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John Peabody Harrington (1884-1961)

Smithsonian Institution Archives
John Peabody Harrington (1884-1961), ethnologist at the Bureau of American Ethnology, July 1935. This photograph was redistributed in October 1938 in conjunction with an "Adventures in Science" radio broadcast featuring Harrington.

John Peabody Harrington papers: Cochiti, 1909

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 4, reel 32. Only original documents created by Harrington, his collaborators and field assistants, or notes given to him were microfilmed.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. Also see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 4: A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Southwest," edited by Elaine L. Mills and Ann J. Brickfield (1986). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%204.pdf

This subseries of the Southwest series contains John P. Harrington's Cochiti research. His notes on Cochiti are scanty, and they appear to have been collected during the latter half of 1909 when he was working out of Santa Fe, New Mexico, on a fellowship for the School of American Archaeology. The materials consist of vocabulary, ethnographic notes, notes and drafts, and sketches. John Dixon (Juan de Jesus Pancho) provided short general vocabulary and geographic terms. There are also terms for the numbers one to ten in the Santo Domingo dialect. There is also a sizable amount of ethnographic material, principally from his work with Mrs. L. S. Gallup and Marcial Quintana. Mrs. Gallup and Harrington compiled a Cochiti census from an unidentified source dated July 1, 1909. The subseries also contains notes apparently intended for future publication. "The Stone Idols of Cochiti" is in both manuscript and typescript forms and was written at the request of Edgar L. Hewett. A second brief manuscript touches on Cochiti history and language. The few sketches, two in water color and two consisting of rough pencil outlines, include masks and regalia. The artists are not identified.

John Peabody Harrington papers: Paipai/Kiliwa, undated

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 3, reel 171, which also contains materials from other subseries. Only original documents created by Harrington, his collaborators and field assistants, or notes given to him were microfilmed.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. For a comprehensive description of these materials, see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 3, A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Southern California/Basin," edited by Elaine L. Mills and Ann J. Brickfield (1986). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%203.pdf

This subseries of the Southern California/Basin series contains John P. Harrington's research on Paipai and Kiliwa. Materials include notes from interviews with Kiliwa speakers Ricardo Roche, Carmen Melendrez, Manuel Manriquez, and Pancho. They also provided comparative terms in Paipai and those dialects designated by Harrington as Rosareno, Domingueno, Borjeno, and Judilla (abbreviated Jud. or J.), the last coming from Maria Roche. The information includes names of persons, local genealogy, vocabulary lists, and a few tribenames. Petra Marron, Marcial, Carmen [Melendrez?], Rito, and Dorotea provided placenames and additional genealogies. Paipai placenames and a vocabulary came from Rita, and Leonardo provided a Kiliwa-Paipai vocabulary as well as placenames and names of local inhabitants. Locations which Harrington either visited or discussed include San Telmo, San Miguel, Socorro, San Regis, and El Rosario. A verse based on Baja California folklore in an unidentified handwriting completes this section.

John Peabody Harrington (1884-1961) (left) and Chief Wi'ishi of Mission Indians, California (right)

Smithsonian Institution Archives
left to right: John Peabody Harrington (1884-1961), ethnologist, Bureau of American Ethnology, and Chief Wi'ishi of Mission Indians. Harrington was a specialist in the native peoples of California. Here Chief Wi'ishi is showing techniques of psychic duels.

John Peabody Harrington papers: Jemez, 1909-1910

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 4, reels 33-35. Only original documents created by Harrington, his collaborators and field assistants, or notes given to him were microfilmed.

John P. Harrington's financial reports and the few dated field notes indicate that he worked at Jemez intermittently between September 1909 and September 1910. Harrington worked primarily with Juan Pedro Coloque and Cristino Yeppa, but the names of others appear in Harrington's expense accounts. One specific session with Coloque took place at the U.S. Indian School in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on September 26, 1909. The local postmaster, L. Miller (or possibly C. Miller), a young man of about eighteen years, provided what sparse nonlinguistic information the notes contain.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. Also see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 4: A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Southwest," edited by Elaine L. Mills and Ann J. Brickfield (1986). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%204.pdf

This subseries of the Southwest series contains Harrington's Jemez research. There is an assortment of notes on vocabulary and grammar, with some ethnographic content as well. Some of the information was provided by Cristino Yeppa, and Juan Pedro Coloque gave placename information (September 26, 1909). The material includes such categories as clans, relationship terms, body parts, material culture, and phenomena. In addition, there are several sketches of figures and houses in color (artist unidentified), a rough map, and nonlinguistic information from L. Miller. Several hunting stories were recorded in Jemez and English. There is also a translation of the Lord's Prayer. The main body of Jemez material consists of two boxes of slips containing a broad mixture of vocabulary, grammar, and sentences, with some general ethnographic information included. The random nature of the notes precludes a specific arrangement. More than half the notes were hand copied by Miss Druel and the copies follow the order of Harrington's original slips. "E" and "S" are mentioned infrequently as sources. A portion of the notes were part of former B.A.E. MS 4679. The subseries also contains census records for Jemez Pueblo that Harrington copied from an unidentified source. Some are copied into a notebook, but the most substantive material is found on annotated pages with detailed ethnographic and linguistic information. Harrington added the individuals' Indian names with translations into English, and tied together family relationships. Field notes indicate that he accumulated this information prior to March 9, 1910.

John Peabody Harrington papers: Picuris, 1920-1928

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 4, reel 37. Only original documents created by Harrington, his collaborators and field assistants, or notes given to him were microfilmed.

In 1928 the Bureau of American Ethnology published John P. Harrington's "Picuris Children's Stories with Texts and Songs." Helen H. Roberts transcribed the music and wrote a detailed analysis of the songs. Harrington had proposed an interlinear translation as the most efficacious format, but the article appeared with Picuris and English on facing pages. Rosendo Vargas dictated the linguistic information and rendered the songs. Field notes indicate that Harrington worked with Vargas in the summer of 1921, having possibly laid the groundwork for these sessions late in 1920. Preparation and translation of the notes for publication began upon his return to Washington in April 1922 and they were ready by late 1924. Proofs were in hand in 1926, at which time Harrington also translated Roberts' songs.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. Also see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 4: A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Southwest," edited by Elaine L. Mills and Ann J. Brickfield (1986). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%204.pdf

Most of these files constituted former B.A.E. Manuscripts 2298, 2300, 2301, 2302, 2303, 2304, 2305, and 2572.

