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Report upon United States Geographical surveys west of the one hundredth meridian, in charge of First Lieut. Geo. M. Wheeler [...] under the direction of the chief of engineers, U.S. Army. Published by authority of [...] the secretary of war in accordance with acts of Congress of June 23, 1874, and February 15, 1875. In seven volumes and one supplement, accompanied by one topographic and one geologic atlas [...]

Smithsonian Libraries
A.A. Humphreys, chief of engineers until June 1879. Succeeded by H.G. Wright.

In addition to the atlases named, there are "Special maps (not accompanying reports) ... issued from time to time to show the results of some preliminary reconnaissance or of some survey of an area of peculiar interest," and also maps, based on the maps of the Topographical atlas and known as the "Land classification series."

For full contents see National union catalog, pre-1956 imprints, volume 618, pages 531-532.

Also available online.

Elecresource

Report upon United States Geographical surveys west of the one hundredth meridian / in charge of Capt. Geo. M. Wheeler ; under the direction of the Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army ; published by authority of the Honorable the Secretary of War, in accordance with acts of Congress of June 23, 1874, and February 15, 1875 ; in seven volumes and one supplement, accompanied by one topographic and one geologic atlas

Smithsonian Libraries
Statement of responsibility varies slightly: volumes 2-3: ... First Lieut. Geo. M. Wheeler.

A.A. Humphreys, Chief of Engineers until June 1879; succeeded by H.G. Wright.

For full contents see National union catalog, pre-1956 imprints, volume 618, pages 531-532, and the atlas collation by GIlbert Thompson in P.L. Phillips, A list of geographical atlases in the Library of Congress (Washington, D.C. : G.P.O., 1909), pages 705-713.

In addition to the 2 atlases named, maps based on the maps of the Topographical atlas were issued as Land classification series, and special maps (not accompanying reports) showing the results of some preliminary reconnaissance or of some survey of an area of peculiar interest were issued irregularly.

Volume 7 includes 40 vocabularies of Western Indian languages.

Volume 5, Chapter 3 also issued separately as: Report upon the ornithological collections made in portions of Nevada, Utah, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, during the years 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874 / by H.W Henshaw.

"Published by authority of ... the Secretary of War in accordance with acts of Congress of June 23, 1874, and February 15, 1875."

Errata slip tipped-in following title page to volume 3.

Some volumes published out of numerical order.

"12 photolithographs (heavily retouched), 3 chromolithographs. The photographs are by T.H. O'Sullivan and William Bell. These views, typical of the toned photolithographs published in Government reports, are striking scenes of the Western landscape, translated to this medium with a great deal of graphic richness. This title is also of prime importance because it lists every photographer for every one of the Government's surveys"--Hanson Collection catalog, page 100.

Atlas includes plates lithographed by J. Bien; illustrations by Weyss, Herman & Mahlo; Weyss, Herman & Aguirre; and Weyss, Herman & Lang; and photo-lithography by the Graphic Co. of 39 & 41 Park Place, N.Y.

Also available online.

Elecresource

SCNHRB copy is incomplete, having only: volumes 1-4 (v. 1: 39088002993756, v. 2: 39088002993764, v. 3: 39088002993772), two incomplete copies of volume 5 including copy 1, volume 5, chapters 4-5 only (39088002993798); copy 2, volume 5, chapters 1, 4-5 only (39088007450398); and a portfolio of some of the folio plates from the two atlases (39088007725617).

SCNHRB incomplete copy of the atlas has loose plates housed in an archival paperboard portfolio with linen cloth spine and printed paper cover label. The portfolio houses 31 plates (some color, some encapsulated, some "2nd ed."), including two copies of the title leaf from the Geological atlas, with the vignette of the headlands of Paria Creek, Arizona; one leaf of "Conventional signs;" one leaf of "Conventional signs for triangulation, outline and topographical plots of atlas sheets;" one leaf of the "Progress map of lines and areas of explorations and surveys ...;" two copies of the leaf of "Restored outline of Lake Bonneville;" atlas sheet numbers 49; 50 (2 copies); 58; 59; 65; 66; combined insets from 58 and 66 (2 copies); 67 (3 copies); 70(A) (2 copies); 70 (C) (2 copies); 75 (2 copies); 76 (2 copies); combined insets from 69(B), 69(D), 77(B),and 78(A) (2 copies); 83 (2 copies).

