is pleased to present ʻAe Kai: A Culture Lab on Convergence on July 7-9, 2017 in Honolulu, Hawaiʻi. ʻAe Kai will take place in the former site of Foodland in Ala Moana Center, an 18,000 sq ft supermarket situated in the neighborhood between Waikiki and Kaka‘ako, and will explore the meeting points of humanity and nature in Hawaiʻi, the Pacific Islands and beyond. Following 2016’s transformational culture labs – CrossLines in Washington, D.C. and CTRL+ALT in New York City – ‘Ae Kai will continue SmithsonianAPA's practice of community building through curated artmaking. The biggest Culture Lab to date, most of ‘Ae Kai’s participants are based or rooted in Hawaiʻi, with the majority of artists identifying as Pacific Islanders. FEATURING: AARON KAWAI’AE’A w/ TAVANA Acrylic works with traditional & modern themes ABIGAIL KAHILIKIA ROMANCHAK w/ CHARLES COHAN Traditional printmaking with a contemporary vision ADAM LABUEN w/ ALEX ABALOS Work that blends science and fantastical portraiture ADRIENNE KEAHI PAO Photography exploring fantasy & identity ALOHA GOT SOUL Excavating rare & forgotten Hawaiian music ANGEL CHANG Fashion inspired by rural Chinese handweaving BRANDY NĀLANI MCDOUGALL Tracing indigeneity & colonialism through bilingual poetry CALVIN HOE Mahi ʻAi Kalo (taro farmer) & artisan CARL FRANKLIN KA’AILĀ’AU PAO Multidisciplinary art exploring kaona and wā CHAD SHOMURA w/ LINH HUỲNH Experiments in stranger intimacy CHARLES PHILIPPE JEAN-PIERRE Paintings & illustrations that contrast perception & reality CHELOVE DC-based street art investigating indigeneity today CRAIG SANTOS PEREZ Poetic bridges from Guam to Hawaiʻi to California DR. KEANU SAI Complicating the Hawaiian kingdom's historical narrative HAVANA LIBRE Uncovering Cuba's hidden surf culture JAHRA ‘RAGER’ WASASALA Movement & poetry rooted in New Zealand & Fiji JESS X. SNOW, KIT YAN & PETER PA Queer Asian American storytelling through visual poetry JOCELYN KAPUMEALANI NG Special effects & poetry with a fascination with the dark JOHN “PRIME” HINA Hawaiian storytelling through street art KATELIN LILI’INOE BRANCO Illustrations inspired by animal/human/environmental interactions KATHY JETÑIL-KIJINER Poetry & performance exploring life in the Marshall Islands KAYLA BRIËT Film & music based on Native American traditions & futures KEALOPIKO Contemporary fashion rooted in traditional Hawaiian practices LEHUA M. TAITANO Art & poetry exploring queer Chamoru identity LÉULI LUNAʻI ESHRĀGHI Multi-practice art centered on indigeneity & queer futures LISA JARRETT Comparing Self & Other as an American Black woman LOW LEAF Bridging Los Angeles & the Philippines through DIY music MAIKA’I TUBBS Sculptures from found materials to explore consumption & ecology MAILE ANDRADE Multimedia exploring Native Hawaiian creative expression MASPAZ The power of typography & color through graffiti MAZI MUTAFA Hip hop as a tool for transformative learning MONICA JAHAN BOSE Collaborative fabric & printmaking to explore gender & climate change NAOKO WOWSUGI Reciprocal exchange between art & the world NICOLE A. MOORE The intersection of African American history & Hawaiʻi PŌHAKU STONE Revitalizing ancient surf & he'e hōlua (Hawaiian sledding) RICKY TAGABAN Material culture to explore traditional & contemporary Native Alaskan life ROSANNA RAYMOND Multi-disciplinary art focused on contemporary Pacific Island culture SHIZU SALDAMANDO Portraits about social constructs of identity & subcultures SID M. DUENAS Multi-platform art that challenges the effectiveness of language SLOANE LEONG Sci-fi & futurism from an Asian Latina Polynesian cartoonist SOLOMON ENOS Illustration/sculpture/painting depicting Hawaiian fantasy TERISA SIAGATONU Queer Samoan poetry & healing arts THE SURF PROFESSOR Crafting the Papa Heʻe Nalu (traditional native Hawaiian surfboard) WIENA LIN Sensory experiences about material culture & tech waste WOODEN WAVE Murals & illustrations that merge fantasy & sustainability

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National Museum of the American Indian
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