This subseries of the Southwest series contains Harrington's Picuris files. Virtually all of the material is related to Harrington's "Picuris Children's Stories with Texts and Songs."

Materials include handwritten drafts with interlineal English translations and written and typed notes on large sheets and slips, encompassing a brief glossary of Picuris terms (not published) and some grammatical and ethnographic elaborations. There are also notes, music, and galleys for the songs, but no notes for Helen Roberts' forty-eight page analysis among the papers. According to the field notes, a Mrs. Mullen drew the Giant and Elf illustrations facing page 326. Many of the titles were reworded in the final publication. The subseries also includes galley proofs of the manuscript. In addition, there are handwritten notes for the glossary, comments on phonetics, and notes to the printer. His notes also include some Taos comparisons, mainly based on Harry S. Budd's Taos vocabulary (B.A.E. ms. 1028). Vargas, apparently fluent in Picuris and Taos, provided the Taos terms. Translations of the Lord's Prayer and of the hymn "Nearer My God to Thee" are on file, but only the former appeared in the publication. Also included are Harrington's comments on the notes of H. J. Spinden.

John Peabody Harrington papers: Serrano, 1918

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 3, reel 101. Only original documents created by Harrington, his collaborators and field assistants, or notes given to him were microfilmed.

John P. Harrington accumulated Serrano material between August 28 and November 25, 1918 on a series of placename trips in the San Bernardino Mountains between Victorville and the Marongo Reservation with Serrano speakers Manuel Santos (Ms, MS) and Tomas Manuel (Tom). Other informants include Ernest Juan, Albert Juan, Tomas Manuel's son, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Marango, Jose Zalvidea's son (Zalvidea Sr. was a Gabrielino), and "Mac.," possibly Macario Marcos, who had given Serrano equivalences to Harrington for his Cahuilla notes.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. For a comprehensive description of these materials, see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 3, A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Southern California/Basin," edited by Elaine L. Mills and Ann J. Brickfield (1986). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%203.pdf

This subseries of the Southern California/Basin series contains John P. Harrington's research on Serrano.

His linguistic and ethnographic field notes deal mostly with names of places visited or viewed during the car and walking trips which Harrington took with Manuel Santos and Tomas Manuel. Liberally interspersed is ethnographic material on such subjects as tribenames, plants, animals, games, myths, and folklore. Sketch maps often accompany the descriptions of an area. Some of the material is difficult to read and the pagination is erratic. There are Gabrielino and occasional Cahuilla terms taken from Harrington's own notes. Following the field notes are typed or handwritten lists of place and tribe names distilled from both the Serrano and Gabrielino notes and from Edward Winslow Gifford's "Clans and Moieties in Southern California." There are also brief notes of an interview with sixty-five-year-old Ernest Juan, who described Manuel Santos as the oldest man of the tribe.

The semantic slipfile basically represents a 1934 reorganization by Harrington of his 1918 field notes, many of which his assistant Marta J. Herrera typed and mounted on large sheets of paper, evidently preparatory to rehearings or corrections. Since no new data were obtained, the large sheets were cut to slipfile size to make the material less bulky. The first group of slips generally follows the order of the field notes, although not all notes were copied and some new information was interspersed. The language was sometimes edited for clarification. Another group was organized by region. It includes some Gabrielino equivalences and a few tribenames. The last two groups of placename slips mark a further reorganization rather than an addition of new information. Manuel Santos and Tomas Manuel were the principal sources. Inserted for comparison purposes were some of the Serrano terms that Eugenia Mendez contributed to Harrington's Kitanemuk notes.

John Peabody Harrington papers: Diegueno, 1913-1933

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 3, reels 169-170. Only original documents created by Harrington, his collaborators and field assistants, or notes given to him were microfilmed.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. For a comprehensive description of these materials, see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 3, A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Southern California/Basin," edited by Elaine L. Mills and Ann J. Brickfield (1986). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%203.pdf

This subseries of the Southern California/Basin series contains John P. Harrington's research on Diegueno. The records have been subdivided somewhat arbitrarily into U.S. and Baja groupings with a different set of Diegueno speakers in each area. Several dialects are mentioned but in general those in the Campo area refer to the U.S. Diegueno and those in the La Huerta area are Baja Diegueno. Harrington accumulated data through trips accompanied by several native speakers. He rode through the coastal areas between San Diego and the Mexican border, and from the border as far south as Guerrero Negro. Except for a section of slips extracted from his notes and later reheard, and an account of Angel Quilpe (also referred to as An., Quilp, Quirp, Kwirp) building a house, Harrington's Diegueno material remain a potpourri of linguistic and ethnographic data as originally recorded in the field. The largest set of original field notes are from his travels about the Mesa Grande and Santa Isabel areas and relate predominantly to placenames. Rough sketch maps accompany some of the notes. Amongst his Baja files is a notebook containing placenames and some vocabulary recorded by Harrington's guide, Teofilo Guadalupe Silvas, who lived in the Ensenada area. This subseries also contains small notebooks with additional Diegueno data from Baja, and to a lesser extent, the U.S. The notes are sketchy, consisting mainly of references to people and places as far south as Guerrero Negro. There are some Cupeno words and phrases. In addition, there is a brief set of slips organized into semantic categories with linguistic and ethnographic information provided by Isidro Nejo and Edward H. Davis.

John Peabody Harrington papers: Fernandeno, 1916, 1933

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 3, reel 106. Only original documents created by Harrington, his collaborators and field assistants, or notes given to him were microfilmed.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. For a comprehensive description of these materials, see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 3, A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Southern California/Basin," edited by Elaine L. Mills and Ann J. Brickfield (1986). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%203.pdf

This sparse subseries of the Southern California/Basin series contains John P. Harrington's research on Fernandeno. It consists mainly of field notes given by Setimo Lopez. Sporadic dating and other records indicate October 1916 as the probable time of elicitation. Data include vocabulary, notes on local placename trips with Lopez around the San Fernando Valley, and tribenames. There are also comments on placenames, some based on names in the baptismal records at Mission San Fernando (identified by the abbreviation "FIb"), which Harrington had copied in 1915. Charles Bell, A. C. Caldwell, and Mrs. William Brannon provided nonlinguistic information.

Harrington's wife at the time, Carobeth, was with him in California in 1916 and recorded several texts from Juana and Juan Melendrez. She wrote them in a mixture of English and Spanish, and there are no Fernandeno annotations. Mr. and Mrs. Melendrez accompanied Harrington on a trip through the San Fernando and Chatsworth areas and gave additional ethnographic information, with a sprinkling of Fernandeno terms.