SCNHRB copy volume 1-3 has bookplates of Jonathan Dwight Jr. and Smithsonian Institution Libraries, gift of Marcia Brady Tucker.

SCNHRB copy inscribed in ink on front free endpaper of volume 2: E.O. Matthews 8/30/89

SCNHRB copy 1 of volume 5 has [6] leaves of handwritten notes laid-in. Stamped on title page: S.C. Brown. Copy 2 of volume 5 has typescript title page and is lacking the preliminaries up to page 15.

SCNHRB copy in brown cloth binding, title in gilt on spine; volumes 1-3 housed in a drop-back linen boxes; volume 2 with binder's ticket: A.E. Foote, M.D., Philadelphia, Pa. Volume 5, copy 1 in brown cloth binding, title stamped in gilt on front cover; housed in an archival cardboard portfolio; volume 5, copy 2 is quarter bound in old brown cloth (with title in gilt on spine) and later green marbled boards, marbled edges.

Geographical catalogue of the M̲o̲l̲l̲u̲s̲c̲a̲ found west of the Rocky Mountains, between latitudes 33 ånd 49 n̊orth, by J.G. Cooper

Smithsonian Libraries
At head of title: Geological Survey of California.

"The following list is based on that published by P.P. Carpenter, in his report to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1863."

Also available online.

Elecresource

New Calculations Reposition the Geographical Center of North America

Smithsonian Magazine

In 1928, a U.S. Geological Survey mathematician determined the geographic center of North America by balancing a cardboard cutout of the continent with a pin stuck through it on his finger, reports April Baumgarten at Forum New Service. His result, reports Baumgarten, was an area roughly six miles west of the tiny town of Balta, North Dakota, which is 16 miles southwest of Rugby—the town that claimed the title. And in 1931, the community erected a monument, declaring itself the “Geographical Center of North America,” and joining a list of roadside attractions.

But Steph Yin at The New York Times reports that Rugby’s claim to fame may belong to another. Peter Rogerson, geography professor at the University of Buffalo, created a method for determining geographic centers. When he applied his method to North America, he found is that the geographic center of the continent actually lies 145 miles southwest.

“When I ran my computer program and looked at the final latitude and longitude, I was astounded to see that it was in a place called Center,” Rogerson tells Yin.

Rick Schmidt, the Extension agent based in Oliver County, where Center is located, was shocked by the news. “I am not sure that being the center of North America has really set in yet,” he tells Baumgarten. “I would say that it is fun to be the center of attention.”

Rogerson’s pronouncement puts to rest a controversy that has been simmering in North Dakota for the last couple years. James MacPherson at the Associated Press, reports that in 2015 the patrons of Hanson’s Bar in Robinson, North Dakota, 85 miles south of Rugby, collected $350 and bought the trademark for the phrase “Geographical Center of North America,” which Rugby had let lapse in 2009.

Bill Bender, mayor of Robinson and one of the bar's many owners tells MacPherson that “barstool science” validates the town’s claim since global warming has melted arctic sea ice, pushing North America south until the geographic center of the continent ended up smack-dab in the center of Hanson’s 45-foot long bar. ‘We're pretty confident if you come in and have a beer you’ll see we can very well make the case,” Bender tells MacPherson.

Rogerson’s methods, however, more compelling. Yin explains that the professor uses what's called an azimuthal equidistant map projection. There are a range of different methods to project a curved object on a flat surface, but Rogerson's method specializes in accuracy of positioning in the central region, Yin writes, "at the expense of shape and size toward its edges. (Think of the flag of the United Nations, centered on the North Pole.)" 

Even so, the USGS has no official definition of a geographic center and no agreed upon method for determining it, Yin reports. And the current center does not include islands in the Caribbean, which are part of North America. There is also no particularly compelling scientific reason to calculate or debate the point. It's more of a matter of civic pride than scientific advancement, Rogerson tells Baumgarten.

Bender says that while he respects Rogerson’s work, his town is going to continue to push its claim as the geographic center—and in August will hold what it hopes is the first of many CenterFest celebrations.

Mealtime, Hayden Survey of the Territories, 1872

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
See Neg. # SA-7 for photo without the names at the bottom. Featured in Holmes' 'Random Records of a Lifetime Devoted to Science and Art, 1846-1929', Vol. III, page 12.

