Skip to Content

Found 5,329 Resources

Le origini umane; ricerche paleontologiche

Smithsonian Libraries
Also available online.

Elecresource

Feces (Human?)

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
FOUND IN DEBRIS OF HOLE EXCAVATED BY UNKNOWN INDIVIDUAL. CRUMBLY GRAY-BROWN FECES WHICH COLLECTOR SUGGESTED MAY BE OF HUMAN ORIGIN. ONE PIECE OF FECES PLUS THREE SMALLER FRAGMENTS FOUND, ALTHOUGH TAYLOR ONLY TESTED ONE PIECE. SIZE RANGES FROM L= .60 CM

Studien zur Vorgeschichte des Menschen, von G. Schwalbe

Smithsonian Libraries
Special number of Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie, issued May 26, 1906.

Also available online.

Elecresource

Primeval man: an examination of some recent speculations, by the duke of Argyll

Smithsonian Libraries
Also available online.

Elecresource

Das Alter und der Ursprung des Menschengeschlechts / von Friedrich Pfaff

Smithsonian Libraries
Also available online.

Elecresource

The evolution of man: a popular exposition of the principal points of human ontogeny and phylogeny. From the German of Ernst Haeckel ..

Smithsonian Libraries
Authorized edition.

Also available online.

Elecresource

ANTH copy v.1 missing p. 394-410; Plate VIII-IX.

La terre avant l'histoire; les origines de la vie et de l'homme, par Edmond Perrier ..

Smithsonian Libraries
Cover title.

Also available online.

Elecresource

The origin of man, by Birger R. Headstrom

Smithsonian Libraries
Also available online.

Elecresource

Der Bau des Menschen als Zeugnis für seine Vergangenheit. Von Dr. R. Wiedersheim

Smithsonian Libraries
Also available online.

Elecresource

Pithecanthropus Erectus. Eine menschenaehnliche Uebergangsform aus Java. Von Eug. Dubois

Smithsonian Libraries
"Nachdruck."

First published 1894.

Also available online.

Elecresource

Die menschenähnlichen Zähne aus dem Bohnerz der Schwäbischen Alb

Smithsonian Libraries
"Sep.-Abdruck aus Jahreshefte des Vereins für vaterlandische Naturkunde in Württemberg, 1898."

Also available online.

Elecresource

Human Effigy Pipe

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
Style: Effigy Period: Middle Mississippian Raw Material 2: Oolitic Luster: Dull Shape/form: Human Alteration: Weathered Manufacturing Notes: Traces obliterated by leaching/weathering. No original surface remains. Design: Kneeling human holding elbow pipe. Symbols: Human Residue: Only the very base of bore hole has soot. Use Trace: Soot. Right hand and wrist are broken away. Head is creased as though struck w/a tool, perhaps this is excavation damage. Comments: Similar stylistically to 448663, except that arms encircle the elbow pipe w/hands clasped in front. Stem extends out from abdomen so smoker faces the figure. Pipe stem and bowl are realistic stem and bowl, instead of the bowl being shaped like a ceramic pot. Figure is raised up on forelegs so that there is a space between the legs on the base. Feet are turned inward w/toes pointing toward the spine. This would not be a comfortable way to sit. Figure wears hair pulled back into an occipital bun. Head is tilted backwards so that it extends beyond the line formed by the spine. Ergo, length measurement is total horiz distance from back of head to front of stem. Body length is 8 cm.

Were "Hobbits" Human?

Smithsonian Magazine

In 2003, researchers excavating a limestone cave on the remote Indonesian island of Flores made an extraordinary discovery: the 18,000-year-old bones of a woman whose skull was less than one-third the size of our own.

Modern humans were already living throughout the Old World during her time—yet she was physically very different from them. The researchers, led by paleoanthropologist Peter Brown and archaeologist Michael Morwood, both of Australia's University of New England, concluded that the woman represented a previously undiscovered species of archaic human that had survived for thousands of years after the Neanderthals had died out.