There are linguistic and ethnographic notes resulting from an interview on June 4, 1933, with seventy year-old Martin Feliz of San Fernando. The subseries also contains an unannotated copy of the Lord's Prayer from Exploration du Territoire de l'Oregon, des Californies et de La mer Vermeille by Eugene Duftot de Mofras (1844).

John Peabody Harrington papers: Northern Iroquoian, 1940

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 6, reel 13. Only original documents created by Harrington, his collaborators and field assistants, or notes given to him were microfilmed.

John P. Harrington spent a few days in Ontario in May 1940, where his primary purpose was to interview Delaware speakers. He apparently came into contact, however, with Iroquoian residents Sam Liquors (Lickerish) and Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Davis. According to Delaware field notes, Davis was a storekeeper just west of the Smoothtown home of Josiah Montour, a Delaware informant. Davis was described as a Cayuga Indian, but he provided Mohawk information. Other notes were apparently taken in 1940 at the University of Michigan Linguistics Institute in Ann Arbor, most of them in conjunction with Bureau of American Ethnology ethnologist William N. Fenton. Two of Fenton's informants were Dozy and Shanks. Harrington mentioned John Jimmieson as a third speaker; his name could possibly be Jimmerson.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. For a comprehensive description of these materials, see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 1: A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Northeast/Southeast," edited by Elaine L. Mills and Ann J. Brickfield (1987). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%206.pdf

This subseries of the Northeast/Southeast series contains Harrington's Northern Iroquoian research. Most of this brief section results from his time in Ontario in 1940. The materials consist of Mohawk and Six Nations linguistic notes, Iroquoian songs, and mixed Iroquoian miscellaneous notes. The Mohawk linguistic notes is comprised of eight pages of random notes given by Mr. and Mrs. Davis on May 4, 1940. The Six Nations linguistic notes contains an interview with Sam Liquors, which provided a variety of linguistic information in Mohawk, Tuscarora, and Seneca, with a slight emphasis on placenames and tribenames. The Mohawk material is usually preceded by the labels "Hag." or "Hagersv.," presumably referring to the Ontario town of Hagersville which Harrington visited in May 1940. A few notes on conversations with Fenton are included, probably taken in 1940 at the University of Michigan. Fenton provided further information on Iroquoian songs in a rough, undeveloped stage. (Fenton later published articles on this subject.) An April 1943 note indicates another conversation with Fenton on Seneca. There are a few pages of highly miscellaneous bits of Seneca, Oneida, and Tuscarora material, some of it from J.N.B. Hewitt. Notes on Iroquoian food preparation were excerpted from a number of secondary sources.

John Peabody Harrington papers: Coast Miwok, 1939

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 2, reel 5, which also contains files from other subseries. Only original documents created by Harrington, his collaborators and field assistants, or notes given to him were microfilmed.

The early summer of 1939 found Harrington in San Francisco, California, attending the World's Fair. His proximity to Miwok and Maiduan territory prompted him to work briefly on those languages. Interviews concerning Coast Miwok took place during several weeks in mid-June; the dates June 15, 16, and 25 are specifically mentioned.

Harrington worked with Julia Elgin, a speaker of the Marin dialect, and Marion (Mariano) Miranda, who provided both Bodega and "Nicaseno" [Marin?] forms, and a few Pomo terms. Information of a nonlinguistic nature was furnished by Gib Elgin, Julia's husband; Rose and Bill Gaffney, at whose house Harrington stayed; Mrs. E. S. Karlson of Sebastopol; and Mr. Shields of the Marshall hotel and post office.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. See also "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 2, A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Northern and Central California," edited by Elaine L. Mills (1985). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%202.pdf

This subseries of the Northern and Central California series contains Harrington's research on Coast Miwok.

The majority of the data obtained from Julia Elgin and Marion Miranda consists of comments on the names of old village sites recorded by Samuel A. Barrett (1908). Harrington used extracts from the chapter on Moquelumnan (Miwokan) as a basis for eliciting data from Elgin, then reviewed her information with Miranda. The arrangement of the placenames follows that used by Barrett in his sections on western and southern dialects (pages 303-314).

A little miscellaneous vocabulary and several pages giving biographical information on the informants and on other Miwok are also included. On one page, reference is made to a word seen on the flyleaf of Henry W. Henshaw's San Rafael vocabulary (1888). A partial copy of that manuscript was found elsewhere in the notes, although none of the vocabulary itself was reheard.

In addition to linguistic data, Harrington obtained historical and ethnographic information while in the Coast Miwok region. His major source was Rose Gaffney of Salmon Creek. She provided him with details on the natural history of the area, the lives of the residents and various historical events. Harrington was particularly interested in accounts of Russian influence in the area. While on sidetrips with Gaffney, he made a number of sketch maps of such sites as Fort Ross. Interfiled with his field data are extracts from "The Russians in California" (1933). This section of notes also includes records of Harrington's brief interviews with Mr. Shields of Marshall and Mrs. E. S. Karlson, introduced to him by Rose Gaffney in Sebastopol. As in the linguistic notes, a number of references are made to Isabelle Kelley's' field work in the area.

John Peabody Harrington papers: Tillamook, 1942-1943

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 1, reel 20. Only original documents created by Harrington, his collaborators and field assistants, or notes given to him were microfilmed.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. Also see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 1: A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Alaska/Northwest Coast," edited by Elaine L. Mills (1981). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%201.pdf

This subseries of the Alaska/Northwest Coast series consists of notes recorded during Harrington's survey of Northwest Coast languages undertaken, in part, during an extended period from January 1942 through February 1943. Some information regarding Tillamook dates as early as March or April 1942; much rechecking was certainly done in early June, probably around the 7th to the 10th.

The work began at Bay Center, Washington where Harrington located Sammy Jackson (Sammie), whose father was a Tillamook, at Bay Center, Washington. The remainder of the work was centered at Siletz, Oregon where he contacted Clara Pearson (Clara, rarely Cl.), a speaker of the Nehalem dialect; Louie Fuller (Louey, Louis, Lf.) of the Salmon River region; and his wife (Mrs. Lf.). Most of the native words from these speakers are in Tillamook, with occasional equivalences given in Chinook jargon. There are some Clatsop data in the section on placenames. Comparative data from other Oregon residents include Alsea from John Albert (Ja. or Jack) and Lower Umpqua from Frank Drew (Frank) and Spencer Scott (Spencer). Several references are made to Ada Collins, a speaker of the "Rogue River language." There are also a number of "rehearings" of Cowlitz and Chehalis terms from Emma Luscier (Em.) of Bay Center and Lizzie Johnson (Liz.) of Oakville, Washington. Nonlinguistic information was provided by Harry Mitchell, Louie Smith, Larry Hofer, Mark Gray Collson (or Colson), his wife Margaret (Marg.), and his son Mark Collson, Jr.