On a Hayden survey of the territories in 1872 (United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, 1871-1877), a group, which included West, E. Campbell Carrington, Jay Cox, Taggart, Clifford De V. Negley, William H. Jackson, William Henry Holmes on the right side, and Beveridge, are seated on the ground for mealtime.

Moss and Ingersoll on the Hayden Survey

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
On the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, 1871-1877, also known as the Hayden Survey, John Moss, the guide, standing on the left, and Ernest Ingersoll, the correspondent, seated on the right writing, are in front of a ruined building sheltered under a cliff.

Group from Survey of Colorado at Camp

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Featured in Holmes' 'Random Records of a Lifetime Devoted to Science and Art, 1846-1929', Vol. IV, part 1. See also "Hayden and His Men," a selection of 108 photographs by William Henry Jackson, plate 69, compiled by Frank Chambers.

A group of men from the Hayden Survey Colorado expedition of 1873 sit on logs around a table for a meal. This is the party, that made the first ascent of the "Holy Cross" Mountain, Eagle County, Colorado. Pictured from left to right are Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden, leader of the Survey, James H. Stevenson, William S. Holman, S. C. Jones, James Gardner, W. D. Whitney and William H. Holmes.

Reports of explorations and surveys, to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean / made under the direction of the secretary of war, in 1853-[6] ..

Smithsonian Libraries
Printer varies between House and Senate issues, and over time. For example, Beverley Tucker is printer of volume 1 in Senate issue.

See Wagner-Camp. Plains & the Rockies (1982, 4th edition) for detailed information on pagination, collation and contents of the individual volumes.

Volumes 1-11 were issued in the Congressional series of U.S. public documents as 33d Congress, 2nd session. House ex. doc. 91, and also as Senate ex. doc. 78. Volume 11 was also issued (1861) as 36th Congress, 2nd session. Senate ex. doc. [no number].

Supplement to volume 1 was issued in at least three forms: Supplement to volume 1, 1859, W.A. Harris, printer, as 35th Congress, 2nd session. Senate ex. doc. 46 [and] Volume 12, part 1-2, 1860: T.H. Ford, printer, as 36th Congress, 1st session. House ex. doc. 56, and Senate ex. doc. [no number].

The reports of the Pacific railroad surveys were prepared under the direct supervision of the Engineer Department. The volumes dealing with the soil, climate, geology, botany and zoology of the regions surveyed were edited and revised by Professors Henry and Baird of the Smithsonian institution. See Ingersoll, History of the War Department, 1879, pages 292-293.

"The quarto edition [of the Pacific Railroad Reports] began to appear in 1855, concluding in 1861 with volume XII. Despite their flaws, these volumes contain a monumental collection of scientific information, geographical, zoological, botanical, geological, of the still mysterious American West. Upon first examination, the volumes seem forbiddingly disorganized; reports clearly were printed as they were received; there is no overall system or arrangement, nor are there general indices to the volumes, and, as Camp has pointed out, there is the usual duplication of printing and lithography by both houses of Congress"--Wagner-Camp.

For further information concerning the publication of the work and a list of serial numbers assigned to the volumes in the Congressional series of documents, see Checklist of United States public documents, 1911, pages 1274-1275.

Various illustrators, engravers, lithographers, cartographers and printing firms contributed to the publication. Some of the illustrators include: A. H. Campbell, F.W. Egloffstein, Chas. Koppel, J.H. Richard, C. Schumann, J.S. Tidball, J. Young, and J.J. Young. Some of the engravers include: F. Artos, R. Hinshelwood, S.V. Hunt, R. Metzeroth, N. Orr, and Pinkney. Lithography and printing firms for the maps and illustrations include: Ackerman lith., J. Bien lith., Herline & Hensel lith., Hoffman, Knickerbocker & Co. lith., Sarony, Major & Knapp lith., Selmar Siebert's engraving & printing establishment, and T. Sinclair's lith.

Wagner-Camp. Plains & the Rockies (4th ed.), 262-267

Hill Collection of Pacific Voyages, 1281

Also available online.

SCNHRB has two copies; copy 2 is incomplete.

SCNHRB copy 1 is bound in 15 volumes, with the addition of the supplement to volume 1 (=v. 1b, barcode 39088020038709) and a variant copy of volume 12, part 2 (=v. 12, pt. 2b, barcode 39088020039905), which lacks the title leaf but includes appendices A, B, and C. Volume 12, part 2a (barcode 39088020039863) lacks the appendices.