They named her Homo floresiensis and nicknamed her the "Hobbit," after the diminutive villagers from J.R.R. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings trilogy. The team has since recovered bones from as many as nine such people, all about a yard tall, the most recent of whom lived about 12,000 years ago.

The Hobbits of Flores created an uproar among anthropologists, causing them to question assumptions about evolution and human origins that had held sway for more than half a century. Some agree that the "Hobbits" are a distinct species. But others, such as anthropologist Robert Martin of Chicago's Field Museum, say the bones belong to small Homo sapiens—perhaps people who suffered from microcephaly, a condition in which the brain fails to grow to normal size. Five years after the initial discovery, says Martin, "nobody's budging an inch."

Some critics say that it would have been impossible for a hominid with a brain the size of an orange to make the sophisticated tools found at Ling Bua Cave—let alone hunt with them—and that they must have been crafted by modern humans. But supporters of the separate species hypothesis modeled the shape and structure of the Hobbit brain and say it could have made the tools.

When Smithsonian anthropologist Matthew Tocheri and other researchers analyzed the Hobbitt wrist, they found a primitive, wedge-shaped trapezoid bone common to great apes and early hominids but not to Neanderthals and modern humans. That fits a theory that Hobbits are less closely related to Homo sapiens than to Homo erectus—the human ancestor that is thought to have died out 100,000 years ago. Morwood has found crude Homo erectus-type stone tools on Flores that may be 840,000 years old.

The skeptics retort that disease is a more likely explanation for the wrist bones. A study this year speculated that the Flores people could have suffered from hypothyroidism, a form of cretinism found relatively frequently in modern Indonesia that, the researchers say, could also produce deformed, primitive-appearing wrists.

Rick Potts, director of the Smithsonian's Human Origins Program, who once doubted that the Hobbits were a separate species, says he's changed his mind: "Flores was this wing in the building of human evolution that we didn't know about. There is no reason that 800,000 years of experimentation could not evolve a small but advanced brain."

Human Effigy Pipe

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
Style: Effigy Raw Material 2: Oolitic Luster: Dull Shape/form: Human Alteration: Weathered Manufacturing Notes: Manufacturing traces mostly obliterated by weathering. Round pot has indented standing flat rim. Design: Kneeling human holding pot. Surface Modification: Polished Symbols: Open mouth, seated figure Residue: Sediment, sooty residue and cake in bowl. Bore is clogged w/residue. Some brown residue on posterior face. Use Trace: Inside of bowl is darkened from burning. Surface leached and eroded away, but features are still visible. Comments: Figure kneeling w/legs folded underneath body. Arms are outstretched holding up round pot which forms the pipe bowl. Stem issues from abdomen. Head is slightly turned to the rt. side. Pot (bowl) is held slightly to the left side, so that the pot is not precisely above the stem. Lg nose and mouth visible. Ears are modelled realistically. Long hair or headdress flows down the back of the head and extends to the waist. Original surface is visible on the posterior base, where the buttocks are clearly modelled. Original surface also extant on the outer posterior pot (bowl), which may have been protected. Triangular extension of a triangular form between the buttocks on the base might be genitalia.

Jar with human head

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery

Bunch Of Human Hair

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
Anthropology catalogue ledger book identifies Catalogue #s E20827 and E20911 as Swan original # 61. List in accession file identifies # 61 as "1 box containing complete outfit of an Indian medicine man, Hannegan Indians, Klawark village, P. of Wales Island, Alaska." Catalogue Nos. E20828 - 38 may be related objects?