Drawings of specimens and sketch maps are scattered throughout the vocabulary files. There are also references to maps Harrington examined in the Portland Public Library. In addition, he checked over data in an Oregon Coast Highway pamphlet, an article by Silas B. Smith (1901), and Franz Boas' "Traditions of the Tillamook" (1898). A block of ethnographic notes relating to canoe burial is included with the material culture vocabulary. A small section of comments on Boas' "Notes on the Tillamook" follow the original data. In addition, there are abstracts in English of several myths told by Clara Pearson having to do with the etymology or mythological importance of Tillamook placenames. There are also a few notes on phonetics and a number of paradigms.

John Peabody Harrington papers: Lummi/Nespelem, 1942

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 1, reel 15, which also contains material from other subseries. Only original documents created by Harrington, his collaborators and field assistants, or notes given to him were microfilmed.

No date is given for John P. Harrington's study of Lummi. From the format of the notes it seems likely that the fieldwork was done in 1942--probably in January just after his return from Aleut territory. He worked primarily with Patrick George (referred to as, 'Chief ') and his cousin Julius A. Charles (shortened to Mr. Charles or Mr. Chas). Some of the work was done at George's home at Fish Point on the Lummi Indian Reservation. Part may have been done in nearby Bellingham, Washington. Addie George, a Nespelem woman acting as interpreter, was also present at the sessions. Limited amounts of nonlinguistic data were obtained from H. C. Banner, Sidney Jones, Carl Brandur, and an Icelandic couple, Mr. and Mrs. Westmann.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. Also see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 1: A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Alaska/Northwest Coast," edited by Elaine L. Mills (1981). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%201.pdf

This subseries of the Alaska/Northwest Coast series consists almost entirely of vocabulary. Lummi terms are given with English translations and frequently with Nespelem equivalences. A few comparisons are provided in other Salishan languages. (George's paternal grandfather spoke Clallam.) Most of the words describe the natural world. There are small sections on astronomy, weather, and months, as well as a larger number of items pertaining to plants and animals. The placename data are keyed to a number of maps--probably to U.S.G.S. topographical maps of Whatcom County, Sumas, and Blaine Quadrangles, which were found elsewhere in the Papers. Information is also provided on the islands in the Georgia Straits. Some terms pertaining to material culture appear in the plant vocabulary section. Ethnographic notes and references to myths are interspersed throughout the material.

John Peabody Harrington papers: Cakchiquel, 1922

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 7, reel 13. Only original documents created by Harrington, his coworkers and field assistants, or field notes given to him by others were microfilmed.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. For a comprehensive description of these materials, see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 7: A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Mexico/Central America/South America," edited by Elaine L. Mills (1988). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%207.pdf

This subseries of the Mexico/Central America/South America series contains Harrington's Cakchiquel research. His notes on the language are relatively brief. They were recorded during the course of his fieldwork on Quiche with Cipriano Alvaredo and William Gates at the latter's home near Charlottesville, Virginia, in 1922.

There are several sets of numbered pages labeled "B. Cak. notes" and "B. Cak. Gram." These consist of vocabulary and phrases with glosses (mostly in Spanish) and some Quiche (Q.) equivalences. There is also a section of sixteen pages based on a rehearing of Flores' 1753 grammar. Differences between the Quiche, Cakchiquel, and Tzutujil forms are noted here.

Harrington's grammatical notes, labeled "Cak. Grammar," probably dates from 1948. It consists merely of a few observations following heading sheets. The format is based largely on an examination of the Diccionario cakchiquel-espanol by Saenz. There is a large section on phonetics in which reference is made to Gates' Maya Grammar. Most of the forms were excerpted from the records which Harrington made with Cipriano Alvaredo (Cip.) in 1922.

There are also several files relating to Harrington's study of the "Annals of Cakchiquel," composed by Francisco E. Arana Xahila. The first, designated as "Cak. Annals Text," contains a complete transcription of the history dated 1922. The text consists almost entirely of straight dictation from Cipriano Alvaredo, based, evidently, on a rehearing of Brinton's published version of the original folio. There are only a few notations on phonetics and little interlinear translation in this 260-page document. This is followed by 119 pages of a typed English translation of the text copied from Brinton through section 164 (the end of Brinton's CakchiqueI text). A note to Althea "Letty" Warren appears at the top of the first page. A final file contains a 536-page handwritten version of the Cakchiquel text which Harrington's copyist, Marta J. Herrera, made in the early 1930s. Two transcriptions are given, one above the other. The top version was copied directly from Brinton (Br.), through paragraph thirty four (page 100). The second is a modification of the transcription which Harrington first recorded in 1922.

John Peabody Harrington papers: Ute/Paiute/Shoshoni, 1909-circa 1957

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 3, reel 171, which also contains materials from other subseries. Only original documents created by Harrington, his collaborators and field assistants, or notes given to him were microfilmed.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. For a comprehensive description of these materials, see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 3, A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Southern California/Basin," edited by Elaine L. Mills and Ann J. Brickfield (1986). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%203.pdf

This subseries of the Southern California/Basin series contains John P. Harrington's research on Ute, Paiute, and Shoshoni.

There are a variety of Ute and Paiute notes assembled on slips containing vocabulary terms, a few grammatical paradigms, and a July 1, 1909, census of Southern Ute Indians. A small group of slips contain brief descriptions of artifacts, possibly Isaac P. Richardson's collection of Paiute artifacts found in a cave near Lovelock, Nevada. There is also a draft with related notes on the first recordings of the name Ute among accounts of early expeditions and explorers, as well as names other tribes applied to Utes.

The section of Paiute song texts and miscellaneous notes contain songs texts sent to Harrington from Edward Sapir in May 1910. There is also a paper prepared by Harrington on the Richardson collection. In addition, there are notes on the name Paiute and Paiute band names, as wells as Northern Paiute linguistic and ethnographic notes recorded by Johnny Smith and F.K. Kaiser.