SCNHRB copy 1 of the supplement to volume 1 and volume 11 (barcode 39088020040259) are both Senate-issued versions. The SCNHRB copy of the supplement to volume 1, issued as 35th Congress, 2d session, Senate ex. doc. no. 46, has imprint on title-page: Washington: William A. Harris, printer, 1859. The SCNHRB copy of volume 11, issued as 33d Congress, 2d session, Senate ex. doc. no. 78, has imprint on title-page: Washington: Beverley Tucker, printer, 1855.

SCNHRB copy 1 of volume 12, part 1 (barcode 39088020040291) was issued as 36th Congress, 1st Session, House of Representatives ex. doc. no. 56, with imprint on title page: Washington: Thomas A. Ford, printer, 1860.

SCNHRB copy 1 has bookplates: 1. (armorial) William Whitman, with motto "per ardua surgo" (tentatively identified as William Whitman, 1842-1928), with manuscript shelf marks; 2. Erastus Corning; 3. Smithsonian Institution Libraries. Gift of Betty A. and Lloyd G. Schermer. The volumes also have accession numbers from an unidentified collection, ranging from 2008-2022.

SCNHRB copy 1, volume 1 (barcode 39088020039855) has laid in: a single leaf of typescript description from the book dealer John Howell.

SCNHRB copy 1 has all volumes bound in three-quarters calf and red and black marbled boards, with red edges, title in gilt on spine, and marbled endpapers.

SCNHRB copy 2 has has volumes 2-5, 7, 9-10 and 12 only.

SCNHRB copy 2 of volume 5 is imperfect: the title leaf is wanting; the half title has contents obscured by mounted clipping.

SCNHRB copy 2 has mixed provenance: volume 2 (barcode 39088004370383): Berkeley Divinity School; volume 3 (barcode 39088006677314): Tucker Collection (with Jonathan Dwight, Jr. bookplate); volume 4 (barcode 39088006677322) has Harry Lubrecht bookseller notations on front free end paper; volume 5 (barcode 39088006677835) has provenance of George P. Merrill; v. 7 (barcode 39088006676688) has Harry Lubrecht bookseller notations on front free end paper; volume 9 (barcode 39088006681225) has accession number 142014, with Smithsonian library stamp on title page dated Apr 5 1892; volume 10 (barcode 39088006681266) has accession number 142015, with Smithsonian library stamp on title page dated Apr 5 1892; volume 12 part 1 (barcode 39088006681282) has Harry Lubrecht bookseller notations on title page; volume 12 part 2 (barcode 39088006681308) has bookplate: Smithsonian Institution Libraries, Gift of Marcia Brady Tucker, with handwritten Tucker collational notes on title page.

Elecresource

Ute warriors of the Kah-poh-teh band

National Anthropological Archives
The item is number 40 of an unidentified series (Indian Series ?). The item is identical to numbers 180 and 216 of Photo Lot 90-1. One of the men is wearing a concho hair decoration.

Ute warriors of the Kah-poh-teh band

National Anthropological Archives
The item is number 40 of an unidentified series. The item is identical to numbers 180 and 230 of Photo Lot 90-1. One of the men is wearing a concho hair decoration.

Ute warriors of the Kah-poh-teh band

National Anthropological Archives
The item is number 40 of an unidentified series (Indian Series ?). The item is identical to numbers 216 and 230 of Photo Lot 90-1. One of the men is wearing a concho hair decoration.

Hayden Survey Party, 1872

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Group portrait from 1872 of the Hayden Yellowstone survey party (United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, 1871-1877). William Henry Holmes and F.V. Hayden are included in the group.