Ivory Carving Human Figure

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
E35921 - 35926 are Illus. Fig. 115b, p. 107 in Black, Lydia. 2003. Aleut art = Unangam aguqaadangin. Virginia Beach, VA: Donning Co. Publishers. They are identified there: "Human figurines from Attu with removable arms and weapons. Pegs at bottom of feet indicate that these figures were originally on a plate or a pedestal. Note minimal emphasis on genitalia and egg-shaped bodies." These figures are also described on p. 112: "The bodies are ovaloid, the legs ... crude appendages in a forklike shape. The arms are long tubes inserted into holes drilled in the shoulders, peg-like .... The position of the arms varies from figure to figure. One of the figures "holds" a long spear, also of tubular shape, in the right hand. Other figures, too, apparently held weapons which are now lost. The heads are crude ovaloids. Interestingly, the only parallel to this type of anthropomorphic sculptures on the North Pacific Rim appears to be found in the Evenk (Tungus) sculpture of the Sea of Okhotsk littoral and in Siberia in the Yenisei River valley. The similarity lies in style as well as in the pegged attachment of limbs and, in the particular case of the figurine holding a spear, in the manner in which the weapon itself and the way it is attached to the hand are represented."

Copper Plate (Human Figure)

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
Illus. front cover and Fig. 1, p. 150 in Townsend, Richard F., Robert V. Sharp, and Garrick Alan Bailey. 2004. Hero, hawk, and open hand: American Indian art of the ancient Midwest and South. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago. Figure caption identifies it as "Copper repousse plate depicting Birdman, one of the two so-called Rogan plates, ... 13th century [A.D.], copper, h. 27.9 cm .... This heirloom copper repousse plate is of Cahokian origin but was recovered as part of the regalia of an Etowah chief. The image incorporates the Birdman theme with specific symbols of the cultural hero Red Horn (note his long braid of hair, a symbolic horn), He-Who-Is-Hit-with-Deer-Lungs (note the bilobed-arrow headdress); the hero is also named Morning Star in various accounts. As the figure dances in triumph, he brandishes a mace in his right hand and dangles a trophy head from his left. This plaque would have served as an emblem of office awarded a chieftain, and would have accompanied him as a sign of his strength among the ancestral spirits." It is also noted on p. 156 that the Birdman motif is identified as Morning Star in the essay in the book "The Cahokian Expression: Creating Court and Cult" by James A. Brown, pp. 105-123. Illus. Fig. 93, left, p. 94 in Krech, Shepard. 2009. Spirits of the air: birds & American Indians in the South. Athens: University of Georgia Press. Identified there as copperplate depicting being with human and bird attributes, repousse sheet copper, ca. AD 1300 - 1375. Representation of other-than-human being or important man who has appropriated avian attributes, this individual displays a forked motif at the corner of the mouth and wears symbols of office and power around the neck and body, or on the head, or holds them and trophies in their hands.

This object was on display in National Museum of Natural History exhibit "Objects of Wonder", 2017 - 2021. Exhibit label identifies as a Copper repousse plate of falcon dancer, Mississipian, Etowah mounds, Georgia, 1300 - 1350. "The dancer's wings and distinctive forked eye pattern represent a Peregrine Falcon, a symbol of the sky world of spirits and ancestors. The mace and trophy head reflect prowess in battle."

The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex / by Charles Darwin ... ; in two volumes ; with illustrations

Smithsonian Libraries
"The word 'evolution' occurs, for the first time in any of Darwin's works, on page 2 of the first volume of the first edition, before its appearance in the sixth edition of The origin of species in the following year" -- Freeman.

Half-title.

"London: Printed by William Clowes and Sons, Limited, Stamford Street and Charing Cross" -- Verso of title page.

Publisher's advertisements on t.p. verso of volume 1 and 16 pages at end of both volumes, dated January 1871.

Errata on verso of title page to volume 2.

Freeman, R.B. Works of Charles Darwin (2nd ed.), no. 937

Garrison, F.H. Medical bibliography (Garrison and Morton) (5th ed.) 170

Osler, W. Bibliotheca Osleriana, 1572

Also available online.

Also issued online.

SCNHRB copy (39088004321303, 39088004321311) has blind-embossed stamp on title page of volume 1: Bureau of American Ethnology Library [acc. no.] 11745. Stamped in red: Bureau of American Ethnology Library 1896. Stamped on verso of title page of volume 2: Smithsonian Institution National Museum Jul 22 [year?] [ms. acc. no.] 227726.

SCNHRB copy bound in original green publisher's cloth, title and gilt ornamental rules on spine.

Elecresource
1-24 of 5,329 Resources