The Shoshoni notes are sparse and are from his work with William Ottogary, Garfield Pocatello, William Edmo, and Frank Russell. They cover linguistic and ethnogrographic topics and include some Bannock terms from Edmo. There are also reading notes from publications on Shoshoni.

John Peabody Harrington papers: Massachusett, circa 1907-circa 1957

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 6, reel 9. Only original documents created by Harrington, his collaborators and field assistants, or notes given to him were microfilmed.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. For a comprehensive description of these materials, see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 6: A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Northeast/Southeast," edited by Elaine L. Mills and Ann J. Brickfield (1987). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%206.pdf

This small subseries of the Northeast/Southeast series contains John P. Harrington's Massachusett research. The section of writings (former B.A.E. ms. 6018pt.) is based principally on the works of the seventeenth-century missionary John Eliot. An article titled "Two Massachusetts Texts with Interlinear Translation" was intended for submission to the International Journal of American Linguistics but was not published. The material includes a typescript and two preliminary drafts with related notes. It covers biographical information on Eliot and lists his writings according to those containing translations and those without translations. The texts Harrington chose for the paper are the Beatitudes and the Lord's Prayer from the Gospel of St. Matthew. Much of the biographical and historical information comes from James C. Pilling's Bibliography ofthe Algonquian Languages (1891). Also consulted was James Trumbull's "Natick Dictionary" (1903). Harrington provided C. E. Lauterbach of Pasadena with an interlinear translation of Eliot's version of the 23rd Psalm. This subseries also contains a copy of Massachusett language placenames excerpted from the Dictionary of American-Indian Place and Proper Names in New England (1909) by R. A. Douglas-Lithgow (D.-L.). There are no linguistic annotations. (Former B.A.E. ms. 6029pt.).

John Peabody Harrington papers: Klamath, circa 1946-circa 1957

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 2, reel 1, which also contains materials from other subseries. Only original documents created by Harrington, his collaborators and field assistants, or notes given to him were microfilmed.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. See also "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 2, A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Northern and Central California," edited by Elaine L. Mills (1985). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%202.pdf

This subseries of the Northern and Central California series contains John P. Harrington's research on the Klamath language. His field notes constitute, for the most part, a rehearing of Albert S. Gatschet's substantial work, "The Klamath Indians of Southwestern Oregon." Harrington first considered certain grammatical features of the language and then compiled semantically arranged lists of vocabulary. He extracted lexical items from Gatschet, particularly from the dictionary portion of the work, marking them with the citation "G. e-kl" or "G. kl-e." These gleanings and a more limited number of terms from Jaime de Angulo and L.S. Freeland (labeled "A." or "de A. & F.") and C.F. Voegelin ("Kl. Voeg.") were used as a basis for eliciting vocabulary and a few brief sentences from Mr. and Mrs. Jesse L. Kirk. Not every entry was reheard. Some pages have no comments or are marked simply "N."-doesn't know. Interspersed with the Klamath terms are references of a comparative nature to Harrington's work on other languages such as Navajo, Mohave, Chumash, Miwok, Delaware, Abnaki, and Crow.

John Peabody Harrington papers: Kitanemuk, 1916-1917

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 3, reels 98-100. Only original documents created by Harrington, his collaborators and field assistants, or notes given to him were microfilmed.

Following three weeks in Los Angeles in October 1916, Harrington (accompanied by his wife, Carobeth) continued field work in an area which encompassed Kitanemuk, Tataviam, Yokuts, and some inland Chumash groups. Due to intermarriage, removal, containment, and trade, many of these people knew terms in several dialects. Among the principal informants were Eugenia Mendez, born at Tejon in 1845; her niece, Magdalena Olivas; and Magdalena's husband, Jose Juan Olivas, who was born at Saticoy, came to Tejon at age twelve, and, according to Harrington's reports, was an "inland Chumash speaker." Angela Montes, Juan and Angela Lozada, Sebastiana Higinio, Jim Monte, and Josefa Cordero also contributed data. Monte and Cordero were of Yokuts parentage. Magdalena Olivas was Angela Lozada's aunt and, according to Lozada, both women also spoke Tubatulabal.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. For a comprehensive description of these materials, see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 3, A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Southern California/Basin," edited by Elaine L. Mills and Ann J. Brickfield (1986). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%203.pdf

This subseries of the Southern California/Basin series contains John P. Harrington's research on Kitanemuk.

The linguistic and ethnographic field notes stem from his sessions with Eugenia Mendez, Jose Juan and Magdalena Olivas, and Angela Montes. There are equivalences in Ventureno, "Castec Chumash" (Harrington's identification), Fernandeno, "Rio Chiquito" (Tubatulabal), and Tataviam. Some of the Olivas and Montes material was elicited by Carobeth Tucker Harrington. Miscellaneous material includes field notes taken on several placename trips during which a variety of data was recorded. There are also lists of placenames organized by local geographic region and placenames in Kitanemuk, Serrano, Fernandeno, Spanish, and English. Also filed here are a small section of Kitanemuk, Serrano, Chemehuevi, Fernandeno, Tubatulabal, and Gabrielino tribenames; a description of a wake; and some brief notes on pronouns.

The same speakers also provided information for a semantically arranged vocabulary in slipfile form. Mendez was the primary souce. Some of the placename information resulted from a tour of the area with Sebastiana Higinio. Other placenames were copied from nineteenth-century maps and checked for location rather than for Kitanemuk names. Among numerous categories, the plant names and material culture sections contain the most extensive information. Ethnographic information is freely inserted and includes such topics as myths, history, persons, and reminiscences. There are occasional Ventureno, Serrano, Mohave, and Gabrielino equivalences. Mr. de Billier, Archie Davis, and Mrs. Kirby related some nonlinguistic local incidents.

The dictionary section consists of linguistic data copied from Harrington's field notes from Eugenia Mendez and Angela Montes and later from his grammatical slipfile. The grammatical slipfile represents Harrington's selected editing and subdividing of the original field notes of Eugenia Mendez, Magdalena and Jose Juan Olivas, and Angela Montes. The emphasis is on morphology, with phonetics only rarely considered. There is also a very small section separated by language and dialect. Equivalences in "Tejoneno," Castec, Ventureno, and "Qo'm" were provided by the Olivases, Mendez, Sebastiana Higinio, and Josefa Cordero. Magdalena, Jose Juan, and Eugenia commented on Fernandeno terms, probably those of the Fernandeno informant Setimo Lopez with whom Harrington had worked in October 1916.