MAP OF / EXPLORATION AND SURVEYS / NEW MEXICO AND UTAH / made under the direction of the / SECRETARY OF WAR / by / CAPT. J. N. MACOMB TOPL ENGRS / assisted by / C. H. DIMMOCK, C. ENGR / 1860

National Museum of American History
This map extends from Pueblo, Colorado, in the east to the conjunction of the Colorado and Flax Rivers in the west, and from north of Breckenridge, Colorado, to south of Albuquerque, New Mexico, or, from about 34°45' to about 39°20' north latitude, and from about 104°50' to about 112° longitude west of Greenwich. The scale is 12 miles to the inch. A text in the lower right corner pertains to the “CENTRAL GOLD REGIONS.” It also states “A delicate tint was ruled over the whole plate to give the effect of a plaster model of the country. Constructed and engraved by BARON F. W. VON EGLOFFSTEIN Topographer to the Surveys under the 35th and 38th parallels. Frémont’s, Beckwith’s, and Ives’ Expeditions.” The texts at bottom read “Lettering by John L. Hazzard” and “Ruling by Samuel Sartain” and “[GE]OGRAPHICAL INSTITUTE, BARON F. W. VON EGLOFFSTEIN, NO. 164 BROADWAY, N. YORK. 1864” Baron Freidrich Wilhelm Von Egloffstein (1824-1885), the topographer who compiled this map, was a German immigrant who came to the United States in 1849. He went with John C. Frémont on a winter trek from St. Louis to the Great Basin (1853-1854), seeking a rail route to the west. He joined Edward G. Beckwith on a railroad reconnaissance from Salt Lake City to California (1854). And he travelled with Joseph C. Ives up the Colorado River and across the Southern Plateau (1857-1858), on an expedition organized by the Corps of Topographical Engineers. He had not gone on the 1859 expedition led by John N. Macomb-a graduate of the U.S. Military Academy and member of the Corps of Topographical Engineers-that aimed to locate a practicable route between Santa Fe, New Mexico, and the military outposts in the southern part of Utah. But he did have access to notes compiled by those who had. This map incorporates several important and somewhat related technological innovations, all of which Egloffstein had used, to some extent, on his chart of the “AMAKARIMA GROUP WITH PART OF LOO-CHOO” (cat. PH*317505). In order to produce a landscape that appeared remarkably realistic, Egloffstein made topographical models of plaster, and photographed them while lit from one side. In order to reproduce these images, he used the technique known as heliographic etching. Following the lead of the French photographic pioneer, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce, Egloffstein coated his steel photographic plates with a substance (such as bitumen of Judea) that hardened when exposed to light. After taking a picture, he washed away the still-soft parts of the substance, used an acid to eat away those parts of the plate that could now be seen, and printed the result. By inserting a fine mesh (or grid) between the model and the plate, he was able to print halftone images. Egloffstein was not the first to develop a photomechanical printing process-Paul Pretsch in England had organized a company for that purpose in 1854-but his contributions were important nonetheless. Egloffstein was working on this map in 1860 and asking people in Washington about particular geographical details. He joined the Union army at the start of the Civil War, and was wounded in battle in 1862. He then established a Geographical Institute in New York. It was here that he completed the map, dated it 1864, and distributed some copies. In 1876 the map was published with the official Report of the Exploring Expedition from Santa Fe, New Mexico, to the Junction of the Grand and Green Rivers of the Great Colorado of the West. Egloffstein included on this map information about several expeditions in addition to the above mentioned ones led by Frémont, Beckwith, Ives, and Macomb. These included a chain survey in eastern New Mexico conducted by J. C. Brown from 1825 to 1827; William W. Loring’s 1858 trek through the San Luis Valley in Colorado; Randolph B. Marcy’s 1858 trek from Utah to New Mexico; Oliver Shepherd’s trek through Arizona in 1859; John S. Simonson’s 1859 trek along the San Juan River; John G. Walker’s 1859 trek through Navajo country south of Four Corners; and Amiel W. Whipple’s 1853 trek to find a route for a transcontinental railroad. The map is also a clear statement of American interest in and involvement with the area. Utah and New Mexico had become territories in 1850. Colorado became a territory in 1861, in the wake of the gold rush that brought prospectors and settlers to the area around Pike’s Peak. Arizona became a territory in in 1863, at a time when Southerners, who had hoped the area would be hospitable to slavery, had seceded from the Union. Some land in eastern New Mexico and Colorado had been laid out in square townships, 6 miles on a side, according to the procedures of the General Land Survey. The Mormon Settlement is shown in Utah—and, indeed, it was fear of further conflicts with the Mormons that had led the army to sponsor Macomb’s expedition. Egloffstein also included the path taken by Silvestre Vélez de Escalante, a priest who in 1776 sought a trail from Santa Fe to the missions in California. Other Spanish names on the map include the Spanish Trail, the San Francisco Mountains, and the Sierra Abajo mountains. Evidence of Native Americans on the map includes Mesa Verde; Moquis Pueblo (the Anglo term for Hopi) in the Painted Desert; Navajo Valley to the east of the Painted Desert; Navajo Mesa (now known as the Black Mesa) in northern Arizona; Ildefonso, Pojoaque, Zandia (aka Sandia), Zuni, and other pueblos in New Mexico; and the ruins at Chaco Canyon and elsewhere. Evidence of military presence in the area (in addition to the paths of military surveys) includes Fort Union (in northern New Mexico), Fort Defiance (in eastern Arizona), and Fort Hill (in southwestern Colorado). The map also shows the paths of rivers and the positions of mountains (some with elevations) and mountain passes. Geological features include the Painted Desert in Arizona, the Needles in Utah, the Leroux cold springs and the Pagosa hot springs, the Mines in the Animas River valley (site of a major gold rush in 1860), the Dolores mines of Colorado, and the Burning Coal Bed (now the Lava Beds National Monument) in northern Arizona. Ref: Imre Josef Demhardt, “An approximation to a bird’s eye view, and is intelligible to every eye . . . Friedrich Wilhelm von Egloffstein, the Exploration of the American West, and Its First Relief Shaded Maps,” in E. Liebenberg and I. J. Demhardt, eds., History of Cartography. International Symposium of the ICA Commission, 2010 (Dordrecht, 2012), pp. 57-74. David Hanson, “Baron Frederich Wilhelm von Egloffstein,” Printing History 15 (1993): 12-24. Steven K. Madsden, Exploring Desert Stone: John N. McComb’s 1859 Expedition to the Canyonlands of Colorado (Logan, Utah, 2010). Stevan Rowan, The Baron in the Grand Canyon: Friedrick Wilhelm von Egloffstein in the West (University of Missouri, 2012).

