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Found 6 Resources

Pouring vessel (yi?)

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery

1 Yuan, Bank of Communications, Hankow, China, 1927

National Museum of American History
One (1) yuan note

Bank of Communications, Hankow, China, 1927

Obverse Image: Chinese at top, serial number to the right and left, denomination to the sides and in each corner, steam passenger train at the center.

Obverse Text: 壹 / 行銀通交 / 壹 / A038013H / 漢口 / A038013H / 漢口 / 壹圓 / 壹圓 / 漢口 / 財政部核定 / 壹 / 憑票即付國幣壹圓 /壹 / 中華民國十六年印 / 美國鈔票公司

Reverse Image: Name of bank at top, denomination at center, to the sides, and in each corner.

Reverse Text: 1 YUAN / HANKOW / BANK OF COMMUNICATIONS / 1 YUAN / HANKOW / NO. A038013H / PROMISES TO PAY THE BEARER ON DEMAND AT ITS OFFICE HERE / NO. A038013H / 1 / 1 / 1 YUAN / 1 / 1 / 1 / ONE YUAN NATIONAL CURRENCY / 1 / 1 YUAN / HANKOW / HANKOW / November 1st 1927 / 1 YUAN / HANKOW / AMERICAN BANK NOTE COMPANY.

[[Obverse Text]]

壹 / 行銀通交 / 壹 / A038013H / 漢口 / A038013H / 漢口 / 壹圓 / 壹圓 / 漢口 / 財政部核定 / 壹 / 憑票即付國幣壹圓 /壹 / 中華民國十六年印 / 美國鈔票公司

[[Transliteration]]

YI / HANG / YIN / TONG / JIAO / YI / KOU / HAN / KOU / HAN / YI / YUAN / YI / YUAN / KOU / HAN / YI / YI / GUO / YIN / PING / YUAN / BI / FU / PIAO / YI / YIN / NIAN / LIU / SHI / GUO / MIN / HUA / ZHONG / GONG / SI / PIAO / CHAO / GUO / MEI

[[Reverse Text]]

1 YUAN HANKOW / BANK OF COMMUNICATIONS / 1 YUAN HANKOW / NO A038013H / PROMISES TO PAY THE BEARER ON DEMAND AT ITS OFFICE HERE / NO A038013H / 1 / 1 / 1 YUAN / 1 / 1

/ 1 YUAN HANKOW / BURENG / ONE YUAN NATIONAL CURRENCY / J.S. WONG / 1 YUAN HANKOW / PRESIDENT. / HANKOW / MANAGER. / NOVEMBER 1ST,1927. / AMERICAN BANK NOTE COMPANY. / 71.348.574

Set of four chariot fittings (yi)

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery

Butterfly genome reveals promiscuous exchange of mimicry adaptations among species

Smithsonian Libraries
The evolutionary importance of hybridization and introgression has long been debated(1). Hybrids are usually rare and unfit, but even infrequent hybridization can aid adaptation by transferring beneficial traits between species. Here we use genomic tools to investigate introgression in Heliconius, a rapidly radiating genus of neotropical butterflies widely used in studies of ecology, behaviour, mimicry and speciation(2-5). We sequenced the genome of Heliconius melpomene and compared it with other taxa to investigate chromosomal evolution in Lepidoptera and gene flow among multiple Heliconius species and races. Among 12,669 predicted genes, biologically important expansions of families of chemosensory and Hox genes are particularly noteworthy. Chromosomal organization has remained broadly conserved since the Cretaceous period, when butterflies split from the Bombyx (silkmoth) lineage. Using genomic resequencing, we show hybrid exchange of genes between three co-mimics, Heliconius melpomene, Heliconius timareta and Heliconius elevatus, especially at two genomic regions that control mimicry pattern. We infer that closely related Heliconius species exchange protective colour-pattern genes promiscuously, implying that hybridization has an important role in adaptive radiation.

Hou Yi and the Ten Suns: A Chinese Folktale

Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage

The story of the archer Hou Yi goes back to at least 2000 BCE. In some versions, it is a pourquoi tale explaining how the sun and moon came to govern the day and the night. One version says that the nine suns Hou Yi shot fell into the sea, forming a rock that evaporates the water around it—the reason the sea never overflows.

Animator Aurélie Beatley had only “a cursory background” in Chinese folklore prior to starting this project, but after meticulous research she based her part-digital, part-hand-drawn characters on the movements of Chinese shadow puppets.

“Folklore is really important, and you want to do other people’s stories justice,” Beatley says. She went through over a dozen library books and spent a few weeks researching Han Chinese imagery just “so I could get all the shapes right. It’s a combination of looking at modern photos, for the architecture, and looking at paintings and drawings to get a feel for the atmosphere.”

To discover more stories—told with words, dance, music, and even puppets—check out the daily performances in the Moonrise Pavilion and throughout the China: Tradition and the Art of Living program at the 2014 Smithsonian Folklife Festival.

Tobacco Pipe (Dambaettae; Janjuk)

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
No catalog card found in card file

"Late 19th century. Bamboo shaft and white metal bowl and mouthpiece. This is a long, straight bamboo tobacco pipe with a white metal pipe bowl and mouthpiece. Tobacco was introduced to Korea from Japan in the early 17th century (Yi, 1962, vol. 1: 373). The smoking pipe with gold, jade, agate or another gemstone mouthpiece was fashionable among upper-class men (Kim 1992: 215). Hough makes reference to an interesting comment by the collector William Woodville Rockhill that "time is even reckoned by them [the Koreans] by the number of pipes smoked. Thus you will hear them say 'han tae man moku torawatta; 'he only stopped long enough to smoke one pipe" (Rockhill, 1891: 183). Bernadou Field Notes 100 "Pipe and mouthpiece of Chinese white metal. There is a considerable trade in this alloy with China, as it is not made in Korea and as most Korean pipes are made of it. The shape of this specimen is characteristic; as there is very little difference in this respect in any Korean pipes." The alloy to which Bernadou refers is a mixture of copper, zinc and nickel. Collected in Seoul. Ref: Hough Korean Catalog p. 463; Bernadou Field Notes 100" [from: "An Ethnography of the Hermit Kingdom: The J.B. Bernadou Korean Collection 1884-1885", Chang-su Cho Houchins, 2004, number 97]