John Peabody Harrington papers: Takelma, 1933

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 1, reel 28, which also contains material from other subseries. Only original documents created by Harrington, his collaborators and field assistants, or notes given to him were microfilmed.

After recording Shasta and Konomihu in northern California during the early fall of 1933, John P. Harrington crossed the state border into Oregon to work on Takelma. He worked first with Frances Johnson (referred to as Frances, Fr., Frz., F.J., Phr.), an elderly native of a village on Jump-off-Joe Creek, who had worked with Edward Sapirt at Siletz Reservation in the summer of 1906. He began interviewing her in October and then took her on a placename trip to former Takelma territory on November 2nd through the 4th.

After his return to the Siletz area, Harrington worked with two other people. On November 5th he spoke with Aneti (Mrs. Spencer) Scott, a bedridden woman in her eighties. She gave him vocabulary in her native Applegate as well as words in Takelma which she had learned from her first husband, Evans Bill. Molly Orcutt (sometimes referred to as Orton, abbreviated as Molly, Moy., Mo.), mentioned as a speaker of the Table Rock Dialect, also gave him considerable linguistic data. On November 13th through the 19th Harrington again returned to the original tribal lands to record placenames from her. It appears that Harrington made a final check on the tribenames and placenames he had obtained with Aneti and Orcutt in Siletz before returning to California.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. Also see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 1: A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Alaska/Northwest Coast," edited by Elaine L. Mills (1981). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%201.pdf

This subseries of the Alaska/Northwest Coast series contains Harrington's Takelma research. His linguistic, ethnographic, and biographical notes contain information from Frances Johnson, Molly Orcutt, and, to a lesser extent, Aneti Scott. Vocabulary consists primarily of animal names, with descriptions of animals and comments on their range and habits. There are many annotations regarding pronunciation, comparisons between forms in various dialects, and several references to myths. Much of the data from Johnson was elicited for comparison with vocabulary she had provided years earlier for Edward Sapir's (1922) study of Takelma. There are smaller sections covering tribe names, material culture, and miscellaneous vocabulary. Considerable biographical information on the residents of the Siletz area and elsewhere is included.

There are also notes that reflect information recorded separately from Frances Johnson and Molly Orcutt on trips to the Rogue and Illinois Rivers area in Oregon. Harrington also obtained an appreciable amount of data from whites he interviewed. George and Evelyn Baker traveled with him and the Indian women from Siletz. White residents they met along the way include Mr. Crow, Mr. Holst, Mr. Emanuell, Miss Savage, Mr. Lyman, J. T. Tuffs, and Mr. Murphy. Harrington's preferred method of operation was to take several people on sidetrips with his linguistic informant to places with which these people were familiar. He noted car mileage from the starting point and recorded the specific location of each important place, its various names in Takelma and English, its history, and past or present significance to Indians and whites. Sketch maps were made of some areas with the assistance of a number of the informants. Much of the placename data were rechecked upon return to Siletz. Among the Takelma lands covered are places along the Rogue River, the south fork of the Umpqua River, Grants Pass, Table Rock, Jacksonville, Gold Hill, Ashland, Medford, Cow Creek, and Galice Creek. The outlying regions around the Klamath River and Coos Bay are also mentioned.

John Peabody Harrington papers: Duwamish, 1910

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 1, reel 15, which also contains material from other subseries. Only original documents created by Harrington, his collaborators and field assistants, or notes given to him were microfilmed.

Johnn P. Harrington investigated the language and culture of the Duwamish (currently grouped with speakers of other Puget Sound Salish dialects as "Lushootseed") during the period June 17 to August 15, 1910 while residing in Seattle, Washington. He had come there to teach courses on "The Indians of the Northwest" and "The Science of Language" at the University of Washington summer school and to give a series of six popular lectures on "The Siberian Origin of the American Indian" under the auspices of the American Institute of Archaeology.

He studied the Duwamish language with Chief William Rogers at the reservation at Suquamish each weekend during the session. After its close, he made trips with Rogers and a man named Moore to Seattle and Renton ("homeland of the Duwamish") to record placenames. His interpreter in the work was Edward Percival.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. Also see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 1: A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Alaska/Northwest Coast," edited by Elaine L. Mills (1981). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%201.pdf

This subseries of the Alaska/Northwest Coast series contains Harrington's Duwamish research. The materials primarily consist of field notes and lecture notes.

The field notes consist of small slips and 8" x 10" sheets on which Harrington recorded notes on phonetics, vocabulary, and some short sentences. A general vocabulary section--mostly nouns--covers geographical terms, animal names, material culture objects, and terms for age, sex, and religion. Each Duwamish (Duw.) word is followed by the English translation; a few comparisons are given in Snohomish and Clallam. There are larger vocabulary sections dealing with tribenames and placenames. The tribenames are Duwamish terms referring to the neighboring tribes of Puget Sound and the Olympic Peninsula--mostly other Salish groups. The placename category includes many etymologies as well as sketch maps and references to a "Big map" of Seattle Harbor.

Miscellaneous packets of field notes include biographical information on the Duwamish speakers he worked with and others, a partial bibliography, and notes labeled "< Meany." The latter were apparently personal communications from a professor at the university.

Harrington's lecture notes, evidently used for the course on "The Indians of the Northwest," contain a good deal of original field data. The notes, which were found in great disarray; have been arranged to follow fourteen categories outlined by Harrington on a heading sheet. The sections on history, potlatches, and material culture, in particular, include numerous excerpts from articles by Arthur A. Denny, Myron Eels, and Joseph A. Costello. Much of this secondary source data was checked over with an unspecified person, presumably William Rogers. His comments, labeled "Duw.," frequently appear at the bottom of a page. Notes on "The Indian placenames of King County," consist entirely of original data on places in the vicinity of Lake Washington, White River, and Cedar River. As in the corresponding vocabulary section, etymologies and sketch maps are included.