Navaho woman and boys in front of the Navaho agency quarters

National Anthropological Archives
The item is number 23 of an unidentified series. The number 76 is etched in the negative (for Indian Series ?). The item is identical to number 181 of Photo Lot 90-1.

Navaho woman and boys in front of the Navaho agency quarters

National Anthropological Archives
The item is number 28 of an unidentified series. The number 76 is etched in the negative (for Indian Series ?). The item is identical to number 229 of Photo Lot 90-1.

Hayden Survey Group, 1877

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
See A. Hunter Dupree's volume on Asa Gray, pp. 406-408.

Hayden Survey Group (United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, 1871-1877) seated at a field luncheon table outside a tent. L to R: unknown; Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker; unknown; Asa Gray; Mrs. Strachey; Mrs. Asa Gray; unknown; Dr. Lambourne; James Stevenson; Lt. Gen. Sir Richard Strachey, R.E.; Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden; unknown. Black servant stands to the right of the group. Hooker, president of the Royal Society of London, was making a botanical tour of the United States with Professor Asa Gray of Harvard. Gray and Hooker subsequently published an essay on the geographical distribution of plants in the Rockies, a reflection in their interest in Darwinian evolution. Specimens from the survey were deposited at the Smithsonian Institution.

"Pah-ge, a Ute squaw, of the Kah-poh-teh band, Northern New Mexico"

National Anthropological Archives
Studio view. The item is number 39 of an unidentified series (Indian Series ?)

Gardens surrounding the Zuni pueblo

National Anthropological Archives
The item is number 18 of an unidentified series. The number 41 is etched into the negative (for Indian Series ?). The item is identical to number 459 of Photo Lot 90-1.

Odometer Recording Distances Used on Hayden Survey

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Used in Holmes ' 'Random Records of a Lifetime Devoted to Science and Art, 1846-1929', Vol.III, page 42. See also "Hayden and His Men", a selection of 108 photographs by Willliam Henry Jackson, plate 20, compiled by Frank Chambers.

A man sits astride a mule pulling a cart with an odometer used to record the distances, run by Mr. Goodfellow, 1872. The odometer, made by attaching a pair of shafts to the fore wheels of an ambulance, to the spokes of which were attached the instruments that recorded their revolutions and measured the surface of the country over which it passed. These were the first wheels that were ever taken into this little-known region, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. During the Yellowstone expeditions led by Ferdinand V. Hayden, mules not only carried packs but pulled wagons and even odometers which measured distance for mapmakers. Collections from the expedition were given to the Smithsonian Institution.
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