John Peabody Harrington papers: Cupeno, 1915, 1925-1926

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 3, reel 130. Only original documents created by Harrington, his collaborators and field assistants, or notes given to him were microfilmed.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. For a comprehensive description of these materials, see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 3, A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Southern California/Basin," edited by Elaine L. Mills and Ann J. Brickfield (1986). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%203.pdf

This subseries of the Southern California/Basin series contains John P. Harrington's research on Cupeno. One group of his field notes consists of information elicited from Martin J. Blacktooth in Los Angeles, March 1915. The vocabulary is arranged on slips in semantic order in Cupeno and English. One section lists names of objects of material culture in English only. A small number of slips contain information on phonetics and morphology. The other set of notes are from placename trips. Between August 1925 and February 1926, Harrington conducted a number of field trips accompanied by speakers of various "Mission Indian" languages. The Cupeno information was apparently obtained between October 5 and 15, 1925, contributed mainly by Francisco Laws, Manuel Chuparosa, and Marcelino Cahuish. Other Cupeno sources were Chuparosa's wife, Juan Chutnikat, Bernardo Segundo, Victoria, Joe Cales, Manuel Tortes, and Jack Mack. Vocabulary from the placename trips in the Aguanga, Hemet, and Pala areas are found in notebooks and on loose pages. Other placenames identified were Coyote Canyon, Palm Canyon, and Torres. There are four notebooks, three of which contain both Cupeno and Diegueno. The loose pages consist of sketches and small amounts of local biography and ethnography conversation. The subseries also contains a two-age typescript of the Migration Legend in English.

John Peabody Harrington papers: Galice/Applegate, 1940, 1942

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 1, reel 28, which also contain material from other subseries. Only original documents created by Harrington, his collaborators and field assistants, or notes given to him were microfilmed.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. Also see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 1: A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Alaska/Northwest Coast," edited by Elaine L. Mills (1981). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%201.pdf

This subseries of the Alaska/Northwest Coast series contains Harrington's Galice / Applegate field notes. They represent his work with informant Hoxie Simmons (abbreviated Hox.) on at least two occasions. The bulk of the work was accomplished during a visit to Siletz, Oregon made in early 1940, undoubtedly at the suggestion of Melville Jacobs (listed as Jacobs in the notes). A lesser amount of data were collected on Harrington's return to the area in the spring or early summer of 1942 to work with speakers of other southwest Oregon Athapascan languages. An unidentified individual referred to as "Harrison" (possibly a Chetco speaker) was also present at some of the sessions.

The material is highly miscellaneous, consisting of a short vocabulary with scattered notes on the linguistic relationship of neighboring languages and the location of tribal boundaries. Limited biographical information is provided for Simmons and for other native speakers of Oregon languages. The vocabulary, covering mostly tribenames and natural history terms, is principally in Galice (Gal.) with some Applegate (ApI.) and a few Chasta Costa (Chast., Chasta., Costa.) equivalences. Some words were elicited from Simmons for comparison with the Upper Umpqua (U.U.) terms Harrington had just recently obtained from John Warren at Grand Ronde. At a later date Harrington annotated certain pages with comparisons from Navajo and Carrier data which he got from a Navajo speaker named Adolph Dodge Bitanny (Bit.) and from his co-worker on northern Athapascan, Robert W. Young (Y.).

John Peabody Harrington papers: Zuni, 1913-1953

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 4, reels 27-30. The kymograph tracings were not microfilmed due to their fragile nature.Only original documents created by Harrington, his collaborators and field assistants, or notes given to him were microfilmed.

As early as 1919, John P. Harrington claimed a linguistic relationship between Zuni and a putative Tano-Kiowan-Keresan-Shoshonean stock. In 1929, at the suggestion of Edgar L. Hewett, he was authorized by the Bureau of American Ethnology to work with University of New Mexico students at a summer session in Chaco Canyon. Correspondence and reports indicate that he accumulated the bulk of his original Zuni notes at that time, later reorganizing them at various intervals in Washington, D.C., with an eye toward producing a vocabulary and grammar that would clearly demonstrate affinity among these languages. Harrington also recorded several hundred kymograph tracings. Charles and Dick Nachapani (Natcapanih) and Charlie Cly served as the primary sources of information. Harrington called one of the Nachapani brothers "the prince of all Zuni informants;" which one is uncertain.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. Also see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 4: A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Southwest," edited by Elaine L. Mills and Ann J. Brickfield (1986). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%204.pdf

This subseries of the Southwest series contains Harrington's Zuni research, which mainly focused on the linguistic relationship between Zuni and Tano-Kiowan-Keresan-Shoshonean stock.

The earliest field data which Harrington obtained on Zuni was recorded in the form of three brief vocabularies. One, dated February 20, 1913, was elicited from George Piro. Harrington indicated that another list of Zuni terms was copied for his B.A.E. colleague Neil Judd in 1919. A third gives the Indian names of several Zuni native speakers and ethnologists. Brief intermixed vocabulary and grammar notes were taken in the field from Nachapani in June and July 1929. A few Navajo comparisons were added.

The vocabulary sections contains Zuni terms arranged semantically, most numerous in the animal and animal parts categories. Other categories include age/sex, material culture, phenomena, placenames, plants, rank, relationship terms, religion, time, and tribenames. Most of the original material was obtained in 1929 in New Mexico where he consulted primarily with Charles or Dick Nachapani.

For his comparative vocabulary, Harrington followed the same semantic arrangement he used for the vocabulary notes, interfiling and comparing Tewa, Kiowa, Hano, Taos, Acoma, and Cahuilla terms. The material stems from his original notes in these languages and contains references to his publications in Tewa ethnozoology and ethnogeography. Perry A. Keahtigh was cited as the Kiowa souce and Adan Castillo for Cahuilla terms. Juan is the only Tewa speaker mentioned by name in the notes, although other Tewa speakers undoubtedly contributed to the original notes used in the many comparisons. Also interfiled are excerpts from papers by Ruth L. Bunzel on Zuni ethnology and grammar and compilations of Nahuatl from the works of Horatio Carochi and Alonso de Molina. Other terms labeled "Gatschet revd by Hodge" may refer to B.A.E. ms. 2870 in which many of Gatschet's approximately 200 Zuni/English vocabulary slips contain annotations by Frederick W. Hodge. Harrington also tapped Matilda Coxe Stevenson's "The Zuni Indians" (1904) for further comparisons. Kymograph tracings are mainly a comparison of Zuni and Navajo lexical terms.

Harrington's Zuni grammatical material was probably assembled in Washington for correlation with his own notes on other languages and with notes from secondary sources to be compiled into a comparative grammar. Most of Harrington's original Zuni material was derived from his fieldwork with Nachapani in June and July of 1929.

Correspondence indicates that Harrington's first draft of a comparative grammar was written in 1944 and was to be titled "Zuni Discovered To Be Hokan." Many of the notes which precede it, however, were interfiled later (probably in the early 1950s) and stem from his original field notes in Zuni, Tewa, and Kiowa. Also included are a lesser number of Taos and Aztec expressions. Harrington utilized the same sources as those found in the grammatical notes, relying most heavily on Bunzel's "Zuni." Another version of the manuscript has the modified title "Zuni, Tanoan, Kiowa Comparisons: Zuni Discovered To Be Hokan."

His ethnobotany notes contains extracts from Wooton and Standley's Flora of New Mexico (1913) and Stevenson's "Ethnobotany of the Zuni Indians." The ethnographic notes are based on Stevenson's The Zuni Indians. This work is frequently referred to in the notes as "Zuni Book."

Harrington's writings consists of notes used in "Name of Zuni Salt Lake in Alarcon's 1540 Account" (1949) and in "Trail Holder" (1949) as well as drafts and notes for proposed publications. Harrington's article "The Name Zuni Comes from the Laguna Dialect of West Keresan" was apparently not accepted for publication. Most of the notes are based on the Zuni section of Hodge's "Handbook." Another unpublished article is on Zuni phrases and numbers. It is similar in approach to a draft on Aztec phrases and numbers, suggesting that he may have contemplated a series of such short articles.

John Peabody Harrington papers: Hopi, 1913-1946

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 4, reel 26. Only original documents created by Harrington, his collaborators and field assistants, or notes given to him were microfilmed.

John P. Harrington's field notes indicate that he worked on the Hopi language as early as 1913 and reviewed his material as late as 1944. Although he published a short article on Hopi in 1945 and a review of The Hopi Way (1944) in 1946, his notes on this language are not extensIve.

His first contact with speakers of Hopi evidently occurred in 1913, as suggested by his heading "Hopi Language. 1913." A more precise date and location are not given, but it is possible that Harrington made a side trip to the Third Mesa during February when he was working at a number of other pueblos or that he located a speaker of the Oraibi dialect at one of those locations.

From May through September of 1926, Harrington was called away from fieldwork in northern California to assist J. Walter Fewkes, head of the Bureau of American Ethnology, in archeological excavations at Elden Pueblo near Flagstaff, Arizona. According to The B.A.E. Annual Report for 1925 -1926 (p. 5), prior to the excavations, Harrington and J. O. Prescott assisted Fewkes in the recording of Hopi songs. Four of the older Hopi were brought from Walpi to the Grand Canyon, where they performed 11 katcina songs.

Harrington had a second opportunity to record several short vocabularies in the dialect of First Mesa in 1939 when he and Robert W. Young were beginning joint work on Athapascan in the Fort Defiance area of Arizona. His interest in Hopi was renewed again in March of 1944 when he made a comparative study with other Uto-Aztecan languages of the Takic subfamily.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. Also see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 4: A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of the Southwest," edited by Elaine L. Mills and Ann J. Brickfield (1986). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%204.pdf

This set of files contains Harrington's Hopi research. The materials consist of Oraibi linguistic notes, Walpi linguistic notes, notes on phonetics, writings, and miscellaneous notes.

His Oraibi notes include geographical terms provided by Bert Fredericks in slipfile format, a short etymology of the village name Awatobi, and a small rudimentary file of phonetic sounds. While at Elden Pueblo, Harrington also elicited several Oraibi terms from Otto Lomavitu, described as an educated Indian associated with the Moravian missionaries. Kuyawaima, an elderly Oraibi, provided information on basket-making during another interview in August 1926. The majority of the early records in the Oraibi dialect consist of numbered pages of Harrington's handwritten notes which emerge as a combination of vocabulary, phrases, and grammar in the early stages of development, followed by a brief text on Coyote with interlinear translation. Pages 38, 39, and 40 contain a selected number of terms in Zuni.There is one brief mention of an individual named Ignacio but it is not clear whether the vocabularies originated with him. The elicitation was based partly on a rehearing of a typed "Oraivi Vocabulary" found accompanying the handwritten notes. Harrington was in California in 1912 and early 1913 and was engaged in various projects, one of which was copying manuscripts at the Bancroft Library, a possible source of this material.

Harrington's Walpi data from the work in 1926 and 1939 are of a much less systematic nature. A pocket-sized notebook which he used while at the Grand Canyon contains notes from a brief survey of Walpi speakers, random vocabulary items from Percy Hilling, and an outline of the sequence of songs performed by kutKa, the chief of Walpi, and others. Also recorded during this period are additional lexical items, possibly obtained from a man named Sam, and five pages describing a placename trip which Harrington made from Polacca to Holbrook.

The material from 1939 consists of notes from several brief interviews with Walpi speakers encountered in the Fort Defiance area. On September 27, 1939, Harrington recorded one page of placenames from the son of Tom Polacca, an interpreter at First Mesa in the 1880s and 1890s. Additional placename data were obtained from an unidentified Hopi speaker at the home of Jack Snow. Following each of the vocabularies are copies which Harrington made of the names in 1944 in order to locate them on a map by Van Valkenburgh (1941). Three pages of miscellaneous vocabulary from an unidentified source also date from the 1939 period.

His notes on phonetics were likely made during his comparative study of Hopi and other Uto-Aztecan languages. Harrington made a number of observations on the phonetics of the language. These were recorded in the form of a "Hopi Mouthmap." Secondary sources referred to were Parsons (1936), Trubetskoi (1939), Whiting (1939), and Whorf (unspecified works). The mouthmap appeared in Hewett, Dutton, and Harrington's The Pueblo Indian World (1945).

His Hopi writings consist of preparatory notes and drafts in various stages of completion. From 1945-1946 are notes, handwritten drafts, and finished typescripts of his review of The Hopi Way by Laura Thompson and Alice Joseph, as well as the article "Note on the Names Moqui and Hopi." Both of these were published in the American Anthropologist. There is also a typed draft of an unpublished note, intended for release in Indians at Work, titled "Hopi Discovered To Be Most Nearly Akin to Northern Paiute."

Dating from both the periods around 1922 and 1939 are a number of pages of miscellaneous notations. These contain observations of an ethnographic nature, bibliographies, and brief extracts from secondary sources. One set, consisting of comments on seven "landnames," was obtained from an informant referred to as "Hopi at Jack Snow's." Also included is correspondence dated 1914 requesting information on Hopi rocks and a related photograph (originals in files of correspondence and photographs).

There are few field notes relative to the Hopi recordings Harrington made with Fewkes and Prescott and the related sound recordings have not been located.
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